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THE 


CHINESE RECORDER 


AND 


Missionary Journal 


VOLUME XLI. 




(Shanghai: 

PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS. 





ILLUSTRATIONS. 


Nanking University 


Frontispiece to January number. 


West Lake, Hangchow, and Creek Scene, ) u, ~ 

Dongsi ... ... .>'• Facing p. 92. 

»«*-* 

The Late Mrs. Isabella Ball. Facing p. 164, 

The Late Mrs. Martha Foster Crawford ... ,, p. 168. 

p : ki " 6 :.. Vie : ! 

Students’ Dormitories, and Histology Class 
at Work, Union Medical College, Pe 
king ... ... ... ... ... 

Dr. W. A. P. Martin. 

Students of the Union Normal School, 

Wuchang . 


U: 




Facing p. 222. 

Frontispiece to April 
| Facing p. 300. 

Fiftieth Anniversary of the First Presby- U ... . , T 

terian Church, Shanghai. ... f Frontispiece to May 

*** ?- Between pp. 356 and 357. 

... Frontispiece to June 

Presbyterian Theological College (Academic ) . 

Department), Canton, China .facing p. 431- 

Group of Chinese Christians (in Japan) ... Frontispiece to July 
Main Front Entrance, Nanking Exposition. Facing p. 447. 
Agriculture Building, Nanking Exposition. ,, p. 467. 

The Late Dr. J. A. Otte .. ,, p. 479. 

General View of the Baptist Mission (South) ) Frontispiece t0 Augast 
Compound, Canton .) r 0 


Old Examination Hall, Canton 
New Government School, Canton 
Edinburgh .. 


The Late Mrs. J. L. Nevius ... 

Christian Headquarters, with Information 
Bureau, at Nanking Exposition... 

Boone University Library, Wuchang 

The Late Rev. D. Maclver . 

The Late Mrs. John Fryer 
Dr. Wilbert Webster White. 




Facing p. 553. 


. P- 569- 

Frontispiece to September ,, 
Facing p. 579. 

„ p. 618. 

Frontispiece to October ,, 
Dr. Robert William Rogers, Miss Caroline ) w , < 

L. Palmer, and Dr. Louis M. Sweet ... j * P’ ^* 

“ China Tent ” Group at Baslow Conference. ,, p. 684. 

Second Annual Conference Chinese Stu-1 

dents’ Christian Association in North Frontispiece to November ,, 

America .) 

Ruins of the Old Examination Hall, Kai-) 

The f Ne g w’p?o“taciaI XssemUy Hail, Between pp. ,oo and 701. 

fengfu . J 

A T C P ul? 1 Nonf Skm ° naStefy ^ ^ ^ | Frontis P iece to December „ 

Eastern Tai Nua People, born in Yunnan, )« . -gg 
but now living in Eastern Burma ... f & P- v 
A Tai Princess. Laos, Eastern Burma ... 1 
The late Buddhist Bishop of Maiug K’un, V „ p. 787. 

Laos, Eastern Burma .) 

C. E. Convention in Kwang-chow, Honan... ,, p. 810, 



INDEX TO VOL. XLI.-1910. 


Page. 

Abraham and the King of the East 

Prof. Robert W. Rogers, Ph.D., LL.D. 646 

Apologetic for China, The. Bishop L. H. Roots. 8 

Ball, Isabella.—In Memoriam . J. D. B. 164 

Biblical Theism, The Advantages of a 

Rev. Louis Matthews Sheet, M.A., S.T.D. 653 
Book Table ... 106, 175, 231, 301, 364, 425, 489, 563, 619, 677, 744, 800 

Buddhist China, Chinese Buddhism and H. Hackmans, Lie. ThEol. 770 

Centenary Missionary Conference, Committee’s Final Report . 237 

Chinese Christian Church, The Development of the 

Rev. Chari.es E. Ewing. 701 

Christian Message, China and the .Rev. Ernest Box. 71 

Christian Message, How to Awaken Interest in the 

Rev. Alfred A. Gilman. 398 

Christmas Morning, Ode to (Poem) . W. Nelson Bitton. 103 

Church and the Chinese Scholar, The Chinese... Rev. A. A. Fulton, D.D. 347 
Correspondence. 104, 169, 229, 291, 357, 418, 4S1, 558, 610, 674, 736, 794 
Crawford, Mrs. Martha Foster—In Memoriam, Mrs. Joseph V. Dawes. 167 

DuBose, Hampden Coit—In Memoriam, . J. W. Davis. 353 

DuBose, Rev. Hampden C., D.D.—A11 Appreciation. 

Soochow Missionary Association. 554 

Edicts in 1909, Imperial - ... . J., Darroch, D.Lit. 99 

Edinburgh Conference, China’s Part in the .W.-W. Lockwood. 602 

Edinburgh, Report of the Proceedings of the World Missionary Con¬ 
ference in . Rev. W. Nelson Bitton. 530 

[See World Missionary Conference .] 

Editorial.i, 125, 189, 249, 313, 379, 439, 503.- 57G 629, 693, 755 

Educated Classes of China, Some Points in Work for the 

W. E. Taylor, M.A., Ph.D.. 336 

Effective Occupation, What is .Rev. P. F. Price, D.D. 395 

Evangelism, The Place of Vision in Rev. W. RkmFRY Hunt, F.R.G.S. 403 
Evangelistic Association, The Work of the .. Rev. J. R. MILLER. 37 

Evangelistic Work, Schools and Colleges as a Factor in 

Rev. L. B. Ridgely. 60 


Evolution and Missions.Bishop James W. Bashford. 26 

Feasts and the Christian Attitude Towards Them, Some Chinese 

W. Nelson Bitton. 269 

Federation and the Baptist Problem,. . James V. Latimer. 160 

Federation, What it can accomplish for the Chinese Church. 

Cheng Ching-yi. 155 

French Tonkin, An Unevangelised Country.Rev. S. Pollard. 417 

Friday Club Idea, The . Edward M. MEkrinS, M.D. 474 

Fryer, Mrs. Eliza Nelson—In Memoriam. 55 ^ 

Health of the Missionary, The . M. J. Exner, B.S., M.D. 447 


Hinterland of China, The. Edw. Amundsen, F.R.G.S. 588 

Holidays, Ou Missionaries’. ... Bishop G. E. MoulE, D.D. 458 

Home Notes by a Missionary on Furlough. ... Rev. E. W. Burt, M.A. 223 
Indemnities, The Case for. J* Archibald. 718 

Indo-China, An Appeal for,—A Vast Unoccupied Field. 

Rev. J. H. Freeman. 525 




IV 


Index. 


Page. 

Inevitable Problem, An, How to meet it .Rev. R. F. Fitch. 84 

Itinerant Method of Evangelistic Work, The ... Rev. Albert Rut ley. 409 
Journalism, Notes on Recent Native ... Rev. W. Arthur Cornaby. 226 
Literary Work, How May the Christian Church Secure the Services of 

Accomplished Chinese Scholars for. Rev. Evan Morgan, 327 

Literature in China, Problems of. Rev, J. C. Garritt, D.D. 579 

Literature, The Use of the Christian Scholar in Rev. W. E. Soothill. 343 

M a elver, Rev,. D.—In Memoriatn.M. C. Mackenzie. 549 

Masses in China, The Problem of Reaching the Alex. R. Saunders. 197 

Matthew, The Gospel by .. ... Caroline L. Palmer, B.A. 662 

Memorials to the Dead and their Relation to Christian Practice. 

W. S. Pakenham-Walsh. 264 
Missionary Journal. 123, 188, 24S, 311,377, 438. 502, 570, 628, 692, 753, 815 

Missionary News. 115, 1S2, 242, 307, 369, 431, 494, 569, 626, 684, 750, 809 

Mission School in China, The Future of the.Rev. A, J. Bowen. 45 

Mission Work,, The Importance of the Direct Phase of 

Rev. A. SydenstrtckER. 387 

Month, The.122, 187, 246, 50a, 690, 752 

Nestor of Protestant Missions in China, The.Dr. A. H. Smith. 288 

Nevius, Mrs. J, L,—A Tribute .... Dr. W. A. P. Martin. 553 

New Testament, The Arrangement of the ... Rev. G. G. Warren. 726 
Nou Su People of the Neighbourhood of Chao-tung in Yunnan, The 

Rev. C. E. Hicks. 210 

Otte, Dr, J. A.—In Memoriam. .. . Rev. P. W, Pitcher. 479 

Prayer, How May I Know that God Answers 

Rev. Wilbert W. White, Ph.D„, D.D. 669 
Recreation of the Missionary’, The Intellectual 

Rev.. P. J. MaclagAn, Ph.D. 467 

Right Life an Essential Factor in Understanding the Word of God and in 

Maintaining Faith in It. Rev. Wilbert W. White, Ph.D., D.D. 637 
Sanctuary, The viii, 132, 196, 256, 320, 386, 446, 510, 578, 636, 700, 762 
Sermon preached Sunday morning, August 8th, 1909, at Ruling Conven¬ 
tion.. Rev. F. B. Meyer, B.A. 1 

Sin, The Chinese and Christian Idea of. Rev. C. E. Darwent. 321 

South China, Some Notes on a Missionary Tour Through, Among the Tai 

Race.Rev. W. Clifton Dodd. 780 

Spiritual Life of the Missionary, The ... Bishop Herbert J. Molony. 763 

Summer Resorts, The Use and Abuse of. Rev. G. G. Warren. 463 

Superstitions, Christian Suggestions in Chinese Rev. W. A. Cornaby. 257 

Szechuan Marches, Political and Missionary Problems in the. 

‘ I. Huston Edgar, F.R.G.S. 516 

Turkestan, In Chinese ... .. Rev. G. W. Hunter. 511 

Unity, Anglican Church Orders and the Problem of 

Bishop Herbert J. Molony. 282 

Unity in China, The Problem of Church. Bishop F. R. Graves. 150 

Unity, The Next Step in Church. Charles George SpArham. 133 

Unity, The Outcome of the Movement for Greater Christian 

Rev. F. Raweinson . 596 

Week of Prayer, Evangelical Alliance.791 

World Missionary Conference, Impressions of the 

[See Edinburgh .] I.—By Rev. A. H, Smith, D.D, 606 

II.—By F. S. Brockman 608 

Wuchang, The Union Normal School,. G. A. Clayton. 220 

Year, Review of the. W. Nelson Button. 92 



NANKING UNIVERSITY 































THE CHINESE RECORDER 

AND MISSIONARY JOURNAL 


Published Monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 

Editor-in-chief : Rev. G. F. FiTCH, d.d. 

Associate Editors: Rev. W. N. Bitton and Rev. D. W. Rvon. 

Bishop J. W. Basheord, Rev. A. Foster. Rev.D.MAcGn,LiVRAY,D.D. 

Rev. E. W. Burt, m.a. Rev. J.C. GarriTT.d.d. Mr. G. McIntosh. 

Rt, Rev. Bishop Cassels. Rev. J. C. Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. F. Mosher. 

Dr. J. Darroch. Rev. D. E. Hoste. Rev. A, H. Smith, d.d. 


VOL. XL1 


JANUARY, 1910 


NO. 1 


Editorial 

It is a pleasure to the editors of the Chinese Recorder 
to be able to wish all of its readers a Happy New Year. The 
year which has passed has brought many in- 
tlbe flew JiJeat. s ^ at3Ces 0 f goodwill and encouragement from 

a wide circle of friends. Interest in the management and 
the matter of the magazine has been very evident, and the 
experience of the year is in itself an incentive to further effort. 
We desire especially to thank those of our subscribers who 
have spared time from the pressure of other duties to contribute 
articles upon subjects which they have made a study of. 
Their labours have surely not been in vain. The whole 
missionary body is in their debt. To be brought into touch 
with the living missionary problems of the day is an essential 
need for all workers; we are dependent one upon another, 
and the Chinese Recorder is in the happy position of being 
able to provide a ready means of communication for all members 
of the missionary body throughout China. 

The editors would therefore express the hope that they 
may receive through this year the same hearty support as 
has been given them in the year that has passed and so be 
made a means of help and blessing to the kingdom of God in 
this land. The Chinese Recorder, dealing as it does with 
work throughout the Empire of China, should be read and 
discussed in every missionary circle. 







It 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


Gbe present Wumber. 


The subscribers to the Recorder will note that the 
present issue is a special one and deals at length in some 

of the papers which are here published 
with problems which come up for dis¬ 
cussion wherever missionaries gather together to talk over 
their work. Much of the material contained herein should give 
all of us occasion “furiously to think.” That many mission¬ 
aries will find themselves in disagreement with the conclusions 
expressed is certain enough since each article expresses the 
personal point of view of the writer* but it will be borne in 
mind that the authors of these articles are very representative 
and their lines of thought demand serious consideration. In 
this connection we conld wish that other summer resorts would 
provide as much material for helpful discussion of vital topics 
relating to our work as does the Ruling Convention, at which a 
majority of the papers herein issued w r ere read. Much focussing 
of thought upon the great questions of the hour, and a fair 
understanding of the position of other of the brethren than 
those amongst whom we live and labour, as well as a 
true spiritual uplift, would result from a carefully prepared 
programme dealing with topics which must be faced. Food 
for the soul is essential to our service ; next to this we must 
have material for the mind if an intelligent use is to be made of 
our hearts’ devotion. It is the privilege of the servant ol Jesus 
Christ to face boldly all the problems presented by the advance 
of His Gospel upon the unbelieving world. 


* * * 

One of the constant problems of our missionary enterprise 
is that of the best means of approach to the mind and heart 

of the people to whom we come with the 
AMbotia of approach. christian Gospel . The f act that the 

religious instinct has been implanted by Divine providence 
in some form or other in every human soul, gives to the 
religious teacher a sure ground for seed-sowing, but does 
not by any means provide him with an appreciation of the 
best method of labour. How to kindle the divine spark 
is the problem for missionary workers. It is obvious enough 
to all who consider the subject that varying conditions of life, 
racial distinctions, differing modes of thought, must serve to 
bring into prominence fresh aspects of the unchanging message 
if that is to be applied with wisdom and with power- unto 


1910] 


Editorial 


m 


salvation. The fact that several of the papers contributed to 
this issue deal either specially or incidentally with this phase 
of our Christian duty, shows how important the theme 
is. The armour of God does not consist of one weapon 
only, and the choice of weapon is to be determined by the 
conditions of the situation. The nature of the field of our 
operations must receive the most minute and prayerful examina¬ 
tion if we are to be fully effective in our advance upon it. 

The consideration demanded is not here concerned with 
the subject of our message, for there is but One Holy 
Name given among men, but it is very definitely concerned 
with the maimer of that message and its application. 


* 


* 


It is far easier now than at any previous time to attempt 
the study of the conditions of Chinese thought and life which 

v missionary work calls for. Missionaries 

Stube tbe Condition*. , , , . - ., r 

who have been m the field for some years, 

and who are still lacking in the elements of knowledge of 
Chinese history and character, are generally without excuse. 
A system of study provided for missionaries, which does not give 
time and opportunity for such vital work as this, is inadequate 
to the situation which has to be met. The knowledge of the 
salient features in the moral and religious life of the people, as 
well as a sympathetic understanding of the more obvious social 
aspects of their life, ought to be the possession of every mission¬ 
ary of a few years’ standing. Much failure in connection with 
very arduous and devoted labour is due to lack of such training 
as is here outlined. The tendency of the Anglo-Saxon to account 
himself entirely self-sufficient, and to display an unconscious 
arrogance due to the inherited belief that he is the last word of 
civilization, is not always the best recommendation of the Gospel 
he professes. A Christian has not less to learn because he is a 
Christian, rather the more ; for it is his to become the servant 
of all for the Gospel’s sake. A man may be wise unto salvation, 
and yet a very ineffective worker for Christ simply because he 
shirks the labour necessary to get into living contact with the 
hearts of men. And such knowledge of men is not to be 
casually picked up ; it is the fruit of diligent and persistent 
work along very definite lines. No missionary can afford to 
neglect close and constant study of the race to whom he is 
commissioned with the message of God. 


iv 


The Chinese Recorder [January 


In his article upon the question of evolution Bishop Bash- 
ford rightly asserts that the general principle of evolution, 

although not in its special Darwinian form, 
has conquered in the scientific world. There 
is less assertion though than there was at 
one time that evolution is the only, or the final, explanation of 
physical phenomena. These, however, are matters of scientific 
enquiry and are to be accepted as they provide adequate expla¬ 
nations of the facts of life. In questions of scientific enquiry we 
are all in the hands of the experts and can only refute their 
conclusion, in their field of effort, on the basis of better knowl¬ 
edge. A leading theologian has recently put the question as it 
concerns the Christian religion, especially in its bearing upon 
missions, thus :— 

u At the present hour it is not the evolution of the biolo¬ 
gists or the anthropologists that need give us much concern. 
Our fear of these is now outgrown. Our real concern begins 
when the evolutionary principle is carried into the history of 
religion, when it is made to organize the new knowledge 
drawn from psychology and comparative religion, and to 
organize it with the same confidence with which, in the levels 
of biology, the new knowledge was once organized into an 
evolutionary doctrine declared to be the world’s explanation 
come at last. Religion, it is now said, is evolution which has 
reached spiritual pitch. . . Each religion is best for the social 
stage it covers. No religion is final. And so with the end of 
any final or absolute religion, there is an end of much that 
troubles the world, for instance , of viissioyts at least. For 
Christian missions cannot live upon improving the heathen , 
but only on passing them from death to life. 5 ’ 


* * * 

In the very interesting paper in our present number, on 
page 70 , in referring to the matter of teaching English in the 

Ctorrecticm Uuion Colle £ e ’ Shantung, the following language 
is used, “ The change in policy, introducing Eng¬ 
lish, so far from driving the students off to worldly interests 
and occupations, as some of us have at times theoretically 
feared it might do, seems, on the contrary, to have drawn a host 
to the service of Christ.” While willing to concede all that 
can be said in favor of the study of English, we fear that the 
facts in the case will hardly bear out Mr. Ridgeley’s remarks. 
And we are the more anxious that the truth should be known, 
as the great revival, to which he refers, and in which so many 
were led to offer themselves for the ministry, was begun and 


Editorial 


v 


1910] 


tTbe fcolftfcal 
©utlooft. 


conducted almost entirely by a Chinese pastor, who knew 
little or no English. A knowledge of English is unquestion¬ 
ably a valuable asset to any young Chinese in this day, but 
there is not much doubt that it furnishes a strong temptation 
to him to reject the ministry for some more lucrative position 
such as the knowledge of English is ever opening up before 
him. The remarkable thing about the revival in Shantung 
College was that in spite of temptations so many were willing 
to offer themselves for what they knew must be a life of com¬ 
parative poverty, and it was the revival, and not the introduc¬ 
tion of English, that drew the “host to the service of Christ.” 
* * * 

The indiscriminate anti-foreign agitation which is being 
urged forward by many restless spirits in China is among the 
most serious signs of possible disturbance to the 
empire. The tone of certain recent popular 
pamphlets which have been disseminated in 
some provinces shows that the most unscrupulous methods 
are being used in order to stir up the minds of the ignorant 
mass of the people against all foreigners in China. State¬ 
ments regarding an official decision on the part of the Western 
powers to divide up Chinese territory have been invented 
and other ■wilful misstatements put into circulation with no 
other than mischievous intent. Here is one of the greatest 
dangers attendant upon China’s political reforms. If the 
officials of the empire were wise they would see to it that 
no such agitation as this anti-foreign movement were permitted 
room to live ; it cannot help but lead to national disaster if its 
vicious course proceeds unchecked, and in the final result 
officialdom will not suffer least. 

We are by no means apologists for foreign aggression in 
China, and we are entirely at one with the rightful national 
aspirations of this people. Their cause is our care, since we 
are here to help forward all that makes for the full regeneration 
and upbuilding of the nation. The success of Christian mis¬ 
sions means a self-reliant and contented people. Yet we see 
only too clearly, and with deep regret, signs that those in 
authority do not yet appreciate the true source or the right 
method of national reform. For a people there are no easy 
short-cuts to greatness, and a policy which points to a reliance 
upon the inflamed passions of the multitude is a comprehensive 
confession of either weakness or despair. 


VI 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


XLbc Ehucational 
©utloofc. 


Amongst the matters which are certain to claim attention 
during the coming year, the question of Christian education 
bolds a leading, if not the first place. Our 
institutions are likely to be subjected very 
soon to a test which, in spite of their previous 
vicissitudes, they have not yet met with, namely, that of 
active and possibly hostile competition. They can emerge 
from it successfully only by virtue of their superior merits. 
The future is likely to be severe upon small “one man” 
educational institutions, save where these are doing preparatory 
and lower grade work. There may be a gradual elimination 
of the unfit, not in itself a bad thing, and everywhere there 
should be a careful examination of the educational resources of 
missions with a view to their betterment. It is no sign of 
statesmanship to be waiting upon promises of increased financial 
support from the home lauds. If the stress of competition 
should help to drive our educational work along satisfactory 
union lines, it will be a matter for gratitude. The need for an 
education under Christian auspices and influence is greater 
than ever in China and increasingly essential to the future well¬ 
being of this people. 

The difficulties attending a transition period are also sure 
to be felt in the theological schools, where the problem of at 
once adequately training men for their future service and yet 
not spoiling them for their immediate task, is a growingly 
difficult one. But if the thoughts and hopes of the teachers are 
fixed constantly on the goal of our missionary ambition, we are 
bound to succeed. We are fellow-workers together with God. 


* 


* 


Jktcfts without 
Straw. 


We fear that many of our most promising young men, 
after they have finished their theological studies and come to 
enter upon tile practical work of the ministry, 
are much hampered from the very start, and 
eventually considerably dwarfed, from inability 
to furnish themselves with adequate literature for the proper 
nourishment and development of their intellectual and spiritual 
natures. Pains and expense have been taken to provide for 
them a good educational training, and then they are sent forth 
to work. A salary is given them which is sufficient for the 
plainest living, and nothing more. Anything like new books 
and current literature is out of the question. What has been 


1910] 


Editorial 


vii 

already acquired must suffice, with the result that in a few 
years the man is living but a tread-mill life and coming far 
short of what he might have been if he had been properly 
equipped. The eagerness with which the recent offer of the 
Chinese Tract Society for Pastor’s Libraries was taken up is 
sufficient evidence of their desire for help if the way is 
made possible. Why should not a special fund be set aside 
in every mission for a regular supply of good literature, which 
should be devoted to that and nothing else ? In the present 
day, with the new spirit of learning abroad in the land, it 
is all the more urgent that our pastors and helpers should 
be thoroughly equipped, not only when they leave our 
training schools, but even more afterwards, and special provision 
should be made to this end. 

* * * 

One cannot well be wholly pessimistic, nor utterly despair 
of the rich, when reading of the vast sums recently given by a 
wealthy American—or Scotch-American, oer- 

Request. ^aps we s “ ould cal1 him—to religious, charit¬ 
able, benevolent, and educational institutions. 
To be sure they were not made until death called the donor 
away, but they were made, nevertheless, by one who had given 
largely during his life-time. The figures are fairly bewildering 
—sixty-one bequests in all—the smallest, with oue exception, 
being ten thousand dollars, seven of two and a quarter millions 
each, three of one and one half millions, four of three-fourths 
and nine of one hundred thousand. Two and a quarter millions 
were given to the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions (or 
over five million Mexican dollars), a like sum to the Board 
of Home Missions, seven hundred and fifty thousand to the 
American Bible Society and one and a half millions to Robert 
College, Constantinople (mission college) and ten thousand to 
the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut. Not only is there 
ground for rejoicing at the amount of good which such munifi¬ 
cent gifts will accomplish, but we trust that the example thus 
set will be followed by other Christians who are possessed of 
millions until mission institutions all over the world shall be 
adequately equipped and the present day of small things—not 
to be despised but to be lamented—shall have passed and the 
missionaries on the field and those who sustain them at home 
shall rejoice together. 


viii 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January, 1910 


£be Sanctuary 

" The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much ,."—St, James v, 1 6. 

“ For inhere two or three are gathered together in my Name, there am I in the midst of 
them."— St. Matthew xviii, 20. 


Pray 

That not only man to man, but 
also nation to nation and race to 
race, may show forth those deeds of 
brotherhood that prepare the way for 
Christ (Page 9}. 

That the Chinese may from this 
time on place the chief emphasis on 
religion rather than on ethics. (Page 
77). 

That the Chinese may consent to 
be led out of the darkness of error 
and sin and the loneliness of separa¬ 
tion into fellowship with God and 
into the light and liberty of His 
children. (Page 82). 

That missionary effort may not fail 
to give to the social and material 
interests their proper place in the 
plan of salvation. (Page 57). 

That there may soon be established 
in China that life-bearing church 
that will help this nation as it has 
helped your own. (Page 12). 

That the Christian church in China 
may not long delay its attention to 
the question of Christian literature. 
(Page 94). 

That the church may provide some 
constructive substitute for the athe¬ 
istic literature that is now flooding 
the country. (Page 85), 

For a speedy solution of the “law¬ 
suit trouble ’’ and perseverance in 
the policy of non-interference on the 
part of the missionaries. (Page 93). 

For the mission schools in China, 
that they may never fail to preach 
the Gospel that enables men to help 
themselves and so to transform their 
surroundings that a man may live a 
man’s life and not that of a mere 
animal. (Page 56). 

That God will help you uot to be 
led astray by prejudices and mis¬ 
understandings. (Page 8). 

That your education may ever be 
such as\vill keep your piety intelli¬ 
gent, and your piety such as will 
never allow your desire for education 
to become lessened. (Page 46). 

That you may never find content¬ 
ment in eating fruit when you should 
be bearing it; in sitting at God’s 
table to be served with His richest 
rovision when you should go and 
ear it to those who hunger. (Page 6). 


For grace and strength to bear the 
suffering, loneliness, and the weight 
of other souls, realizing that God has 
placed you on “that little bit of bare 
wall ’’ because He knew He could 
trust you there. (Page 6). 

The Ford of the Harvest that He 
will send laborers into His harvest. 
(Page 99). 

A Prayer for the YEa.r ’9 Work. 

O Heavenly Father, forasmuch as 
none can come to receive Thy holy 
word except Thou draw them by 
Thy gracious inspiration, we beseech 
Thee to pour out Thy Holy Spirit 
upon those who shall hear the mes¬ 
sage of Thy love in this laud through¬ 
out the coming year, that their hearts 
may be inclined favorably to receive, 
steadfastly to retain, and obediently 
to perform whatsoever shall be taught 
them in Thy name, and that they 
may manifest, in the dedication to 
Thee of their lives and substance, 
that thankfulness which they owe 
to Thee for Thy redeeming love: 
through Jesus Christ, our Lord. 

Amen. 

Give Thanks 

That the Chinese have that quality 
or capacity for patriotism which 
shows their worthiness to enter the 
family of nations. (Page 16). 

That so much has been accomplish¬ 
ed in advancing the cause of opium 
suppression. (Page 97). 

That God has prepared the Chinese 
race for Christ and the revelation of 
God’s love. (Page 72). 

That science is increasingly affirm¬ 
ing a Personal Spiritual Creator of 
the Universe. (Page 28). 

For the great ingathering of the 
past year. (Page 93). 

For the deepening of the spiritual 
life in the Chinese church that is 
seen on every hand. (Page 93). 

For the growing part taken by- 
Chinese workers in the varied enter¬ 
prises of the church. (Page 94). 

For the continual advance in Sun¬ 
day school work. (Page 94). 

For the great work that Christian 
schools have done in the education 
of the world. (Page 62). 


Conference Papers 


Sermon preached Sunday morning, August 8th, 
1909, at Ruling Convention 


BY REV- F. B. MEYER, B.A., OK LONDON 


“ Ye did not choose me, but! chose you and appointed you that you should 
go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should abide ; that wbatsover ye shall 
ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you.” John 15:16. 

HE unfortunate division of the chapters in our version by 



which a break occurs between the end of the 14th and 


the beginning of the 15U1, obscures the exquisite connec¬ 
tion which it seems reasonable to suppose our Lord intended. 
He had been seated, as we know, in the tipper chamber which 
was afterwards to become so famous in the history of the Church; 
and had instituted the memorial supper in words which will live 
as long as the heart of man shall throb. Then as the hour hand 
of His destiny was silently moving forward to the predestined 
moment, and with a certain knowledge that Judas was marshall¬ 
ing his band in some adjoining courtyard,He said to His friends,— 
“ the time has come when we must cease our speech together 
and go forth to resolute action.” It had always been His cus¬ 
tom in His earthly life to associate with Himself His little band 
of disciples as when He said,—“ We must work the work of Him 
that sent me while it is day.” It was in this spirit that, classing 
them with Himself, He said,—“ Arise, let us go hence.” 

As they passed out together into the moonlight which was 
flooding the city, the tendrils of the vine which were probably 
entwined round the verandah of the upper storey, fluttered iii 
the night wind, and, turning to His followers He said,— u I am 
the true vine and ye are the branches.” In usilm that word 
true, He meant us to understand that His thought had passed to 
the timeless age when creation lay in embryo as a thought in 
the mind of God. Before vines or plants, or earth or universe 
was created, the archetype of everything was hidden in the 
mind of the Creator, and when our Lord said,—“ I am the true 
vine,” He surely meant us to understand that He was the mani¬ 
festation of those thoughts of God which were the patterns of 



2 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


all things that are made. In other words, He suggested that the 
connection between a vine and its branches reflected something 
in the nature of things, and that He, and His followers, would 
reveal in human life the same conception that this graceful and 
fruitful plant reveals in the world of vegetation. 

The words He addressed to that little band that grouped it¬ 
self around Him as He went forth to Gethsemane, to Calvary, 
the grave, the Easter dawn and the Eternal reign, He is always 
addressing to His Church, and therefore He is always summon¬ 
ing us to—“ Arise, and go hence.” It is as though He says,— 
“ there are revelations of God vou have never seen, there is work 
to be done you have never taken in hand, there are sufferings to 
be endured which we must bear together.” Alwavs, in everv 
new century, in the opening of every new continent, in the bap¬ 
tism of every fresh persecution, in all the unfolding of Church 
History and in all the immeasurable aeons that lie before us, He 
is classing us together with Himself saying,—“you and I,” “I 
and you,” “ I alone can save the world; but I cannot save the 
world alone-—you are necessary to me, you are the branches 
through which I am to express myself.” What a comfort it is 
that we can never stand on the threshold of a door of which He 
does not hold the key. If, during the coming months, it is your 
lot to experience absolutely new conditions of service or suffer¬ 
ing, remember that the Shepherd when He puts you forth goes 
before you and you have simply to follow Him. He is bound 
to you by an indissoluble and eternal bond ; ever and again He 
is saying,—” Arise, let us go hence.” 

There are preliminary thoughts that arrest us. First, Christ's 
far horizon. This Gospel abounds in far horizons. There is that 
of John 3: 16, where we are told that God loved the world, and 
that the outlook of Calvary was a world’s redemption. There is 
that of John it, with its words of infinite depth which tell us that 
the object of Christ’s death was not simply to save a few elect 
souls, but to gather together in one the Church of God that are 
scattered abroad, as though the writer looked beyond the Hebrew 
fold to the other sheep that are scattered throughout all ages and 
lands. There is another in John 12, where we are told that when 
Jesus Christ is lifted up He will draw all men,of all shades and var¬ 
ieties of thought, of all countries and climes and ages, to Himself. 


1910] Sermon Preached at Kuling' Convention 3 

Throughout the whole of this book of far horizons however, 
there is no single outlook more resplendent than this which 
recalls the memory of Psalm 80, and certain other great predi- 
tions of Deuteronomy and Isaiah. Are we not told, for instance, 
that God would bring forth a vine whose fruit should cover the 
whole land even to the furthest river and sea ? It was as though 
our Lord intended to gather up the divine conception of the 
mission of the chosen people as he stepped forth with the repre¬ 
sentatives of His Church. What Israel might have been, had 
she not failed in the divine purpose, that would be affected by 
all the wonderful events which were to date from that night. 

How remarkably that pre-vision has been fulfilled. Church 
History is the record of the gradual creeping of the branches of 
the vine planted in Hebrew soil and watered by the divine 
grace, as first Palestine, then Greece, then Rome, then Europe, 
and now practically the whole world have witnessed the irresis¬ 
tible advance of Christianity. Have not the elder missionaries 
amongst you watched, year by year, the extension of the boughs 
of that vine as they have passed through this great empire? In¬ 
deed there is hardly a land or shore where it is not possible to 
discover some tendril or branch of that vine. Under every sun 
rich clusters of grapes hang to refresh the thirsty lips of man¬ 
kind. There is no limit to the further advance of the cause of 
Christ. It is destined to fill not only earth but Heaven. It may 
even be that distant worlds and ages are to be refreshed by the 
fruit nourished by the dews of blood shed in Gethsemane and 
Calvary. 

Second .—There is in this chapter a sure profession on the 
part of Christ of the inevitable suffering through which His 
Church should pass. Mrs. Hamilton King in her poem entitled 
“The Disciples,” which tells the story of Garibaldi’s emancipa¬ 
tion of modern Italy, describes a sermon which was preached 
in the hospital, by Hugo Bassi. He took this chapter for his 
text, He reminded his hearers, who were gathered from the 
plains of sunny Italy, that the vine was the most suffering of all 
the vegetable kingdom. In the Spring.time her branches are 
ruthlessly pruned so that her shoots bleed at every pore, in the 
Autumn her fruit is crushed by the feet of the treaders of the 
grapes which are dyed in the red blood of the fruit. All through 
the long Winter the vine stock sits solitary amid the reign 


■4 The Chinese Recorder [January 

of Winter, until again the sap of Spring renews its beauty. So 
our Cord foresaw that His Church was to suffer, that in every 
period of her growth there would be pain and that her most 
luscious clusters would be ruthlessly crushed. Only a few years 
ago, as you know to your cost, in this country, it seemed as 
though the wine presses were trodden in every province and 
hundreds of noble souls yielded up their blood and the whole 
land was bespattered with the ruddy juice. 

Third .—Notice the Lord’s conception of the essential unity 
of His people. He never contemplated uniformity but the 
variety which is suggested by the vine in which branch and 
tendril, leaf, blossom and fruit, differ from each other, and yet 
are united by the possession of a common life. In the Church 
of Christ there may be, there must be, infinite variety of shades 
of thought and activity, but notwithstanding all the variety of 
function, there may be a profound oneness of spirit. Each be¬ 
liever is in Christ; in Christ’s heart; loved with everlasting love; 
in Christ’s Book, enrolled on its memorial pages; in Christ’s hand, 
from which no power shall ever pluck. Trembling soul ! in 
Christ’s grace rooted as a tree in exuberant soil, or a house in a 
foundation of rock; but above all, in Christ’s Person, for He is 
the Head,— “from whom the whole body is fitly framed and knit 
together by that which every joint supplieth.” You may be a 
very obscure branch, but be sure of this, if you are a true Chris¬ 
tian you must be in Him as the eye is in the socket, the arm in 
the shoulder joint and the branch in the trunk. 

Also Christ is in each believer. The texts that teach 
Christ’s real presence in the believer are as numerous as the 
books of the New Testament. “ Know ye not that Jesus Christ 
is in you, except ye be reprobate ?” Christ liveth in me.” ‘We 
shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you.” 
The Lord Jesus is in the heart that makes him welcome, as the 
steam is in the piston, as the sap is in the branch, as the blood is 
in the heart, as the life is in the body. It would be impossible 
therefore for words to describe a more intense unity than 
that which is here represented. All who are one with Christ 
must necessarily be one with each other. The members of the 
same body must be members one of another. Children of the 
same parents must be brothers and sisters. Branches of the 
same vine must belong not only to it, but to their fellows. 


1910] 


Sermon Preached at Killing Convention 


5 


Theologians of every age have tried to secure unity on the 
basis of a common dogma. Thev have also sought to embrace 
Christendom in one vast ecclesiastical system. Just before the 
dawn of the Reformation, it seemed as though their effort had 
succeeded. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, worship 
reposed in the monotony of almost universal uniformity. But 
what was the result? There is but one answer—the deep sleep 
of spiritual death. Whenever you try to force life into one 
stream you not only destroy its course and beauty but kill it. 
The Christian Church is a vine. However different its con¬ 
stituent members, and however far separated by time and space, 
on earth or in heaven, because the life of Jesus throbs through¬ 
out the entire organism , it is one. 

Now let us turn to the text, which I trust will live in your 
heart and memory and help you in many a dark hour, when 
once you perceive its meaning. It will come back to you like 
the music of the bells of your childhood stealing over the fever¬ 
ed landscape of your life. The word appointed , might be ren¬ 
dered placed , so that the whole verse would read,—“ Ye did not 
choose me but I chose you and placed yon that ye should go 
and bear fruit.” 

Does not some such scene as this come back to your mind 
whilst I speak? You are again a child in the old fashioned 
garden belonging to your grandparents or your fathers. You 
remember the vinery with its wealth of variety in the Spring 
and fruitage in the Autumn. Again, the white and black 
clusters of grapes hang from the roof. Standing there as an eager 
silent child you watch the old gardener in the Spring as he 
brings pieces of old cloth, gathered from disused garments, 
and a few large clumsy nails. Again, you see him ascend the 
steps of the ladder and stand against some bare piece of wall where 
the sunshine lingered all the day. With strong hand he laid 
hold of a reluctant tendril accustomed to follow its wayward 
wandering will, and fixed it with the nail and cloth just where 
he chose ; but the place which he chose for it was the identical 
spot which it would have chosen for itself had it known the 
wealth of fruit which would repay its suffering when the 
Autumn sun had done its work. 

Let every weary soul and every lonely heart bow itself 
before the great Father who, our Lord says, is the vine-dresser. 


6 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


—“ My Father is the husbandman.” His hands have found us, 
withdrawn us from our own devices and desires, and placed us 
where we are. Placed on that little bit of bare wall of China; 
placed in some distant Chinese city or remote inland town; 
placed in contact with fellow workers who may fret and irritate; 
—God has placed you. It would have been far easier to have 
been where the vine branches are more numerous, but if you 
were more happily circumstanced remember, there would have 
been no possibility of thirsty souls receiving the product of the 
Gospel, if the place which you now occupy had been vacant. 
God wanted you where you are; He chose you for that very 
reason. He knew' that he could trust you with suffering, loneli¬ 
ness ; with the weight of other souls. Before you were born ; 
when you were a headstrong boy at school ; or a tiny girl help¬ 
ing your mother in the home, God had His eye on you ; loved 
you; followed you through college days; the ordeal of opening 
life ; and shut you up to this land,—this work,—this sphere,— 
to be content. 

The Past. —“ Ye did not choose me.” It is all too true, 
w'e saw no beauty in Christ that we should desire Him. To us 
He was a root out of a dry ground, without form or comeliness. 
If we had been left to ourselves we might have made the fatal 
choice of choosing the shadow and missing the substance. Notice 
that we are not chosen to eat fruit, but to bear it. Election 
does not primarily secure that we should sit at God’s table and 
be served with His richest provision, but that w ? e should go and 
bear that provision for those w'ho are dying of hunger. You 
must be content to be trampled under foot and forgotten; 
to bleed at every pore as the branch does when it is pruned ; 
it is enough that you bear much fruit. What do men think of 
a branch so long as their lips are moistened with its delicious 
product? Is it not good that you were chosen by God, rather 
than you chose God? He knew well what you would be. And 
when the product of your life is all unfit, we shall ahvaysbe able 
to turn to Him and say,—“Heavenly Father, thou must have 
known from the first of my failure and sin, my unfruitfulness 
and the bitterness of my soul, but Thou art prepared to assume 
the entire responsibility, to make good my lack.” 

The Present,— It is after all not what we do for Christ 
which will live in all coming time, but what He does through 


1910 ] Sermon Preached at Killing Convention 7 

us. Paul said, “I will not speak of anything save those which 
Christ wrought through me to make the Gentiles obedient.” 
Hudson Taylor tells, that at the beginning of his life it seems as 
though God said to him,—“I am going to evangelize inland 
China, and if yon will walk with Me, I will do it through you.” 
Let us remember, therefore, to abide in Christ and to seek 
that he should abide more fully and mightily in us. We are in 
the risen Christ as to our standing, and all our failure and in¬ 
competence cannot break that sacred fellowship; but He is in us 
as a spring of our character and usefulness. The intimacy be¬ 
tween Him and us does not destroy our individuality or person¬ 
ality, but uses this as the medium through which the living 
Christ sheds Himself on the world. 

You will find, therefore, a great help each morning as you 
awake, to address our Lord saying, “Son of God, I believe 
thou art in me as my life power, as my life bringer, as the foun¬ 
tain of pefect love.” See to it that your self-life is kept nailed 
to the cross and that the Spirit of Christ substitutes the Word 
that was with the Father before the worlds -were made. The 
sap of God is the living Christ. Through Him the very nature of 
God passes tons bringing with it the ingredients which His life 
derived from the thirty years of silence, from the things which 
He suffered and from His victory over the dark powers. It 
would seem as if the current of the divine life passing through 
our Lord came impregnated with properties acquired during His 
residence amongst men. All this is yours since you are Christ’s, 
and Christ is God’s. Whenever, therefore, you come face to 
face with duties, or sufferings that baffle you, be sure you turn 
inward and say,—“Rise up, oh ! well.” Let the Christ who is 
in you flow from you in rivers of living waters. 

The Future. —“That your fruit should remain.” Never 
a tear falls but what God catches it and transforms it into a 
pearl of imperishable value. Never a word is spoken truly and 
humbly that does not become a seed corn. Not a prayer is 
offered that will not return as a cloud laden with blessing! All 
that is done in God and of God abides; He will establish the 
work of our hands upon us, and in addition, you will come to 
be on terms of such intimacy with God, that whenever you ask 
the Father you will receive, because you ask in the name of 
Jesus Christ. 


8 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


Christ on the throne repeats Himself as Christ in our 
hearts, and in the answers of our prayers we have the return 
tide of the Christ Spirit to the Father. 

He says,—“Go and bring forth fruit.” Go back to your 
mission ; go far hence to the heathen ; go to the rough plowing 
or the tearful sowing and remember, however far the tip of the 
branch is from the roots, the sap will travel thither. “Go into 
all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature ” “until 
the end come.” And He who now says,—“Let us go hence,” 
will say,—“Come ye blessed of my Father, sit down with Me 
on my throne as I have overcome, and sit down on the Father’s 
throne.” 


The Apologetic for China 

BY THE RT. REV. BISHOP ROOTS 
HE function of apologetics is to create an atmosphere 



in which Christian belief is possible and probable. 


Apologetics is rather an art than a science, aiming mot 
so much at the discovery or systematic presentation of truth, 
which is the province of constructive theology, as at its pre¬ 
sentation in useful form. It fulfils the office of John the Baptist, 
preparing in the desert a highway for the coming Christ. It 
faces the fact that men are led astray by prejudices and 
misunderstandings, and adopts therefore the tone of friend¬ 
ly explanation and frank appeal to reason and good sense, 
rather than that of fault finding or exhortation. Its appeal is 
on the one hand to practical and on the other hand to intel¬ 
lectual considerations. Both the practical and the intellectual 
considerations must be appealed to, and as life comes before 
thought so the appeal must be first, in fact if not in theory, to 
the practical aspects of Christianity. The heart of man is never 
won by dialectic alone, nor taken by any kind of craft against 
its will. And as gracious deeds are the first and the last of God’s 
methods in bringing man back to the heavenly home, so in 
creating an atmosphere in which Christian belief shall be pos¬ 
sible, we must follow the divine method of appealing first to 
concrete deeds and reasoning about them afterwards. Good deeds 
win confidence where words prematurely spoken only confuse 
or create distrust. As illustrations of the necessity for this kind 



1910] The Apologetic for China 9. 

of apologetic we may well remind ourselves of the problems 
which confront the messengers of Christ wherever prejudice and 
misunderstanding prevail. For example, it is evident that the 
apologetic which convinced the earliest believers in the Christian 
Church, who were mostly Jews, can never be used with the 
Jews in Russia, or even in New York, who feel the weight of 
racial opposition and persecution, and who know of Christianity 
only to hate it as the religion of their most implacable enemies. 
Jewish school children in New York must first learn of the kind¬ 
ness of their teacher, and then gradually discover that she is .a 
Christian, before it is in the slightest degree possible for them to 
give heed to any intellectual defence or explanation of Christian¬ 
ity. Likewise among the weaker races, such as the American 
Indians, or the dark skinned peoples of Africa and the Islands 
of the South Seas, the first step in commending the Christian 
faith must be the argument of good deeds, which shall overcome 
the prejudice caused by the oppression and violence of those 
powerful races who have stood before them as the exponents of 
Christianity. And among our own races in the Christian coun¬ 
tries of the west, great sections of the people are alienated from 
the Christian Church not because they cannot believe its creeds 
but because they cannot tolerate its deeds. They are ready to 
accept Christ, or at least to honor Him with their lips, while they 
denounce the Church which they declare has betrayed Him. A- 
pologetics in such a case is of necessity concerned first of all with 
the practical business of removing this prejudice, either by show¬ 
ing that the good deeds of the Church have been misunderstood, 
or, more probably, by leading the Church into such practical ex¬ 
pressions of its faith as shall show that it believes in the command¬ 
ment “ thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself ” and prepare the 
way for the easier task of showing that Jesus Christ founded the 
Christian Church and that all good men should repent and be 
baptized into the living fellowship of the same. 

The first steps in apologetics everywhere at the present day 
must be deeds of brotherhood,on a national and international scale, 
nation to nation, and race to race, as well as in the narrower re¬ 
lations of class to class and man to man. The person of Christ lias 
given us a theory of the race which demands such deeds, and, as 
Principal Fairbairn puts it, the primary duty and main function 
of the Church is to realize this theory. If it can be shown that 


10 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


Jesus Christ our Lord does inspire such deeds, the pragmatist 
will at once argue that Christianity must be believed, for he 
accepts the proposition that whatever works for good is as good 
as truth to us. We shall perhaps not accept in theory the 
pragmatist’s position. Few of us would trust ourselves or any 
one else to determine the truth by this appeal to what is after all 
simply a utilitarian standard. But we cannot fail to recognize 
the practical necessity of proving that Christianity brings very 
tangible blessings to those who accept it, and that its advocates 
are animated by the benevolent love which they profess, if we 
hope to create an atmosphere in which Christian belief shall be 
possible. It has been said that no religious movement, even in the 
progress and development of Christianity, has ever deeply affect¬ 
ed any considerable community of men unless it brought with it 
a palpable improvement of tiie material conditions of life and 
called the community at the same time to more strenuous moral 
standards. This I believe to be profoundly true, and I would 
therefore place practical explanation—the argument of deeds— 
in the forefront of our conception of apologetics. 

When this first business of the Christian apologist has been 
accomplished, the battle of the faith will be more than half won. 
The great mass of mankind need no further argument. Never¬ 
theless, the most thoughtful men are not satisfied with this argu¬ 
ment alone. How many men we know who have every outward 
reason to believe. They have been brought up in Christian 
homes, all their most helpful associations are with Christian 
men, but they suddenly wake up to find that they cannot give a 
reason for the faith that is in them. They long to believe, but 
cannot. Purely intellectual difficulties stand in the way, and if 
they are to be true to their own conscience they must declare that 
they are not Christians for they cannot believe that Jesus is the 
Christ, their saviour and the saviour of the world. Questions 
which in the former days never occurred to them now demand 
an answer,—such questions as these :—In what sense are the 
Holy Scriptures inspired? Why are they revered as absolutely 
unique? Written so long ago, how can they command the 
reverence of those who have acquired such vast stores of 
knowledge in these later days? How can they be regarded as 
sure to command the unique interest of mankind, even in the 
still more enlightened generations yet to come ? How are we to 


1910] 


The Apologetic for China H 

interpret the Old Testament? What can account for the dif¬ 
ference between the Synoptics and the Fourth Gospel? Or 
the question may be philosophical,—How can we believe in 
prayer when the universe is so orderly as both scientific men and 
philosophers declare it to be ? How and why could God become 
man ? And the very centre of all the difficulties is the person 
of Christ. These questions cannot be met by a proof of benevo¬ 
lent intention on the part of the Christian Church, nor even by 
the strongest evidence that the Church of Christ has been the 
greatest factor in human progress during the last two thousand 
years. It will not even suffice to point to the present power of 
Christ to transform a sinner into a saint. The mind, as well as 
the heart, must be satisfied, and to this end we are forced 
to the conclusion that only intellectual reason for belief can be 
valid, and that such reasons cannot ultimately be replaced by 
other grounds. Here then we have readied the second branch 
of apologetics, that which appeals primarily to the reason, and 
in which Christian philosophy and dialectic have the supreme 
place. 

We do well to remember that when apologetics has done 
its work most thoroughly, it has only created the atmosphere in 
which belief is possible and probable. The mind may be 
convinced while the heart remains untouched, just as the heart 
may urge consent while the mind is still clouded with doubt. 
We must go even further and say that the mind may be con¬ 
vinced and the heart also urge to consent, while the will remains 
obstinate, still requiring the life-giving touch of the Spirit, 
which bloweth where it listeth, before the apologetic of gracious 
deeds and cogent reasoning can issue in that complete surrender 
of the whole man to the master Christ, which is the first step 
in intelligent discipleship. 

The function of apologetics being thus, by appeal to good 
deeds on the one hand and sound reason on the other, to create 
an atmosphere in which Christian belief is possible and 
probable, we are brought to the question which is the com¬ 
prehensive and supreme question for every Christian mission¬ 
ary in this land, How can w^e help create an atmosphere for the 
Chinese in which Christian belief is possible and probable, or, 
in other words, “ What is the Apologetic for China ” ? 


12 The Chinese Recorder [January 

Before proceeding further, however, I must explain briefly 
how, not having the profound scholarship necessary to treat 
adequately such a subject as this, I can venture to write 
this paper. The answer seems to me akin to the answer 
to the similar questions “ How can a representative of our 
imperfect Western and only so-called Christian civilization 
venture to preach to another race at all?” We must, frankly 
admit the defects of Western and of Christian civilizations, and 
also the fact that both our theology and our apologetics are but 
partially successful and complete, even from our Western point 
of view. We are but beginning to know and to apply the pro¬ 
found teaching and life of Christ. Our social and even 
individual problems are but partially solved. The Lord 
Jesus Christ, whom we call Lord and Master, is not yet 
absolutely supreme in even one individual life amongst us, 
much less in the whole Church or the great civilizations 
which bear His name. We venture to leave our own lands 
and preach the Gospel to the Chinese because our Lord 
commanded us to do so, and because the more we know of His 
world the more we see it to be one world. We hope to see 
soon established in China that life-bearing Church which shall 
help this nation as it has helped ours, so that East and West 
may together help each other make all the Kingdoms of this 
world the Kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ. No 
individual can put off till he has reached perfection the obliga¬ 
tion of proclaiming to others the Savior he has found, tho he 
knows that Savior calls him to perfection. Likewise no Church 
and no nation can put off till all its members have reached the 
plane of its best men, the obligation of making its best known 
to the world. 

Even so we who are in the midst of the Lord’s battle in 
China cannot forbear to fight. It would be folly, and coward¬ 
ice also, to wait within our trenches or to retreat until the more 
disciplined and better equipped soldiers whom we are sure will 
follow later have actually arrived. However inadequately pre¬ 
pared we may be, we must now fight ^ with the best weapons 
and the best strategy we can command. The fallacy of waiting 
till perfectly equipped before ever uttering a word in defense of 
the faith is almost as great as that of rushing into the great con¬ 
troversies of the faith with no thought that special preparation is 


1910] 


The Apologetic for China 


13 


needed. The fact is we are best prepared for the conflict, not in 
the secluded study alone, but by forging a few weapons we know 
how to use, and then proceeding to use them, learning more 
of the strength and the weakness of both ourselves and the 
enemy as the battle of our generation advances. As a matter 
of fact I believe this is what most missionaries are doing, but 
too few of us make a practical use of our growing experience 
and knowledge. We need to review and revise our methods 
and our attitude in the light of the constantly better under¬ 
standing we have of the Chinese people and of the atmosphere 
in which they actually live. We ourselves are obliged to live 
a kind of double life, partly in the atmosphere of our home 
lands and partly in that of China. Our reading of the home 
papers and of the books which are moulding the thought of the 
West perform the essential office of keeping us in touch with 
our home lands and with the Church at large, but it tends 
rather to separate us from the atmosphere in which the 
Chinese live. When our souls have been stirred by such read¬ 
ing, I am convinced that there is grave danger in turning at 
once to our Chinese people and putting the message which 
burns in our hearts almost as directly into a Chinese sermon 
or address as we would into our own language for a congrega- 
tion of our own race. Then arises that regrettable situation 
wherein the only thing that really commends itself to the 
Chinese congregation is the evident earnestness of the preach¬ 
er, and the kindly deeds which his earnestness leads him to 
perform. The reason for his earnestness is hidden from them 
almost as much as if lie were speaking a foreign language, and 
the cause of this difficulty lies in the fact that the preacher has 
failed to enter into the interests and thoughts of his people. 
He has been so much concerned with delivering his own soul 
that he has failed to ensure the understanding of his message 
by those to whom it is addressed. I write this paper in the hope 
that it may help, even if only in the smallest way, to the 
understanding of the Chinese among whom we live, and to a 
more effective adaptation of our deeds and our words to the 
end of making it possible for them to believe. With this end 
in view, let us ask first what are 


14 The Chinese Recorder tJanuary 

The Conditions Peculiar to China . 
i. The proportions of the Chinese race are unique. As 
Dr. Arthur Smith has pointed out, it surpasses all the races of 
the present day in three important points; the antiquity and 
continuity of its civilization, the vastness of its numbers, and 
its social, literary, administrative, and religious homogeneity. 
The sympathetic student need never weary in the pursuit of 
any aspect of the life of the Chinese race; for variety is to be 
found at every turn and there is no end to the stores of her 
history, literature, art, philosophy, experience and practice of 
government, and last but not least of her religious development. 
There seems to be no smallest community in the whole of 
China that does not harbor traditions of great men connected 
with the really vital history of the nation’s past. Every Pre¬ 
fecture has its annals, and every family its genealogy, by which 
the history of every locality and of almost every individual in 
it can be traced back with fair accuracy for twenty or thirty 
generations, and there can be little doubt that the general out¬ 
lines of the history are accurate for a period beginning several 
hundred years before the time of Confucius—say from before 
the time of Saul and David and Solomon. The administrative 
genius of the race is impressed upon the traveller at every turn, 
for he finds government carried on over the great areas and in 
the midst of China’s millions with a general acquiescence in 
the correctness of the theory, which prevails everywhere, and 
a degree of submission on the part of the people at large, which 
are sure marks of a high degree of civilization. Yet the chief 
claims of the race to our consideration are to be found in its 
literature and its religions; that is to say, in those very regions 
where the most intense interest for the missionary is to be 
found. The supremacy of the Chinese amongst the nations of 
Asia has really been based upon this intellectual and moral 
superiority, rather than upon any military or governmental 
genius. The prevalence of a dessicated decadent Confucianism 
for the past few hundred years has tended to obscure the writ¬ 
ings of the so-called unorthodox philosophers, but the younger 
generation of scholars is bringing this mine of fertile reflection 
on the problems of the universe to light, and we are confront¬ 
ed with a new world of ideas, and of terminology to fit the 
same, drawn from these long neglected treasures of the past. 


1910] 


The Apologetic for China 


15 


I touch upon these familiar facts because I think there is 
danger of forgetting how true and significant they are. To my 
mind they constitute the first and most important peculiarity 
with which we have to deal in making the confession of the 
Christian faith possible in China. That China has been self- 
satisfied in the past, and scornful of the rest of the world; and 
that she has been rudely awakened from this self-complacency 
by contact with nations materially stronger than herself 
during the past generation, must not obscure from us the 
fact that these outstanding features of Chinese civilization 
must still be reckoned with. The nation is rapidly learn¬ 
ing how to make much of these things, not in the light 
of ancient prejudice and ignorance but in the full blaze of 
modern study and comparison with other races and nations. 
The ambitious Chinese youth is not slow to draw the conclusion 
which careful observers have made many a time, that the 
Chinese is as good a man as walks the earth, and that given 
equal opportunities he can hold his own with the best men of 
other races. The success of those Chinese students who have 
gone abroad in competition with western students at their own 
universities is a proof of the virility and capacity of the Chinese 
intellect. We do greatly err if we look upon this race as 
decadent. It is rather partially arrested, and just now all signs 
indicate that there is about to take place in China a renaissance 
which will change the face of the earth. 

2.—The second fact to be faced is the prejudice of the 
Chinese against foreigners and against Christianity as foreign. 
The prejudice appears to be due in part to the aggression and 
more or less concealed contempt of the great military and com¬ 
mercial powers of the West, and partly to the growing sense of 
nationality and real patriotism which in its first stages and 
among the short-sighted multitude of the “young China” party 
leads most naturally to over-wrought self-assertion and counter¬ 
contempt for the foreign powers, amongst whom in their heart 
of hearts none more ardently than these very patriots crave a 
place. The record of China’s foreign relations, especially with 
so-called Christian powers, is not one of which we can be very 
proud. Indeed we must hang our heads at the thought of the 
way in which Chinese have been treated in America and at the 
blundering and selfishness which until the most recent years 


16 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


have been too characteristic of great Britain’s treatment of the 
opium trade in China. And we cannot but welcome the growth 
of patriotism throughout China. The well nigh total absence 
of this virtue among the Chinese twelve years or more ago was 
one of those things which did more than most others to make 
foreigners generally despise the Chinese as decadent, or as 
somehow lacking in the essentials of manhood. To see Chinese 
all over the Empire really indignant over a Chientao or “Tatsu 
Marti ” affair is a welcome proof that the Chinese have the 
quality or capacity for patriotism, without which it is hard to 
imagine any nation being worthy to enter the family of nations. 
But whatever is the cause of this prejudice against foreigners, 
it is certainly a fact of primary significance when considering 
what should be the Apologetic for China. 

3. —The moral and religious endowments of the Chinese. 
Nowhere in the world do the concepts of conscience, right and 
wrong, and justice, have a more well-defined and universally 
recognized meaning and obligation than in China. The 
apparent indifference to these things on the part of the Western 
governments, and especially the individuals who were nothing 
more than pirates, during the early days of China’s contact with 
the West, may well be the reason why prejudice against the 
foreigner has gone so deep. The fact that these moral ideas do 
not actually rule the conduct of the government or of the people 
should not conceal from us the prevalence of these ideas, which 
are in fact the glory of the Chinese people. Very closely related 
to these moral ideas are the religious ideas of the people. How 
difficult it is to separate clearly between these two regions in 
China is shown by the controversy which is no less acute now 
than it was in the early days as to whether Confucianism is a 
religion or only a system of ethics and government. Taotai 
Tong, at the Centenary Conference two years ago, calmly 
assured us that both Confucianism and ancestor worship 
contain no elements strictly religious as distinguished from 
moral, and they do not inculcate anything akin to religious 
worship. But certain it is that Confucianism and what we 
know as ancestor worship do invest with something very 
nearly akin to religious sanctions both in the state and the family. 
The point to be noted here, however, is not so much whether 
Confucianism should be classed as a religion or not, as the fact 


1910] The Apologetic for China 17 

that Confucianism holds the ground as that system of teaching 
which most commends itself to rulers and people, and that its 
chief emphasis is undoubtedly ethical. 

Buddhism was welcomed in China because Confucianism 
did not meet the religious needs of the people, but it was 
peculiarly fitted for this task. Its principles and practices 
regarding the use of force were agreeable to the Chinese, who 
have never theoretically believed in war. Buddhism was pro¬ 
pagated, as Principal Grant puts it, “with an enthusiasm, self 
abnegation and success, which the history of Christendom 
cannot surpass, and it is the only one of the universal religions 
that never sought to propagate itself by force or persecution, even 
when it had the power.” No doubt it brought to China in some 
considerable degree those benefits which for a time at least, as 
Monier Williams tells us, it conferred on India and on Eastern 
and Northern Asia generally. He says “ It introduced education 
and culture; it encouraged literature and art; it promoted 
physical, moral, intellectual progress up to a certain point; it 
proclaimed peace, good-will, and brotherhood among men ; it 
deprecated war between nation and nation ; it avowed sympathy 
with social liberty and freedom; it gave back much indepem 
dence to women; it preached purity of thought, word, and deed 
(though only for the accumulation of merit); it taught self- 
denial without self-torture; it inculcated generosity, charity, 
tolerance, love, self-sacrifice and benevolence, even towards the 
inferior animals; it advocated respect for life and compassion 
towards all creatures; it forbade avarice and the hoarding of 
money; and from its declaration that a man’s future depended 
on his present acts and condition, it did good service for a time 
in preventing stagnation, stimulating exertion, promoting good 
works of all kinds, and elevating the character of humanity.” 

That Buddhism has for centuries been well-nigh a spent 
force in China can hardly be doubted, but there are signs of its 
revival here as in Japan. In that illuminating little volume 
by Dr. Timothy Richard, “ The *Awakeuing of Faith,” we have 
evidence of how Buddhism, especially in the purer aspects of 
the Mahayana School, or Northern Buddhism, appeals to 
Confucianists who want more religious teaching than they 
find in the Confucian classics. The former minister to Great 
Britain, Eo Fung-lu, told me that he was a Buddhist,—and 


18 The Chinese Recorder [January 

though he did rather discount the statement by declaring later 
that all Chinese officials, presumably including himself, were 
“ hypocrites ” and repeated the assertion with emphasis, it was 
evident that in his opinion Confucianism would never supply 
elements which the Confucian scholar would surely need. A still 
further evidence of the possible and indeed probable revival of 
Buddhism in China is found in the fact that three at least of the 
young men most responsible for the Emperor’s reform policy in 
1898 were avowed and ardent Buddhists. One of these, the son 
of the Governor T’an of Hupeh, was beheaded at the time of the 
coup d'etat. The other two are still living. One of them, Kang 
Yu-wei, usually residing in England or some other distant foreign 
country, and tho rather vacillating and apparently ready to 
change his view somewhat in order to meet the desires of those 
nearest him at any particular time, and tho charged sometimes 
with serious departures from the paths of virtue and rectitude, 
seems to hold, intellectually at least, the same position as his 
younger friend Liang Ch’i-ts’ao. Liang Ch'i-ts’ao’s religious 
position can be fairly well ascertained from his numerous 
writings, which constitute, indeed, one of the large factors in 
the present intellectual life of China. I am sorry to say that I 
have not read all the interesting essays which appear in his 
“House of the Iced Drinks”—•“ Yin-pin-sze”—and its com¬ 
panion volume, nor have I even seen his more recent writings on 
religious subjects, which I understand are also numerous, but I 
think it highly significant that such a thoroughly drilled Confu¬ 
cian scholar should consider the general subject of religion as he 
does, from several different points of view, discussed in successive 
brief essays or chapters, and deliberately come to the conclusion 
that Confucianism, even with all its admirable self-restraint and 
good morals, cannot satisfy the religious instinct,—that Chris¬ 
tianity also fails to meet the need, but that Buddhism can and 
must be heartily embraced by all true scholars and patriots. 
Should Kang Yu-wei and Liang Chi-ts’ao be recalled to power, 
as the Prince Regent is reported in the newspaper to have an¬ 
nounced his intention of doing, and if they still hold this 
religious position, Buddhism may take on new life throughout 
China. The comparative freedom of Buddhism from any 
suspicious alliances with foreign powers would render such a 
course popular with many young patriots. 


J 910 ] 


The Apologetic for China 


19 


In this connection it would be well to consider two points 
about Buddhism which Dr. Richard brings out in the introduc¬ 
tion to his translation of “The Awakening of Faith,” above 
referred to, namely, 

1. The similarity of Buddhist doctrines, as set forth in this 
marvelous book, with those of Christianity, especially in its 
theism, its rejection of transmigration in favor of an immediate 
entrance of the faithful departed into paradise, its emphasis on 
faith as contrasted with works as the ground of salvation ; and 
its granting a place (denied by the earlier Buddhism) to those 
who would not become monks, but preferred to live in the world. 

2 . The reason why Buddhism, being so vastly superior as 
a religion to Confucianism, and having secured such wide 
acceptance, should yet have failed to supplant Confucianism ; 
namely, that Confucianism was intrenched in the schools of the 
land, and having control of the educational system it retained 
all influence and power: while Buddhism failed to instruct its 
own people, even the priests, in its own doctrines, and so 
degenerated into the nondescript religion it is in China to-day., 
no longer vitally distinguished in its own temples from its 
former foes, Confucianism and Taoism. 

I would also note “ the strength and weakness of Ordinary 
Buddhism” as summarized in Dr. Richard’s translation entitled 
“Guide to Buddhahood.” He says “The Strength lies in its 
systematic arrangement of a complete view of the universe, its 
aim to remove the suffering of all living beings by Ethics and 
Union with the Supreme Divine Will which rules all. 

“The Weakness lies in its indictment of the sexual element 
in the Universe and its vain efforts to stamp it out; its count¬ 
less imaginary worlds and its imaginary beings inhabiting each, 
its neglecting in China, where most of the Buddhists of the 
world are, to take part in the practical improvement of the 
material, social, educational and political conditions of men, 
regarding all such things as compared with the eternal, nothing 
but vanity! ” 

Taoism is hardly a force to be considered, except as offer¬ 
ing the resistance of popular superstition to the advance of the 
Truth in whatever way it appears, in the advance of the railway, 
the mine, and the modern school, as well as in the cause of 
true religion. 

o 


20 The Chinese Recorder [January 

Nestorianism, however, should be noted as having occupied 
for many generations a large place in the religious life of China, 
beginning in the sixth or seventh century of our era, and ex¬ 
tending down to the time of the first Roman Catholic Mission¬ 
aries, in the 14th century. Such studies as that of the Rev. 
W. S. Packenham Walsh, B.A., in the Chinese Recorder for 
March and April 1908, help us to realize more vividly than 
ever the richness of Chinese religious history, where it has so 
often been thought to be quite barren. 

Following this brief review of the moral and religious en¬ 
dowments of the Chinese, let us note two modern conditions 
peculiar to China. 

4. The New Learning. September, 1905, will always be 
memorable in Chinese history as the date of the edict abolishing 
tile system of government civil service examinations which 
had been the bulwark of Confucianism and blind conservatism in 
the struggle between the old and the new learning. It is doubt¬ 
ful whether the chaos at present prevailing throughout most of 
the government schools, under the name of modern learning, is 
an improvement intellectually or morally over the old system, 
but it is certain that the old regime is gone forever. The ulti¬ 
mate issue of the change will be to bring China into closest in¬ 
tellectual contact, and no doubt also sympathy, with the rest 
of the educated world. Meantime the situation is extremely 
serious, students in government schools lend to throw off all 
discipline and really serious work, after the example of numer¬ 
ous and noisy students who have returned from short courses 
of study in Japan. Atheism, hitherto almost unknown in 
China, is rampant, along with the abandonment of all the old 
sanctions of decency and morality. In the Mission Schools 
discipline is good, and foreign studies flourish, though this same 
chaos in Chinese studies is controlled with difficulty, for the 
very language is going through the pains of a new birth. 
The situation calls aloud for constructive leadership in the for¬ 
mation of new religious as well as literary and moral ideals and 
gives the Christian apologist a better opportunity than has 
hitherto occurred in China. 

5. The New National Movement. As the edict of Sep¬ 
tember 1905, above referred to, marked the beginning of a new 
educational era in China, so the edict of a year later, promising 


19101 


The Apologetic for China 


21 


a constitution, marked the beginning of what has already be¬ 
come a new national movement. The nation is more nearly 
alive than it has been for generations. Patriotism is a grow¬ 
ing passion, among the younger men especially, and along with 
the passion for the new learning it is apparently the one thing 
in which all intelligent men are interested. Before political 
theories have crystalized, while all are studying as models 
the actual working of Western nations, the people, especially 
the leaders, are more open to impressions from without than 
they have ever been, and also much more than they are likely 
to be a few years hence. 

6 . The Christian Church in China. Finally we must not 
fail to record the fact that the Christian Church in China, com¬ 
posed of thousands of missionaries, tens of thousands of devot¬ 
ed Chinese pastors and evangelists, and hundreds of thousands of 
Chinese converts, constitutes a factor of supreme importance in 
any consideration of the apologetic for China. Here is the 
foretaste of the fruit which Christianity when full grown will 
bear in China, and to it the Christian apologist will be obliged 
to appeal, no matter what other supports he needs for his posi¬ 
tion. We shall doubtless be much helped at many times, in 
holding to true ideals of Church life and administration; if 
we realize that the structure we are helping to rear will be 
judged by the impartial eyes of the sane men of China, and in 
accordance with their impression of our work they will repel or 
welcome that for which we give our lives. 

Bearing these facts in mind, we now turn to the crucial 
question, 

How can Christianity be made acceptable to the race which 
lives under the conditions peculiar to China ? I think we must 
at once realize that the first and fundamental work of apologe¬ 
tics in China must be what it has been and is everywhere else 
in the world, namely, the argument of good deeds. If the rest 
of mankind demands this proof of good faith before being ready 
to listen to reasoned arguments, much more the Chinese, who 
belong to the Eastern world, and who therefore share that which 
is frequently declared to be characteristically oriental, namely, 
the disposition to judge one’s meaning rather by actions than 
by words. And we must recognize the right of any people to 
demand that their prejudices and suspicions be removed by 


[January 


22 The Chinese Recorder 

manifest deeds of good-will before we attempt to reason with 
them as with friends. 

The Christian apologist in China should be able to point to 
the following kinds of good deeds as the fruit of the tree he 
wishes to see planted and naturalized in China. 

1. Good deeds of Christian Governments and Christian 
peoples. We apologists should make it part of our business as 
those who are sent to make Christian belief possible and pro¬ 
bable in China, to labor and to pray that the powerful nations 
of the West from which we came and which bear the name of 
Christ shall treat China in the spirit of the golden rule of 
Christ, and by every possible means help China speedily and 
with dignity to reach the point where she can be admitted on 
equal terms into the family of nations. 

2 . —Beneficent Christian institutions—schools of all grades 
including the real University—will be especially attractive if they 
guard the morals of their students and at the same time meet 
even in part the passionate desire of the multitudes for the new 
learning. Hospitals and refuges, and benevolences of all kinds, 
have proven and still prove the most powerful apologetic in 
many influential Chinese circles. 

3. —Good and able men, products of Christian training and 
influence, for all walks of life, including the government service. 
None recognize more fully and heartily than the Chinese the 
necessity of competent and right-minded men in order to 
administer successfully the complicated affairs of the national life. 
To “ Seek worthy men for the service of the state ” HU jfc Jf) 
is a primary ambition of Confucianism, set forth in great 
characters in the most conspicuous places, and any influence 
which helps secure such men is sure to be welcomed. 

4. —The gift of the beneficent and life-bearing Church of 
the Living God, to be that of the Chinese themselves, led by 
men to whom we have not grudged giving our very best, and 
who are thus fitted for leadership in it. The most severe criti¬ 
cism I ever heard of Christian Missionaries in China was that of 
a brilliant and zealous young man, the son of a Chinese pastor, 
who had desired a modern education and could not get it in the 
schools of the mission to which he belonged. He went to a 
government school, and ultimately entered church work, but he 
declared that he believed it the policy of his mission not to give 


1910] 


The Apologetic for China 


2} 


their best in education for fear their pupils, once in a position 
of independence, would neglect the Christian ministry. If we 
can treat our students with such generous confidence as will 
both fit them for the largest usefulness and also elicit their 
loyal support of the church, the very fact that the church has 
the voluntary and enthusiastic support of such educated Chinese 
men will be a powerful argument in its appeal to the Chinese 
people. Nothing else will so fully meet the demands of the 
new national spirit, for it will supply the religious element, 
which is at present tile most conspicuous deficiency of Chinese 
patriotism, and without which patriotism cannot be truly soxmd 
or wholesome. 

5.—Deeds and words which will promote national unity, 
inter-racial good will, and social harmony. Intelligent Chinese 
realize that the prejudice and distrust existing between Manchus 
and Chinese, and between Chinese and foreigners, are the bane 
of the nation. Rut these problems are the despair of statesmen. 
Christianity is called to deal with these most difficult of all 
problems, in China as elsewhere, and in helping to solve them 
will win the unbounded good will of rulers and people alike. 

Finally we turn to the difficult and delicate question of 
how to meet the peculiarities of the Chinese mind, supposing 
that the initial prejudice of the Chinese has been removed and 
his real sympathy gained. 

1. —-I shall put first and last the attitude of sympathetic 
and generous appreciation of the Chinese race, its great propor¬ 
tions in the history of the whole world, and its manifest destiny 
to play a great part in the future. 

2. —Frank but always most friendly criticism of Chinese 
failures. None more than the Chinese realize that true friend¬ 
ship means exhortation to do good and avoid evil as well as 
merely saying the true and pleasant things. 

3. —Expositions of Chinese religions,—actual studies to be 
published for study and enlightenment. In most cases these 
can now best be produced by Chinese and foreigners in collabora¬ 
tion. They should show patiently and in detail where Chinese 
religious beliefs and practices are true and helpful, and also point 
out where they contravene the truth and are hurtful to morals. 
Among the essential qualifications of those who undertake 
such expositions and studies I would place the following two. 


24 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


A. A hearty recognition that God has been working in 
China in the past, and that we attribute the good here found to 
God Himself,—the Light that lighteth every man that cometh 
into the world. If it is true, as has been said, that every nation 
has its Old Testament, how much more must we recognize in 
the Confucian classics, and many Taoist and Buddhist writings, 
the hand of the divine Schoolmaster preparing the way for the 
Gospel if not actually leading this wonderful people to Christ? 
And if an Old Testament prophet, writing in the fifth century 
before Christ, could write as he did “My name is great among 
the Gentiles, saith the Lord of Hosts,” how much more 
should the Christian apologist of the twentieth Christian 
century make these words apply to China, not only for the 
stirring up of Christendom but for the true appeal they 
make to the Chinese themselves? 

B, Equally clear and explicit should be the apologist's 
conviction that all men are now called upon to repent and 
believe the good news of Jesus Christ; and that the presump¬ 
tion is in favor of, and not against, any belief or custom which 
is associated closely with the Christian Church of the past 
1900 years. 

With these two qualifications of expectant charity and 
wide vision, on the one hand, and of clear faith in the one only 
Name by which we can be saved, on the other, I believe the 
work of these expositions and studies is sure to be most fruitful 
and to help immeasurably in creating an atmosphere in which 
Christian belief is possible. 

4. Impartial reviews of the benefits Christianity has 
brought to the mind and the whole life of the West. Faber’s 
“Civilization” has prepared the way for Christian faith in 
many Chinese minds. This field is one in which the Chinese 
are at present very susceptible, in view of their conviction that 
in civil government and industrial and educational affairs they 
must now learn from the West. 

5. Frank and detailed expositions of the superiority of 
Christian teaching. The Rev. C. W. Allan, in his admirable 
article in the “Recorder” for Feb., 1908, to which I am greatly 
indebted, calls attention, which has too long been diverted 
elsewhere, to the fact that here is where we shall find most 
common ground with the Chinese at the present time. They 


1910J 


The Apologetic for China 


25 


cannot appreciate as yet the full force of those historical and 
philosophical arguments which appeal most powerfully to our 
generation in the West; but they have gained by centuries of 
insistence a profound respect for “teaching,” or “doctrine.” Such 
an argument as that presented in Dr. Garvie’s chapter on “The 
Characteristics of the Teaching,” in his “studies in the Inner 
Life of Jesus,” meets the Chinese on their own ground, and 
when applied in detail to Confucian and Buddhist teaching as 
compared with that of Christianity will probably be more 
popular and effective than any other line of argument in China 
for many years to come. 

6 . Gentle insistence on the supreme importance of the 
Christian dynamic. Our faith does not “stand in the wisdom 
of men, but in the power of God.” The Chinese are not un¬ 
acquainted with beautiful theories and persuasive words of 
men’s wisdom, but they know also only too well how powerless 
such theories and words are. At this point I think our 
apologetic should go a step farther than Mr. Allan’s article 
indicates, showing not only how the teaching of Christ shines 
in contrast even to the excellences of the teaching of other 
masters, but also how it deals with this additional and essential 
question, namely ; Where is man to gain power to do what the 
teaching has shown him to be right ? If our apologetic can 
make plain how the aspiration of the mystic —who is not un¬ 
known in Chinese philosophy—is saved from vague speculation 
and sentiment by being focussed upon the Person of the 
historic Christ, who lived as a Jew in the days of His flesh, and 
now lives, as the Risen One, with His Church and in the 
hearts of His people forever, we shall have put the cap-stone 
upon this part of our work. Ethics and philosophy will be 
shown to find their fulfilment and completion in Christianity. 
For the Chinese, as for the rest of mankind, Longfellow’s 
words will be a true description of the ideal man’s hope and 
faith :— 

“That evermore beside him on the way, 

The unseen Christ may move, 

That he may lean upon His arm and say, 

Dost Thou, dear Lord, approve?” 

And with the coming of the hope that China may become 
a nation in which the control of affairs shall rest in the hands 


26 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


of Chinese who thus walk with Christ, the fear, suspicion, 
misunderstanding which Christianity now has to meet will 
naturally pass away. There will still be opposition, and there 
will still be work for apologetics to accomplish; but the citadels 
will have been won, and Christian belief will be possible and 
probable in China as in the West. 


Evolution and Missions 

BY BISHOP JAMES W. BASHEORD. 

O UR aim is to strengthen faith by showing that science, 
properly interpreted, is in harmony with Christianity in 
its missionary form. George Adam Smith says, “God has 
placed man on the earth in a threefold relation: that of Providence 
toward a lower creation ; that of service toward his fellows ; that 
of worship toward Himself.” If evolution is to lead to a more 
thoughtful and tender relation to the world below us, it will 
demand an enlargement of our humanity as well as an increase 
of our faith. 

I. Facts. I have not the slightest claim to scientific au¬ 
thority. I simply try to keep familiar in a general way with the 
established results of scientific investigation. 

(i) However repugnant such conclusions may be to some, 
I suppose that we must accept the general facts of evolution. 
The Encyclopedia Britannica probably is the most authoritative 
publication on scientific subjects in the English language. The 
Supplement to the last edition of the Britannica uses this 
language : “ Evolution from their predecessors of the forms of 
life now r existing must be taken as proved.” I suppose this 
conclusion represents the consensus of British scientific opinion. 

In the United States there is not a university or college of 
any scientific standing in which evolution in some form is not ac¬ 
cepted. An enterprising reporter interviewed the members of 
the American Scientific Association a few years ago and publish¬ 
ed the fact that evolution in some form was accepted by them 
with substantial unanimity. In France and Germany evolution 
is accepted in all scientific circles with even greater unanimity 
than in the United States and Great Britain. Hence the 
Britannica probably is justified ip concluding the article referred 



Evolution and Missions 


27 


1910 ] 

to with the statement: “We are living in the midst of a 
revolution in the general tendencies of knowledge which is 
without parallel in the past history of mankind.” 

(2) While science recognizes only one cause acting through¬ 
out the universe, yet she herself compels scientists to use the 
word uniformity in only a general sense. Science speaks of a 
long, long period in which our earth was slowly condensing and 
taking form before life appeared upon our planet. The emergence 
of the vegetable kingdom was a decided advance upon the 
uniformity which had reigned for milleniums. And the vast 
majority of scientists account for the appearance of life as due to 
creative impulse. There was a similar advance due to a similar 
creative impulse when consciousness emerged in the first sentient 
beings. The Bible unites with science in assuring us that there 
was a similar creative impulse when man first appeared upon our 
globe. “God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and 
man became a living soul.” The Bible transcends but does not 
contradict science when it asserts that Christ appeared by a 
similar impulse from the Almighty. Indeed the scientific 
doctrine which represents each new species as due on one side to 
an indwelling development of existing species, and on the other 
to an added impulse from the Creator, rather than creation de 
novo , is confirmed by such light as the Bible throws upon creation. 
In the incarnation God did not neglect the highest species he had 
thus far created. Upon the contrary he acted upon and through 
one of the highest beings of the highest species he had thus far 
produced. “ The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, wherefore 
also the holy thing which is begotten shall be called the Son of 
God,” is the New Testament description of the birth of Christ 
and the inauguration of the spiritual kingdom on earth. Judg¬ 
ing the briefer account of the creation of Adam by the fuller 
account of the incarnation must we not also believe that God did 
not create man de novo , but by acting upon and through the 
highest beings He had thus far created ? It is no more degrad¬ 
ing to man to suppose that he was produced from the dust of the 
earth, refined and quickened by the creative and sustaining 
activity of God through preceding ages, than to suppose that God 
formed him out of the nearest clay bank. Christian evolution 
teaches man’s connection with and obligation to care for the 
whole creation beneath him. 


28 The Chinese Recorder [January 

(3) Science, not universally, but generally and increasingly, 
is affirming a Personal Spiritual Creator of the universe. Not 
all the scientists go so far. But all agree that the cause operat¬ 
ing throughout the universe has intelligence and elements of 
morality in it; some add that they have no scientific warrant for 
denying that the cause is personal: they simply confess their 
ignorance at this point and proclaim themselves agnostics. All 
are substantially agreed in rejecting materialism. Haeckel 
confessed in The Riddle of the Universe that he stood almost 
alone among philosophers in his materialistic monism. Not a 
university of recognized philosophic standing today is teaching 
the crass materialism of a generation ago. Many scientists 
advance beyond a spiritual interpretation of the universe and 
hold that the same law of causation which compels them to 
posit intelligence in the first cause because they find intelligence 
in the result will compel them with a little more thought to 
posit personality in the first cause, because they find that also in 
the result. Hence Tord Kelvin, the leading scientific authority 
of Great Britain, wrote in 1903 : “ Science positively affirms 
creative power.” Professor George J. Romanes began his 
teaching as an avowed agnostic and wrote the keenest criticism 
of the theistic argument produced in modern times. But long and 
profound thinking led him to the theistic basis and indeed to the 
acceptance of Christianity. A fair classification of Darwin will 
leave him among the agnostics to the last; though with that 
candor which characterized him he admitted that the appear¬ 
ance of personality at the end of the evolutionary process made 
the hypothesis of a personal being at the beginning of the pro¬ 
cess probably the most rational explanation of the universe. 
His great companion, Wallace, who, according to Darwin’s own 
testimony, discovered the doctrine of evolution jointly with 
himself always remained a theist and a Christian. Immanuel 
Kant, the greatest modern philosopher, taking rank indeed with 
Aristotle and Plato, wrote: “It is impossible to contem¬ 
plate the fabric of the world without recognizing the hand of 
God.” 

(4.) The fuller study of nature and man has led to the al¬ 
most total rejection of the utilitarian interpretation of evolution. 
Darwin published “The Origin of Species” in 1859, just fifty 
years ago. Herbert Spencer, who already was a utilitarian, 


Evolution and Missions 


29 


published a remarkable essay in the “ Westminster Review” 
(i860) in which he claimed that Darwin had furnished the 
scientific basis for the utilitarian philosophy. The greatest 
happiness of the greatest number is the utilitarian goal of his¬ 
tory. But by happiness the utilitarians often mean material 
enjoyment, and by the greatest number the greatest number 
now living. Mr. Spencer maintained that the State and the 
Church for which men are often called to sacrifice their lives 
are mere abstract terms; that neither the State nor the Church 
is capable of suffering or enjoyment. Hence it is folly for any 
one to die for them. Mr. Spencer added : “ Here is the ever¬ 

lasting reason why the welfare of the citizen cannot rightly be 
sacrificed to some supposed benefit of the State, but why on the 
other hand the State is to be maintained for the benefit of the 
citizens.” Hence Mr. Spencer condemned monuments and the 
memorials in Westminster Abbey as tending to draw men away 
from their real goal in life—the seeking of personal happiness; 
and he regarded all martyrs as the victims of a false philosophy. 
Mr. Huxley went even further and wrote : “I have little doubt 
that the moral sentiments originated, as other natural phenom¬ 
ena, by the processes of evolution. But as the immoral sen¬ 
timents are no less evolved, there is as much sanction for the 
one as for the other. The thief and the murderer follow nature 
just as much as the philanthropist.” 

The difficulty with this crass interpretation of evolution 
was that it could not be lived. We are in a world of struggle; 
and any state or society, or family which attempts to embody 
this selfish doctrine of utilitarianism in life simply disintegrates 
and disappears. Hence in the evolutionary struggle for ex¬ 
istence the utilitarian interpretation was condemned by the 
scientific test of experiment. Hence Mr. Spencer after sixteen 
years more of thought and observation abandoned his old posi¬ 
tion in 1876 and wrote as follows : “Although egoism biologi¬ 
cally considered comes before altruism, yet from the dawn of 
life altruism lias been no less essential than egoism. Self- 
sacrifice is no less primordial than self-preservation. ” So that 
also Mr. Huxley finding that obedience to conscience which 
often involved self-sacrifice was necessary to the highest civiliza¬ 
tion, thought he found in nature two opposing cause's, one of 
which he characterised as cosmic evolution in which animals 


30 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


and men advance by following their selfish instincts, the other 
of which he called ethical evolution in which man advances to 
the higher civilization by obeying his conscience. In his essay 
on “ Evolution and Ethics ” he says : “ The ethical process is 

opposed by the cosmic process.” Again he adds: “Ethical 
progress means the checking of the cosmic process at every 
step.” “ Let it be understood once for all that the ethical pro¬ 
gress of society depends not on imitating the cosmic process, 
still less in running away from it, but in combating it.” He 
adds these noble words : “ It may seem audacious to pit the 

microcosm against the macrocosm .... but the intelligence which 
has converted the brother of the wolf into the faithful guardian of 
the flock ought to do something towards curbing the instincts 
of the savage in civilized man.” Mr. Huxley, although a pro¬ 
fessed agnostic in regard to the supernatural claims of the Bible, 
nevertheless boldly advocated putting this Book into the public 
schools of England on the ground that the Bible is “ the un¬ 
rivaled instrument for the moral culture of the race,” and that 
this unrivaled instrument of moral culture should be placed in 
the hands of every child in England. 

If evolution is the method by which the Creator has 
brought the universe into existence; and if this Creator is Jesus 
Christ; if all things were made through Him and without Him 
was not anything made that hath been made, we ought to find 
some prints of Christ’s hand in this evolutionary process. 

(i) In the vegetable kingdom we get illustrations of the 
law of love. It is true that vegetation obeys the law of self- 
regard ; and self-regard in itself is not sinful. Jesus commanded 
us to love our neighbours as ourselves, thus implying self-love. 
He further gave us the half-commandment, half-promise, “ye 
therefore shall be perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect.” 
Hence self-preservation and self-perfection are not only laws of 
nature but laws of God. 

But self-preservation is not the deepest law of the vegetable 
kingdom. That law is the law of seed and fruit-bearing found 
in the first chapter of Genesis: “ Herbs bearing seed and fruit 
trees yielding fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof.” 
What is the object of the production of fruit and seeds? Not 
to benefit the individual herb or tree bearing them. The ob¬ 
ject is the perpetuation of the species and the service of higher 


1910] 


Evolution and Missions 


Jt 


orders. And seed and fruit-bearing is the fundamental law of 
the vegetable kingdom because it is the law by which that 
kingdom is preserved. A striking illustration of this law is 
found in the apple tree which pours forth its strength in fruit 
and seeds until it has not sap enough left to carry it through 
the winter. The farmer says expressively: “ It is winter 

killed.” What is this but a hint of Calvary in the vegetable 
kingdom? Sidney Lanier, with au equal insight into the heart 
of nature and the heart of Christ, sings with slight variations 
of Christ’s visit to the trees in the Garden of Gethsemane: 

“ Into the woods my Master went, 

Clean forspent, forspent; 

Into the woods my Master came, 

Forspent with grief and shame. 

But the olives were not blind to Him, 

The little gray leaves were kind to Him, 

The thorn-tree had the mind of Him, 

As into the woods He came. 

Out of the woods my Master went, 

And He was well content ; 

Out of the woods my Master came 
Content with grief and shame. 

Companions slept, and fled at last, 

The olive trees remained steadfast, 

Buds whispered that death could not last, 

As out of the woods He came. ” 

Passing from the vegetable to the animal kingdom we find 
a yet fuller embodiment of the law of love. Professor Koessler, 
Dean of the Faculty of St. Petersburg University, read a remark¬ 
able paper a few years ago in which he calls Darwin’s the greatest 
name in the modern world, but rejects completely the crass 
utilitarianism of the earlier evolutionists and declares that even 
Darwin construed nature too narrowly and maintains that we 
must recognize the social instincts among animals and their co¬ 
operation as an important factor in evolution. Prince Kropatkin 
in a recent volume “ Mutual Aid a Factor in Evolution ” 
shows that animals go in herds and flocks and schools, and 
furnishes many illustrations of co-operation in the animal king¬ 
dom. In France Espinas published in 1880 a valuable book on 


32 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


“Animal Societies' ’ in which he dwells upon the social atid altru¬ 
istic instincts of animals. The same year J. L. Lanessan advanced 
a distinct modification of the old view of evolution as a selfish 
struggle, in a paper entitled “The Struggle for Existence and 
Association for that Struggle .” In England Huber and Sir 
John Lubbock have shown that the marvellous development 6f 
the brain of ants and bees is due to their social co-operation. 
Better still, the facts which are plain to even laymen will lead to 
the triumph of the later views. The deepest law of the animal 
kingdom—the law by which alone the animal kingdom is 
perpetuated and propagated, is not the law of savagery but the 
law of motherhood, the law by which the mother brings forth her 
young at the cost of great pain to herself and by which both 
parents nourish and protect their young with their own sub¬ 
stance and sometimes with their lives. Hence in the animal 
kingdom are the marks of Him by whom all things were made 
and without Him was not anything made that hath been made. 

We may frame the latest discoveries of evolution in the two 
following laws: First, the evolutionary struggle is not only a 
struggle between individuals of the same species for which 
fecundity furnishes the material, but is also and chiefly a struggle 
between groups, between species, between orders. The Phyllox¬ 
era which proved so destructive to the French vineyards spread 
in colonies with more co-operation than struggle between the 
individuals composing the colony. Success in combating the 
Phylloxera was due to Pasteur’s discovery that the Lady Beetle 
devours this scale by myriads. Hence one species was introduc¬ 
ed into the vineyards to battle against another species. So fully 
is this new law recognized that it is followed in combating most 
diseases. The physician aims first to discover what parasite or 
microbe produces the disease and then what other species will 
destroy that microbe and then he pits species against species. 
First then, the evolutionary struggle is chiefly a struggle between 
species. 

Passing from the animal to the human kingdom, we find 
abundant illustration of the second law in the evolutionary 
struggle, viz., that in the battle between species, between 
orders, between nations, the triumph or the survival of the species 
is in exact proportion to the willingness of the individuals-which 
compose the species to -sacrifice themselves- for the-good of the 


1910] 


Evolution and Missions 


33 


whole. Patriotism, which Mr. Spencer originally condemned, 
is found to be the very basis of national existence. It was 
surprising that the Japanese, who had accepted Mr. Spencer’s 
utilitarian philosophy more fully than any other nation, the 
moment they came to a life and death struggle with Russia 
abandoned the utilitarian philosophy and accepted, so far as it 
related to the nation, the Christian law of love as measured by 
sacrifice. The triumph of the family, the nation, and the race is 
in exact proportion to the sacrifice of the individuals who 
compose it for the good of the whole. Here is another finger 
print upon creation by Him by whom all things were made. 

Henry Drummond published in 1904 the Lowell 
Lectures on “The Ascent of Man" a book the philosophical 
significance of which has not yet been fully realized by 
scientists. But the most notable contribution to the modified 
view is Benjamin Kidd’s “Social Evolution .” Mr. Kidd 
like Mr. Huxley apparently is puzzled by the phenomena 
which confront him in the conflicting tendencies to selfishness 
and to service which he finds in man. He proclaims that the 
altruistic motive which prompts to service and sacrifice is 
ultra-rational, i.e. beyond reason. And yet he shows by indis¬ 
putable scientific evidence that the progress of civilization 
depends upon man’s obedience to this altruistic instinct. It is 
a striking recognition of Mr. Kidd’s ability that the editors of 
the Britannica have chosen him as the apparent successor of 
Mr. Huxley and that he furnishes two leading articles on evolu¬ 
tion in the Supplement to the last edition. 

Turning from these articles to a study of human history 
shows that even before Christ came in the flesh and authorita¬ 
tively announced the law of love, the noblest spirits on earth 
already had recognized it. In the Horatii dying at the bridge 
for Rome, in the friendship of Damon and Pythias, in Arnold 
von Winkelried gathering the spears of his country’s enemies 
into his own bosom and dying for his native land, in the thous¬ 
ands and tens of thousands of brave men—Englishmen, Ameri¬ 
cans and Japanese, men of all lands and all climes and all 
tongues, who counted their lives not dear unto themselves 
that they might save their country; we recognize this highest 
quality of humanity. This imperious summons to offer one’s 
life in defence of one’s home or state or church is not “an irri- 


34 The Chinese Recorder [January 

descent dreamit transcends but it does not contradict the 
impulse of self-regard. 

Great Britain lost the American colonies because she had 
not then learned that the law of love applies in politics and 
especially to distant colonies. She is holding Canada and 
Australia because she is treating them as a mother treats a 
daughter. Despite all criticisms of British rule in India, some 
of which are just, this great fact stands out: The population 
of India when England began her rule was substantially 
100,000,000; today that population is substantially 300,000,000. 
Again the same fact appears in another form : some two-thirds 
of the territory of the empire is wholly under British rule and 
the population averages 279 to the square mile; one-third is 
under native rule with little interference from Great Britain, 
and here, with land almost as rich, the population averages no 
per square mile. The people of India and the civilized world 
will under Divine Providence retain British rule in India or, 
if they once throw it off, speedily return to it, if Great Britain 
thus continues to serve this Indian Empire. Love shown by 
service is the gravitation which holds empires and colonies 
together in the world. So the United States has rendered the 
Filipinos still greater service than Britain has rendered the 
Indians. Japan has surpassed both the United States and 
Great Britain and Germany in applied science at the Univer¬ 
sity of Tokyo. What other university in the world has twenty 
professors in engineering alone? What other country has 
equalled Japan in reducing the number of soldiers dying from 
disease in a campaign as compared with those lost in battles? 
If, as Japan has surpassed the other nations in some of the fruits 
of our higher civilization, she also surpasses both Great Britain 
and the United States in her treatment of the Koreans as a 
colony, the Divine Providence, the partial acquiescence of the 
Koreans, the judgment and conscience and money of the civi¬ 
lized world will enable her to hold Korea, despite any efforts 
of Russia to dislodge her. But if Japan exploits and oppresses 
the Koreans until she drives them to rebellion and 
turns judgment and the conscience and wealth of Christen¬ 
dom against her and loses the divine favor, her ten 
million unhappy Korean subjects will be only a source of 
weakness ; aud it will be easy some time during the next 


19 to] 


Evolution and Missions 


35 


quarter of a century for Russia to help the Koreans to push her 
back across the channel. The Golden Rule is not only good 
politics, it is the only practical politics. 

So essential is our love of neighbors and our service of 
humanity to the progress of the race that the Creator has 
interwoven this altruistic sentiment into the very texture of 
society. The family is a divine organism by which God calls 
us out of the selfishness of pure individualism into the mutual 
companionships and services of the home. So society is the 
divine method by which God calls us out of the narrower life 
of the family into the larger life of the neighborhood. And the 
State is a divine institution by which God calls us out of the 
narrower sympathies of the clan into patriotic devotion to the 
commonwealth. “The powers that be are ordained of God/’ 
The Church is the last and highest aud divinest institution on 
earth in which God teaches us that He hath made of one 
blood all the peoples of the earth aud in which through our 
service to humanity all the nations of the earth shall be blest. 
Upon this Rock, i.e., the rock of Jesus’ Messiaship, of His sacrifice 
of Himself for the salvation of the world, God has founded His 
Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. The 
entire history of our globe from the first appearance of seed- 
bearing in the vegetable Kingdom to the death of Christ upon 
the cross bears the imprint of Him by whom all things were 
made and without whom not anything was made that hath 
been made. It is very striking and it shows one cause operat¬ 
ing throughout nature that the same law of love which we find 
manifesting itself in the fruitfulness of the vegetable Kingdom, 
in motherhood and the social instincts in the animal kingdom, 
in the family and society and the State and Church in the 
human kingdom, reaches its culmination in Christ’s death upon 
the cross for the redemption of the race. 

But if the Christian Church rises above the State and is 
the supreme embodiment of the law of love which first begins 
to emerge in the vegetable kingdom, in like manner missions 
rise above local and denominational lines and become the 
highest manifestation of Christianity. Moreover looking for¬ 
ward to the conquest of the world under the everlasting law of 
struggle and survival of the fittest, the fittest in this case will 
be found to be not simply the strongest but that which is most 


3« 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


servicable to the race. Remember that one of the later laws of 
evolution is that the triumph of the species is measured by the 
sacrifice of the members who compose it. Only that religion 
which is most intensely missionary on the one side and which 
is most helpful to the race upon the other side has any prospect 
of final victory. Who can doubt that in the ongoings of his¬ 
tory Christianity with its pure and holy God, Christianity with 
its redemption from sin through Jesus Christ, Christianity with 
its law of love and its service to humanity, Christianity with its 
power of self-propagation through the Holy Spirit, Christianity 
with its hopes of eternal blessedness, is destined to triumph. ' 
We are not left to faith alone for this vision. Under the 
principle of evolution applied to human history for the last two 
thousand years Christ is slowly blit surely gaining the ascendency. 
There was a Christian population—not a Christian Church, but 
a Christian population of 50,000,000 at the end of the one 
thousand years of struggle; of 100,000,000 at the end of the 
next five hundred years of struggle ; of 200,000,000 at the end 
of the next three hundred years of struggle ; of 400,000,000 at 
the end of the next one hundred years of struggle. This 
is a growth in almost geometrical ratio. It took one thousand 
years to gain the first 50,000,000 of Christian population; 
it took one hundred years to gain the last 200,000,000 
of Christian population—an advance of forty fold. We re¬ 
cognize how exceedingly imperfect is our existing so-called 
Christian civilization. But if even this imperfect embodiment 
of Christianity tends to supplant all other faiths, what will not 
the more perfect embodiment of the Golden Rule accomplish ? 
And we may confidently look forward to this more perfect em¬ 
bodiment. At this point history is re-inforced by prophecy. 
What reason have we to suppose that an evolutionary process 
which has been operating possibly for a million years and which 
has resulted in higher and higher types of life is to stop with an 
imperfect type of humanity. Is the present ignorant, impotent, 
sinful human race so high and holy that creation has reached 
its culmination in us? The very unrest of man in his present 
sinful state and the very visions of holiness and helpfulness 
which visit us by day and haunt us in our dreams by night are 
prophecies of a higher type of life. Now turning to the New 
Testament we find this probability of a higher type of man 


i9io] 


The Work of the Evangelistic Association 


37 


which grows out of the entire history of life upon our globe 
confirmed by prophecy. “ Ye therefore shall be perfect as your 
Father in heaven is perfect.” A New Humanity in Christ is 
the clear teaching of the New Testament. And we already 
have in the presence of the Holy Spirit the power which will 
fill us with all the fullness of God. Science and the New 
Testament unite in prophesying a new and a higher type of 
man, and the New Testament reveals the Holy Spirit as the 
power already in the world through whom and by whom and 
with whom the New Humanity in Christ is to be constituted. 
Surely if the imperfect form of the New Humanity in Christ 
thus far developed is supplanting all ether religions on the globe 
what may we not expect when Christian men and women come 
to the fullness of Him who filleth all in all? Thus under the 
evolutionary struggle Missions, which are the highest existing 
embodiment of Christianity; Missions, which use the applied 
sciences to put each man and race to which they minister in 
harmony with present environment; Missions, which strive to 
put all men through faith into harmony with the environment 
which will exist when the earth shall disappear; Missions, which 
aim to bring each man into harmony with himself and all races 
into harmony with God, are bound to endure and triumph be¬ 
cause they lead humanity to that “ far off divine event to which 
the whole creation moves.” 


The Work of the Evangelistic Association 


BY REV. J. R. MILLER. 



HIS Association is a product of the Centenary Con¬ 


ference. In considering the great problem of the 


Evangelization of China it was felt that the time had 
come for a forward movement and that this should be on a 
systematic and comprehensive scale. 

The object of the Association is to stimulate the evange¬ 
listic spirit and facilitate this common desire. Other Associa¬ 
tions on the field have done excellent work. The Missionary 
Associations at the different centres have developed a com¬ 
radeship which makes united effort possible and successful. 
The Educational Association has raised the standard of 



38 The Chinese Recorder [January 

educational work. It has introduced the spirit of thorough¬ 
ness, and given its best to a progressive system. 

The Medical Association is full of possibility and is 
destined to scatter its beneficence over the whole land. It has 
a great work to do, and it will do it. These departments of the 
work are alive to the vast opportunities and are eager to meet 
them. I am sorry, however, that the Evangelistic Association, 
which is the most important, should be so late in coming on to 
the field. Now that it has come, I trust it will be a spirit of 
power, working in and through every branch of missionary 
enterprise. It has not come as a rival to institutional work, 
but rather as the breath of life which by virtue of its living 
energy, will help it. 

The great objective of all missionary work is soul-winning. 
The Christian educator is not satisfied with intellectual conquest 
only. He desires to see the mind under the control of grace, 
beautified and strengthened by things divine, and yet his time 
and energy are so spent in the duties of his profession, that he 
must be content with a fragmentary exercise in direct evange¬ 
listic work. The medical missionary stands before the public 
as the embodiment of goodness. Under the shadow of the 
Great Physician he practices the healing art. As the evil 
disease retreats before his skill and patience, deep down in his 
heart of hearts he hopes that the patient will find rest to his 
soul. But he too is so pressed by the multitude, that he has 
little or no time to give to direct evangelistic work. The 
special work of the evangelist is the cure of souls. It is a great 
responsibility as well as privilege. The Association wishes to 
emphasize this work, to bring it to a position commensurate 
with the need, and it desires to do so not at the expense of 
institutional work. The soul-need of the Empire, however, is 
so vast, so deep, so urgent, that some gigantic effort must be 
made in order that this primary purpose of the gospel may 
have its rightful place. 

In the sphere of economics we see what division of labour 
has done for the industrial world. It has greatly increased the 
output and widened in a phenomenal manner the field of 
exchange. Since commerce called in the aid of science, re¬ 
markable discoveries and great advances in material progress 
have been made. If we turn our eyes to the New Testament 


1910] 


The Work of the Evangelistic Association 


39 


we find the Apostle to the Gentiles exhorting Timothy to do 
the work of an evangelist, to be instant during all seasons. 
According to the report of the Evangelistic Committee, less 
than one half of the whole missionary staff is now engaged in 
direct evangelistic work, and the proportion is as large as it is, 
only because of the fact that out of six hundred and seventy- 
eight members of the China Inland Mission, five hundred and 
sixty are in direct evangelistic work. With all the manifest and 
substantial need, it is evident that a mighty effort is required. 

In this land there are still over one thousand walled cities 
unoccupied. There are also thousands of towns, and thousands 
and thousands of villages, where the light of the Gospel has not 
entered* The great mass of the people is yet untouched. The 
committee has estimated that to meet this need, three thousand 
two hundred more men, and sixteen hundred women, specially 
qualified as leaders and organizers, should be forthcoming 
within the next ten years, and that 150,000 Chinese Evangelists 
should co-operate with them. It is absolutely necessary that 
this expected re-inforcement should be specially endowed with 
gifts suitable for this work. Like Gideon’s three hundred, they 
should be efficients of the highest type. 

The Association in its desire to stimulate evangelistic 
effort would advocate efficiency on the part of those who 
undertake it. In doing this it does not underestimate the 
value of the work done in the past; rather it records its thank¬ 
fulness to God for the many noble men and women who have 
served the cause faithfully and also for those who are at 
present devoting their talents, strength and love to this work. 
As the national system of education extends and is perfected, 
the thought of the people will grow, and their powers of 
conception will be enlarged. They will begin to learn, 
admire and reverence in an increasing measure the story of 
their own evolution and laud the secret of their continuity. 
The polemical spirit will be strengthened and they will stand 
entrenched behind intellectual and moral problems. This we 
do not fear, but we must be prepared to deal witli it. 

The Evangelist cannot afford to be slipshod in the 
language. He should be an expert. The missionary who 
thinks he can dispense with a teacher and find out for himself 
the treasures of the language, is under a delusion, and the 


40 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


missionary, who imagines that after he has passed the pre¬ 
scribed sections of study is once and for all equipped for his life 
work, is deceiving himself. The most serious handicaps in life 
are generally self-imposed, and the missionary who is unfaithful 
in the duty of language-study is crippling his whole career. 
Character is always superior to ability, yet the latter is not to 
be despised, more especially the genius for hard work. Our 
Chinese colleagues are not slow in estimating the business 
element of our position. They know the approximate expense 
of a missionary and his family on the field. They know the 
amount of work done by him, its quality and its results. A- 
longside of this, they place their own record, and too often they 
find that the man with the small pay is the one who carries the 
heavy end of the log. If through slackness we are inefficient, 
we lose the respect of our Chinese brethren and eat up un¬ 
worthily the funds of the mission Boards. Every conscientious 
missionary will do his utmost to maintain an acceptable position 
in both the written and spoken language of the people. 

But the evangelist should not only excel in the language, 
he should be well versed in Comparative Religion, and certainly 
in those religions which are indigenous. This is imperative, 
not so much to meet the educated as to enlighten the masses 
that are woefully ignorant of the prevailing systems. Outside 
of the literati there are crowds that bow down blindly to idols, 
and many who claim to be followers of the Confucian cult are 
not able either to read or write. 

In dealing with the intellectuelles it is also necessary to 
understand Chinese philosophy and to be familiar with the text 
of the classics. It is not wise, however, to approve of teachings 
which are contrary to any of the cardinal doctrines of Chris¬ 
tianity. The nature of man is considered by Mencius to be 
good, and this has for generations been the accepted belief. 
But the middle school as represented by Han Wen Kong is 
perhaps nearer the truth when it says that “the heart of man is a 
piece of ground with neither good nor bad seed, and largely 
dependent upon its environment.” Then the theory of Hsiiin 
Tsi that the nature of man is evil and only evil, will staud 
alongside the picture we have in the third chapter of Romans. 

The teaching of Meh Tsi on universal love comes very near 
Christian altruism. Amongst the progressive leaders of thought 


1910 ] The Work of the Evangelistic Association 41 

‘ Poh ai ’ is no longer scorned as an utopian dream, but is re¬ 
cognized as the goal towards which every exponent of virtue 
should press, so that the morning might soon break when “ Adi 
men’s good shall be each man’s rule.” Again, the evangelist 
should be brave enough to deal with the problem of sin. The 
struggle to overcome it is common to the human race. AlaSj 
however, human defences have long since been broken down 
and the waters of evil have overwhelmed and cursed 
humanity. The thoughtful and observant student of history 
finds that intellectualism alone is no proof against tempta¬ 
tion. The civilization of material improvement is one thing, 
that of moral and spiritual improvement is another. In Japan 
I was greatly struck by the conclusion at which many of the 
Chinese students had arrived. They were quick to recognize 
the advancement of Japan and yet they said that Japan had 
failed to deal satisfactorily with the social evil. One, in the 
spirit of despair, said to me, “ what is to become of my 
country? Tomorrow we may step into line with the march of 
nations, but the social question will remain unsolved.” Here is a 
great opportunity for showing wherein Christianity differentiates 
from other religions, for all who are partakers of the Christ-life 
are free from sin, in other words, “ sin has no more dominion 
over them.” The remedy for sin, as found in the Gospel, is the 
great apologetic for China. Confucius, after his tour through¬ 
out the different states, said ; “my teaching will not go.” In 
another place he said: “I find no one who loves virtue as he 
loves pleasure.” Referring to his own life he said: “If 
providence would add to my years I might possibly get rid of 
my big faults-” It is true that during his administration in the 
state of Loo, the people were happy and prosperous. “A thing 
dropped on the road was not picked up ; there was no fraudulent 
carving of vessels ; coffins were made of the ordained thickness 5 
o-raves were unmarked by mounds raised over them, and no two 
prices were charged in the markets.” This condition of things 
however quickly changed. The duke of his native state began 
to find a forced ethical life somewhat irksome. Beautiful 
girls, well-skilled in music and dancing, and fine horses, were 
sent from the neighbouring states to him, and these attractions 
completely captured him. The songs from those pretty lips 
were more fascinating than the stories of a pedantic old man. 


42 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


His hopes were blasted and he stood helpless before the onward 
march of evil. Shall we not say that the failure of Con¬ 
fucianism is due to the fact that he based his hope on man and 
not on God? The system is destitute of spiritual dynamic. 

The evangelist should also be a humanist. He should 
know men and be in sympathy with them. Here I must 
refer once more to the need of studying Chinese history and 
literature. Contact with the people, of course, will reveal much 
to us, but if we fail to get behind the traditions of Chinese 
thought, our knowledge of them will be largely superficial. 
We must concede to them liberty of thought and action and 
never intrude our ideas. I remember a young missionary, who 
was more zealous than wise, doing a very absurd thing. He 
was walking in one of the residential streets of the city, and as 
he passed a door he noticed a number of Buddhist priests 
Engaged in a funeral service. They were kneeling before the 
family altar which was heavily laden with incense and sacrifices. 
Without a moment’s hesitation be walked into the house, and 
put his hand upon the bald pates of the priests, one after the 
other, repeating in rather a gruff voice, “puli hao tih fah-tsi, puh 
hao tih fah-tsi.” The great secret of D.L. Moody’s success was 
liis largeness of heart. Professor Drummond said “he was the 
biggest human he had met.” This work above all needs men 
who are peculiarly separated unto God, who will give them¬ 
selves unreservedly to it and who have a deep controlling 
passion for souls. Scholarship, gifts, however brilliant, will 
not realize the objective, unless there be the enduement of 
power. It may appear to you as if I had said too much on this 
familiar subject, but I have felt that to magnify the office is 
the best way to emphasize the need for the Association. 

Now let me sav something about the duties of the Associa- 
tion. From the beginning it should be understood that it will 
only attend to the essentials. It will give evangelism the first, 
second and third place. It will not interfere with the duties 
which properly belong to missionary boards. It will not seek 
to enlarge its domain or enrich itself at the expense of other 
branches of the work, but it will strenuously try to prevent 
evangelism being relegated to a secondary position. It will sound 
afresh the marching orders of the Church, “Go ye into all the 
world and preach the gospel to every creature.” It will hold 


1910] the Work of the Evangelistic Association 43 

to the Apostolic determination “ to know none among men but 
Christ and Him crucified.” The glories of the Cross of Christ 
will be its crown. Some years ago I had the privilege of 
attending the assembly meetings of the Free Church of Scot¬ 
land. Dr. Joseph Parker of Loudon had been invited by the 
Committee of Religion and Morals to address the ministers and 
elders of that historic gathering. After a most informing and 
inspiring deliverance he concluded his appeal by a beautiful 
passage, “ Bind your genius round the cross and God will send 
showers of blessing upon your ministry, exalt it above the 
Cross and God will send a withering wind that will blast it 
for ever.’’ 

The Association will seek to select and prepare suitable 
literature for this work. We are already much indebted to 
the tract societies for the good work they have done, but we 
feel that in this department there are still great possibilities 
It will also seek to promote special evangelistic services. With¬ 
in the last few years good results have followed certain efforts 
of this kind. It is evident the need exists and in a sense is 
urgent. There are at most of the older mission centers large 
numbers who have an intellectual concept of the Christian faith. 
From their manner of life, however, it is plain that they 
have little experimental knowledge of Christ as Saviour. 
A series of evangelistic meetings, conducted by men sent by 
God, would be sure to obtain excellent results. These 
special efforts would gather in the fruit of many years of 
patient toil. Of course separate missions may set apart men 
for this work and local effort may be crowned with good 
success, but this should not in any way hinder a large and 
united campaign. In addition to this, conventions for the 
deepening of spiritual life could be held. Why should not 
China have its Keswick and its Northfield ? ' The Chinese 
helpers would appreciate such provision. The Bible Institute 
department might also come under the patronage of the As¬ 
sociation. It embraces, I suppose, both the evangelistic and 
pastoral elements. 

The scope of the Association includes all those points, and 
others which I have only time to mention, for example, the 
problems of evangelizing the different grades of society, the 
nou-christian schools, the army and navy, the country with its 


44 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


innumerable villages, the vast number of boatmen at the 
central marts of the Empire, these and others will come under 
the particular attention of the Association. 

One need hardly mention the substantial benefits which 
will accrue from the work of the Association. It will prove the 
means of leading many precious souls to decision for Christ. It 
will deepen and strengthen the spiritual life of Church 
members. It will brighten and inspire the outlook and 
ambition of God’s servants. It will cement the bonds of 
interdenominational friendship. It will certainly hasten the 
establishment of the Kingdom. 

In conclusion. It may be argued that the existing societies 
are sufficient for these things. True, but the Association 
is not an organisation outside of the Church. It is meant to be 
a body of specialists, who will give themselves wholly to the 
cure of souls. The members of the Association will represent 
all the societies and I feel sure the direct and indirect advan¬ 
tages to be gained will more than compensate the societies for 
any time given by their workers to the advancement of Associa¬ 
tion principles. 

I sympathize with those who have a fear of being burden¬ 
ed with complex machinery. The Association will be simple 
in its aim and operation. It will try to obtain the max¬ 
imum of work with the minimum of organisation. For my 
part I welcome it without reservation. To me it is an intima¬ 
tion of brighter days and richer harvests. If by its establish¬ 
ment the Cross of Christ may make greater conquests, then we 
will bless the day when the leaders of this movement were led 
to venture. We are told that when William Penn first settled 
in the forests of Pennsylvania he said to himself “ this is a 
holy experiment.” Since then the progress of the American 
people and the leading position they hold among the nations of 
the earth have more than justified that experiment. As by 
faith we unfold the possibilities of the future may we not see 
iu the experiment of the Association a like success. 

Take up then, my friends, the object of the Association, and 
make it your ideal. Let us seek in the most rapid, most 
intelligent and most powerful way to send forth Gospel light 
and truth. Let us determine that the heralds of salvation 
shall carry the glad tidings to the regions beyond. Let us 


t9lO] The Future of the Mission School in China 45 

press in upon the citadels of evil until they surrender before 
the forces of light and liberty, and let us never rest until we 
ring in the Christ who is to be, until He occupies His rightful 
place in the heart of this nation. 


The Future of the Mission School in China 

BY REV. A. J. BOWEN. 

T O attempt to forecast the future of mission schools in 
China at this time of tremendous changes and unfore¬ 
seen developments in education, requires considerable 
courage and a great deal of presumption. So that any con¬ 
clusions arrived at must of necessity be somewhat of the nature 
of broad generalizations. However, the subject is one of very 
great importance to the Church at large, and of more than 
passing interest to those closely associated with educational 
problems. 

If the topic under discussion were “The Need of Mission 
Schools,” meaning by Mission Schools, Christian Schools, we 
could with positive assurance affirm that there will always be 
a need for the Christian school, and a permanent need gives 
a permanent future. No religion has flourished very long, 
or has been of wide influence or power, without its schools. 
We speak of the Confucian school in China and it is the 
only place where the Confucian religion is taught; the 
schools of Assyria, Babylonia, and Egypt were ecclesiastical 
and they kept the altar-fires of their religious burniug. 
The Jewish religion flourished in the Rabbinical schools. 
The early Christians had their system of education, and in 
Jerusalem, in Antioch, in Corinth, Ephesus and Alexandria 
great schools flourished, and these schools were the very 
fountain heads of the Church. During the dark ages it 
was the monastic school that kept alive the flickering flame 
of learning. Someone has said that, after the Reforma¬ 
tion, Protestantism became the mother of popular education. 
Germany obtained her common schools from Martin Luther, 
Scotland her love of learning from John Knox. When William 
of Orange triumphed over Spain, he asked the Netherlands 
which they preferred, relief from taxation, or the founding of a 



46 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


University. They chose the school, and it was in that school 
that Arminius taught. The earliest colleges of America were 
founded and maintained by the Christian church. Harvard, 
Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Brown, Dartmouth, and scores, even 
hundreds of others, could be named. At the present time we 
are told that nearly two-thirds of the colleges and universities 
of America are under denominational control. The only college 
founded there before the 18th century that was not the creation 
of the Church or of individual ministers, was the University 
of Pennsylvania, but even in this school the Bible was named 
as a text book, the founder, Benjamin Franklin, saying: 

“ When human science has done its utmost.yet still we 

must recommend the students to the Scriptures of God, in order 
to complete their wisdom, to regulate their conduct through 
life, and to guide them to happiness forever.” The very idea of 
education for the common people—for everybody—is a Christian 
idea, and distinctly so. In Japan and China, until the Christ¬ 
ian Missions came, education was for the few favoured classes. 
So, by our very calling, we witness to the conviction that 
Christianity is essential to the best and highest development of 
the Chinese nation, we are sure that the Christian School is a 
fundamentally necessary part of Christianity in China, and as 
long as it lasts the Christian School will have a future. As the 
founder of Princeton said: “Without education, piety would 
cease to become intelligent, and without piety, the desire for 
education would be lessened.” 

But our inquiry concerns itself more with the future, not 
the need or importance of the Mission School. The framers of 
the question desired, no doubt, to have the discussion limited 
to the Mission School, and not to the Christian School in China. 
Some day we shall see the Mission School, supported as it now 
is largely by foreign funds, controlled and managed by Mission¬ 
aries, foreign in its ideas and ideals and in every other way, 
gradually merge into the Christian School, with all that is good 
and true and essential and permanent of the Mission School 
thoroughly absorbed and assimilated : when its support aud 
management shall be Chinese, when it shall be a vital part of 
the Christian Church of China, and when its Western teachers 
shall be called and not sent. Like the prophets of old, we shall 
die in this faith, not having seen the fulfilment of the promises, 



1910] 


The Future of the Mission School in China 


47 


but having seen them and greeted them from afar, confessing 
that we are but strangers and pilgrims in this land. 

Let ns look for a moment at the development of Church 
institutions and of State institutions in America, for a sugges¬ 
tive thought that may indicate something of what the mission 
school in China may expect, as it comes more and more into a 
real competition with the Government school. One of the 
remarkable things in American education in recent years has 
been the rapid development of State-supported schools. There 
are now 39 State Universities, which have since their organi¬ 
zation received government aid to the extent of $80,000,000. 
The Laud Grant Colleges number 26. The High Schools have 
enormously increased, both in numbers and efficiency, and are 
closely articulated with the State Universities. The reasons 
for this increase in government education do not here concern 
us. During this period of the development of government insti¬ 
tutions, very few new Church schools have been started, but many 
have been closed or forced into a precarious existence. Many 
have very few students, inadequate equipment and support, and 
from an educational point of view might well be closed. At the 
same time a much less number have been stimulated into a vigor¬ 
ous growth, and profited in almost every way by the emulation 
afforded by the well-equipped and efficient State institution. 
Another good effect has been the union or affiliation of several 
schools, usually of the same denomination, in contiguous 
territory. This movement towards union has not, probably, 
gone so far as it will yet go. I think we shall be within the 
truth when we say that the number of Church schools started 
was too large, altogether out of proportion to the actual dem¬ 
ands, though the demand then was much greater than has 
existed since the development of the State Universities and 
High Schools. Now that the demand for more schools has 
been largely met by the State, the Church is more concerned 
in developing existing schools than in organizing new ones. 
And it should be borne in mind that these denominational or 
Church schools that flourish do not exist to glorify any part¬ 
icular Church, or to further the peculiar ideas of that Church, 
but rather to serve all men in all that is highest and best, and 
to glorify God in the earth. There now exist in every state 
or group of adjoining states at least from four to six good 


48 The Chinese Recorder [January 

Church schools, strong educationally, with from 500 to 2000 or 
more students, and which have many excellent reasons for 
their usefulness and desirability. 

If we apply these facts to the situation in China, and 
assume that education will in the near future be in a 
reasonable measure effectively compulsory, as it is at home 
and in Japan, what do we find ? Take the area and popur 
lation of seven representative states and of seven provinces. 
California, Colorado, Iowa, Ohio, Virginia, New York and 
Texas have a combined area of about 716,000 square miles, 
and a population of 20,000.000. Fukien, Kiangsu, Shansi, 
Chihli,.Shantung, Szechuen, and Kuaugtung have an area of 
557,000 square miles and a, population of 218,000,000. The 
seven states with a population of 20.^000,000 have at least 
twenty worthy church or denominational schools ; the seven 
provinces, with a population of over 200,000,000 have barely 
twenty good mission schools of higher grade. That is, 20 Church 
schools at home supply the demand of 20,000,000 people, 
while here, 20 mission schools are trying to serve 200,000,000 
people. The need in both cases is for Christian education.. The 
twenty million in America with all their heritage of Christian 
homes and surroundings need Christian education: the 200 
million in China with none of that heritage, need it infinitely 
more. So if we may leave out of consideration a good many 
other factors, may we not conclude from the apparent facts re¬ 
garding the Government and Church schools in America that 
the Mission schools must in the future be largely increased in 
numbers ? And are we justified in that comfortable feeling of 
satisfaction and sufficiency when all the churches of a district or 
of a province even unite in supporting one institution ? Are we 
to regard this as the highest good that the Church can do, educa¬ 
tionally—that this is the measure of our duty? We are all per¬ 
fectly aw r are that when the vast resources of the Church are so 
given that only a few Mission schools can be supported, the 
Church is shirking its duty. By all means let us have union 
and co-operation, let us have one good Christian school adequate¬ 
ly supported by all the Missions of one center, but let those same 
missions have well-equipped schools in the other large cities of 
that region. If any Church thinks that by union it may send 
out less men and spend less money, then the future of that' Mis- 


1910 ] The Future of the Mission School in China 49 

sion’s schools is not very promising. One university, supported 
by the Christian churches of England or America, is not particu¬ 
larly inspiring for the future of Christianity, either for China or 
for the home lands. And furthermore, the glory of the mission 
school is not to be sought in its developing into one or a few 
great universities. Its broadest, highest good is not to be fulfill¬ 
ed in the few high grade schools. Our mission school ideal is 
that it shall be a place not only for sound and broad learning, 
but also of practical religion, and that for the many, not for the 
few. We are to teach the rich and poor alike, to give a first 
class education at a reasonable cost, if the Chinese Christians are 
to obtain it. The late Dr. Harper said that there was a “ geo¬ 
graphical law of higher education.” It is that 90 per cent of 
those who attend college select an institution within 100 miles 
of home. A compiler of statistics has shown that the patronage 
of our most famous institutions is distinctly local; 85 per cent of 
Columbia’s students come from within fifty miles of New York; 
52 per cent of Harvard’s students come from within a radius 
of fifty miles. The same will be more true of China, with 
unfavourable means of communication. Therefore, the mission 
colleges of China, as a rule, should be small, numerous, widely 
distributed, with a few well-manned, well-equipped departments, 
accessible to those who are to be served, both in cost and loca¬ 
tion. In connection with a good number of these will be the 
university, and the professional and high grade technical school. 

If we look at education in Japan, we see, as it seems to me, 
two facts which bear upon our topic. The first is that, so far, 
the higher grade mission schools have not been seriously affected 
by the government schools, with their thorough system and 
great numbers. A writer in the “Christian Movement of Japan,” 
1908, says ; “ As one goes upward in the grade of schools one 
notices the growing importance of the private and miscellaneous 
schools, in point of numbers, at least”. As the mission school 
is classified among the miscellaneous schools, it appears that 
Japan, even, has room for more high-grade Mission schools. 
Bishop Harris, writing March 21st, says : “ The present status 

of mission schools in Japan is entirely satisfactory. They are 
perfectly free so far as religious teaching is concerned. Also the 
need of schools of higher grade is very great. The government 
cannot begin to take care of her students above the grammar 


50 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


grade. Our schools are crowded and very prosperous, and almost 
self-supporting. We cull the best from the many who seek ad¬ 
mission.” It seems, therefore, that the demand for the mission 
school is still as great as ever in Japan, possibly greater. The 
second fact in the educational situation there that seems signifi¬ 
cant to me, is that, apparently, the lower grade work is relegated 
to the government, as it is in America, and the missions devote 
themselves largely to college and high grade work. In the 
home lands that it is thus is not so important, for our public 
schools as a rule have good moral surroundings, and a large per¬ 
centage of the pupils have the advantage of Christian homes, 
Sunday Schools, and a Christian environment. In China the 
tendency for the Church to neglect the lower grade work will 
undoubtedly be in the same direction, in fact, I think, has already 
begun. If this be true, I think it is to be deplored, and if allowed 
will very greatly affect the future usefulness of the mission 
school in China. The Church should seriously study this pro¬ 
blem and deliberately plan to take permanently into its scope of 
operations excellent primary and secondary schools, as well as 
the college and university. If the Church confines herself large¬ 
ly to the high grade work, and practically leaves the other to the 
State, we shall lose one of our best opportunities for serving the 
greater number of the Chinese people. The Church should, if 
possible, see to it that her young members, during their most 
impressionable age, are educated under Christian influences, and 
we believe that large numbers of the Chinese who are not Chris¬ 
tians would desire that their sons be in the clean, moral surround¬ 
ings of the mission school. Here is a field that the Church can 
ill afford to neglect, and one that will yield large returns in real 
good for China. This is a day of much talk about big universi¬ 
ties, but I presume to say that the best object of the mission 
school will be gained by at least the same or even greater atten¬ 
tion being given to the establishing and developing of good 
lower grade schools. If the Church yields to the inherent ten¬ 
dency of our system to develop the high and allow the lower 
education to go to the State, its future in China will not be what 
it should be. Those who go to the college and the university 
even in the home land are relatively few as compared with those 
who go to the grammar and high school. In this land of pover¬ 
ty it will be even more so. While it is undoubtedly true that 


1910 ] The Future of the Mission School in China 51 

the college and the university exercise an influence altogether 
out of proportion to the numbers who attend, still I am not at 
all sure but that the lower grade schools will count more for 
Christianity in China, if properly and sufficiently developed. 

The Church must have first-class colleges and universities. 
They will dignify the Church, will furnish many of the great 
leaders, and will fulfil a very important part of Christian edu¬ 
cation. But it will be only a part, not the whole, and not, 
perhaps, the most important part, and I am inclined to think, 
if one must be especially emphasized, it should be the lower 
grade work, for we must remember that the mission school is 
doing foundation work. 

The future of the mission school will also depend largely 
on its ability to develop in accord with Chinese ideals and the 
oriental traits of character. To thus develop is not a favor for 
the mission school to grant, but is an inalienable right of the 
Chinese Church to demand. One of the most serious tasks of 
the Westerner is to understand and to appreciate the genius and 
spirit of China. A more difficult task is to so conduct himself 
and his work as to further all that is good in them and their 
system, and not to superimpose his own ideas and ideals, and 
ways, in such a manner that the finished product, the Christian, 
the educated man, is a new kind of creatnre, not well adapted to 
the environment in which he must by force of circumstances 
live and work. We come to this land with the few ideas we 
have, the result of our Western environment and training and 
philosophies and religion. They are very good for us. Our 
ways of getting them are very good. We are apt to think there¬ 
fore that they are very good for the Chinese, and we proceed to 
inject them in larger or smaller doses. Because our confiding 
friends trust us and submit to it, we are encouraged and increase 
the dose. So the Western University with its Western courses 
and books is next in order. Perhaps this is what should happen, 
perhaps it is inevitable that it should be otherwise, but we should 
be building a structure that will harmonize with what the 
Chhiese, Christian Chinese, will ultimately have. We hope that 
what we are doing will fit in with and shape and help the future 
Christian school and church. We need not fear that the Chinese 
will fail to assimilate, in their own way, and change all we have 
to give. History abundantly attests their ability in this line. 


52 The Chinese Recorder [January 

What should engage our serious thought is that they assimilate 
the permanent and essential, and that they change what we 
give into such as will result in the highest good, such a change 
as will be a step upward, and not only for China, but also 
in a reflex way for us and all mankind. 

A mission school must be judged by what it does, not by its 
buildings, or numbers, or even its ideals. When we think of the 
Mission school from this point of view, comparing what we are 
doing with what the government school is doing, we are inclined 
to think that the future is very bright. The mission school un¬ 
doubtedly now gives the best instruction and a more well-rounded 
general education. The mission educator has more of the idea 
of the generic meaning of the word education, “bringing out” 
the latent powers of his pupil rather than the process of pouring 
something into an empty head, which seems to so often be the 
chief aim of the Chinese teacher. So on the whole the mission 
trained man is a better educated man than his fellow student 
from the government school. As long as the mission school 
can do this, can turn out better trained men, men of sterling 
worth and of well disciplined minds, its future is bright. But 
are we not inclined to be a little too complacent in our compar¬ 
ison, and are we wise in comparing that which is the outcome 
of many years of experience and testing with the totally new 
problem and work the Chinese people have so heroically un¬ 
dertaken? I hardly think we adequately appreciate what the 
Chinese government has done and is attempting to do. To have 
given up so gracefully the old with all its history and precious 
associations ; to have created a desire and enthusiasm for the 
new education; to have launched out on the hitherto unthought 
of task of giving an education to all classes—these are things 
that should arouse our highest admiration. 

And yet we may well question whether the Government 
has not given up too thoroughly their own peculiar education, 
has not gone too far in too short a time. There is a deplorable 
tendency on the part of the New China, to neglect Chinese 
learning and Chinese philosophy and so many of the excellent 
things of the old, and it will take years to develop a learning 
that for them has the educative and cultural value of the old 
Confucian school. We are beginning to see a generation 
springing up without manners and with smatterings of know- 


19 i0] The Future of the Mission School in China 53 

ledge. The old Confucian scholar was a gentleman, in many 
of those finer qualities that we all admire. Let the mission 
school be very thoughtful in seeking to supply those studies 
that tend to produce genuine culture, and in leading back, if 
need be, the Chinese to their own rich and varied learning. 
Government education is in the experimental stage, and there 
are many defects and shortcomings, and we should not get the 
satisfaction I fear we often do obtain in comparing our schools 
with those just starting. Let us rather compare our work with 
the home standard. The mission school in China, up to the 
present, owes more of its efficiency and superiority to its inherent 
nature than perhaps we realize, so that in spite of poor teaching, 
unwise management, changing policies, and many other defects 
that have appeared to more or less extent in all mission schools, 
they have been relatively successful as compared with other 
schools in China. With the more modern civilization rapidly 
spreading, our leadership will depend to a less extent on the 
simply natural and inherent superiority of our Christian educa¬ 
tion, and depend more and more on good teaching, wise, far- 
seeing policies, and combination of resources. The mission 
school’s future depends upon the better work it can do, better 
work educationally. In point of material equipment we cannot 
hope to compare long with the Government institutions. China 
has millions of dollars she will gladly spend for education—for 
good plants, for the best apparatus, for the best available teach¬ 
ers : we must excel in the finished product rather than iti the 
material equipment of our institutions. 

But the true mission school is to find its greatest future in 
the most serious lack of the government schools of China, and in 
this it is not fundamentally different from the denominational 
or Church school of the home land as compared with government 
institutions. The government school is weakest on its moral 
and religious side. This is true in China and also in America. 
Some of our great State University presidents are realizing that 
we cannot have a complete and effective education without moral 
training. President Eliot has said “Nobody knows how to 
teach morality effectively without religion The whole system 
of State education is secular and therefore fails to furnish 
adequate moral leadership for the nation. “ With religion as an 
experiment the State lias nothing to do.” President Nicholas 


54 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


Murray Butler, of Columbia, says that there has come a divorce 
between education and religion to education’s distinct loss. 
The highest development of manhood or womanhood cannot be 
obtained without the religious element. In Nanking, out of 
ninety government and private Chinese school courses of study 
I have examined, every one without exception, regardless of 
grade or kind of school, has for its first item on the program 
“ Practical Ethics.” That is, the authorities realize the 
importance of morality, religion if you please, as a part of educa¬ 
tion. This is to us of great promise. A writer in the “Christian 
Movement of Japan,” 1908, says: “Keen observers of educational 
problems (in Japan) lament the lack of moral stamina in so 
many of those who stand as instructors of the young.” Mr. 
Soyeda said that the great aim of education in England was to 
produce men of character, but he could not discern that any 
such object was pursued by educators in Japan. However it 
may be in Christian lauds, and there it seems that the State 
cannot effectively teach religion, we know that the govern¬ 
ment of China cannot teach Christianity or any other religion 
that has a controlling power over conduct and life. 

The mission schools are therefore not simply duplicating 
facilities that the state has already provided, for the government 
has not and cannot assume the entire burden of complete 
education, the education not only of the mind but of the heart. 
We are to do a distinct work, and if we fail in it we fail in the 
chief thing for which we exist. If the mission school stands 
for anything, it stands for producing men of character, men with 
the highest ideals of duty and service and life—the ideals of Jesus 
Christ—and with its Christian teachers, Chinese and foreign, its 
Christian students more and more as the Church grows, and its 
high moral tone and environment, we do not fear competition 
in this matter from the Government schools, we rather weep 
for their very serious disability at this vital point. 

Again, the best future of the mission school will be 
advanced when our Christian Chinese educators are given more 
responsibility and authority in the management of our schools: 
when their advice and suggestions are more sought and heeded; 
when they can be placed first and we can take a secondary place. 
It is one of the weaknesses of not only the school but of the 
church in general, that, up to the present, so little real authority 


1910] 


The Future of the Mission School in China 


55 


and responsibility has been given to those in whose behalf we 
labour. Hitherto this has largely been unavoidable, but that 
unfortunate condition is rapidly passing away, and a willing and 
glad surrender of many of our privileges and prerogatives that 
may justly be claimed as our rights, will produce ultimately 
only good. I think that during the past few years it has become 
a demonstrated fact that where responsibility has been placed 
upon our Christian fellow-workers, they have as a rule 
measured up to it, even exceeding our expectations, and 
often do better than we could possibly have done. From such a 
wise surrender of rights, a more effective leadership will 
result, and a better and more speedy government recognition 
will result. I am in most hearty accord with the opinions 
expressed so forcibly by Drs. Stuart, Anderson and Pott 
at the recent Educational Association meeting, regarding 
Government recognition of mission schools, vis., that we should 
not press the Government for it ; that we are here simply to 
serve, not to seek or ask favours; that we have remarkably 
liberal treatment by the educational authorities; and that the 
appreciation of our work and of the men we turn out, and the 
good we are doing, is the real recognition we wish. My point 
here is that in the future the mission school will get more and 
better of this kind of recognition and more quickly receive 
official recognition, if the Chinese are pushed forward into places 
of responsibility and trust just as rapidly as, and possibly a little 
more rapidly than, many think wise. 

Again, the distressing social and industrial conditions of 
China place a peculiar responsibility on the mission school, and 
a responsibility which it has very largely up to the present shirk¬ 
ed. The very large numbers who toil and suffer for the barest 
necessities of life, under conditions and with appliances at least 
hundreds of years behind the times, yielding results entirely 
inadequate to either the needs, or the time and effort expended, 
compel ns to enquire if the future mission school has not to take 
up seriously a new line of work, the industrial and technical. 
The mission schools hitherto have given an education calculat¬ 
ed to equip men for those occupations where mental discipline 
and training are required. No special training has been under¬ 
taken in the trades and arts and manufactures. We have all 
been distressed not a little by the student who beyond question 


56 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


should have been learning a useful trade, rather than wasting 
his time and ours in studies which, when pursued for. years, 
would still leave him unable to use them in earning a living. 
We should have been training his hand, not confusing his mind. 
Christian education should unquestionably help men to live, 
should raise the standard of life by improving conditions, and 
for the vast body of toilers Christian education has very little to 
offer. Until industrial and economic conditions are vastly 
improved I think Christianity will have comparatively little 
influence over millions of the Chinese. True, the Gospel is a 
Gospel for the poor and down-trodden, but what time or strength 
or intelligence has the coolie for anything beyond the few cents 
he, with the greatest difficulty, earns? The multitudes, not only 
of coolies but of more intelligent and worthy men and women 
who live on the verge of starvation, is such as to cause serious 
thought regarding the possibilities in the right kindoi Christian 
education for them. Even in our home lands there is, I am 
afraid, a erowimr dissatisfaction with the education that we are 
giving, in that it does not contribute ail adequate share to the 
solution of the great social and economic problems and difficult¬ 
ies that are pressing for solution. The mission school in China 
may have, I am profoundly convinced, a glorious future in con¬ 
tributing to the real relief of actual conditions, and may, through 
industrial and technical education, preach the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ to the poor and needy as in no other way—the Gospel that 
enables men to help themselves, not to rise above their sur¬ 
roundings, but to so transform those surroundings that a man can 
live a man's life, not that of the mere animal. The Church 
should not only develop the higher technical and professional 
schools, but should undertake to create and develop new trades 
and new industries. These would not only improve society, but 
would afford new fields for honest, clean, labor that is not 
associated with degrading customs and practices which are 
incompatible with Christianity. We have often been told by 
the poor Chinese that they cannot become Christians, for to do 
so would mean that they would be compelled to give up their 
business, which is connected with idolatry or some matter of 
heathen worship. If the great problems of pauperism, incom¬ 
petency, crime, political and social corruption are to be solved, 
who should make a larger contribution than the Christian 


l 9 io] The Future of the Mission School in China 57 

Church, through Christian schools suited to those classes that 
most easily fall into these evils? Unless we face this question, 
frankly and seriously, may we not be liable to the criticism, in 
later years, by our Chinese brethren, that we have devoted 
ourselves too much to the intellectual and spiritual welfare of 
their race, and have neglected their social and material interests ? 
The mission school must be a nursery of high-minded, high- 
principled, well-taught, well-trained citizens, fitted to fill well 
the public offices, or enter well-equipped the professional, 
commercial, industrial, and agricultural life. It should have a 
part, not only in the nurture of those who are to guide its 
destinies and lead its progress, but also in the nurture of those 
guided and those led, the toilers- We are here not to prepare 
men to die, but to live. 

In conclusion, let us summarize by saying that as we believe 
that Christianity is to prevail in China,we believe that the mission 
school is a vital part of that Christianity, and will be permanent 
till it is succeeded by that better institution, the Christian 
school. And, moreover, since a religion cannot permanently 
flourish without its schools, the mission school has the very 
solemn task of so making Christianity the central and living 
part of the education we are imparting, that it will be carried 
over, naturally and spontaneously, into the coming Christian 
school of China, and will not be a separate tiling that is foreign 
to the Chinese thought and needs, and therefore may be left out 
of their system. 

Is it an overstatement to say that the future of Christianity 
itself depends on the future of the mission school? We may at 
least say that if it is true to its ideals, it must have a tremendous 
influence on the future of Christianity among this great people. 
We must never lose sight of the fact that the mission school is 
Christian, and must be kept Christian through and through, 
not only in ideals, but in the lives and example of its teachers, 
in positive teaching, in direct influence, in an absolute loyalty 
to the Truth as it has been revealed in Jesus Christ our Uord. 

It must be a place where every student who enters its halls 
is brought face to face with Jesus Christ, and is impelled by 
the spirit of the place, and the loving, solicitous care of his 
teachers, to make the matter of a personal allegiance to Him a 
question of the most careful consideration. 


58 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


It must stand for the type of Christianity that is virile, 
life-controlling, will-compelling: the kind of Christianity that 
Paul had, which swallowed up self in Christ and sent him out 
to live for others and to win a world to his Master. Let 11s 
remember that the missioii school has a function, a distinctive 
work above mere learning and mind-training. It must put 
conscience-training above mind-training: the Government 
schools may minister only to the intellect, we must minister to 
the heart as well. 

Again, the mission schools must be largely increased in 
numbers, and a larger sacrifice in men and money must be made 
by the home lands for education in China, in spite of the wisest 
co-operation and union looking towards a temporary saving of 
resources. Education is not cheap, and especially, Christian 
education cannot afford to be cheap: the Chinese do not want a 
cheap article; they demand the best, and are eminently worthy 
of it, and we must give the best because it is given in the name 
of the Church. 

And since the great majority cannot pay for the cost of the 
best, we must have large endowments, and in some way con¬ 
sistent with the development of manhood and independence, 
provide the best at a relatively low cost. 

Again, the mission school must not grow out of the lower 
grade work into only the higher, leaving the youth of China, 
during their early years of training, in the frightful conditions 
and surroundings that are very, very much worse under the new 
learning than obtained under the old. The modern government 
school in China, of whatsoever grade, with its only partially 
understood methods and ideals, is bringing in problems with 
which China has nothing effective to deal, until she accept 
Christ. Hence the imperative need that we strengthen and 
enlarge lower grade education, as well as the high grade. 

Again, we must remember that in our mission school, be it 
our best grammar school or our university, we are not offering 
a perfect model. The best school or university in England or 
Germany or America, Christian or State, is in many directions 
faulty and imperfect and inadequate for even our own civiliza¬ 
tion: how much more so for the Chinese civilization. We 
should guard against that attitude of mind which,unquestioning, 
assumes that we have all the best and only good to offer in our 


1910] 


The Future of the Mission School in China 


59 


education, and so our chief task is to supplant the old Chinese 
education with our perfect Western product. Such an attitude 
means disaster for the future of the mission school in spite of its 
supreme asset, Christianity. Hence our duty to constantly seek 
to suit and adapt our education to the needs and genius and 
possibilities of the Chinese race. The spirit and attitude of our 
great Master should possess us: “ Behold, I come not to destroy, 
but to fulfil.” 

Again, in a large sense our future depends on pure educa¬ 
tional efficiency. This is a point we can hardly over-emphasize. 
We must turn out the best educated men that can be produced 
in China. Nothing will excuse us in this respect, for ours are 
Christian schools, and therefore our professions are high, and 
our deeds must in a high degree measure up to our professions 
and ideals. We are far from perfect, and our education is not 
perfect, but the demand is on us to give a perfect product in 
absolutely so far as is possible. 

Again, the mission school is training leaders and teachers ; 
and here again we must practice what we preach, and we can do 
this effectively only by allowing (and I do not like the word 
allow, as though we had a right to do otherwise) the Chinese to 
assume leadership in the control and management of our 
schools—and all other mission work— as rapidly and as complete¬ 
ly as possible. 

Again, the poor must have the Gospel preached to them ; 
and I believe that the School and the Church must enlarge its 
conception of its duty to the poor, or at least its way of preaching 
that Gospel to them, and that the Church take up, seriously and 
in a scientific manner, the problem of industrial and trade 
education. 

Finally, the supreme future of the mission school, in 
common with the Church in general, is to be found in its making 
Christianity the religion of China. It must teach religion ; in 
no bigoted manner; in no narrow, sectarian spirit; with no 
suggestion that it is “ Western”—for it is not; wdth no suspicion 
that it is good for the Chinese because it is mine and I am one 
of a superior race. It must teach religion, the Christian 
religion, not only because we profoundly believe it true and 
the Truth, and embodies the most and highest and best of Truth 
that mankind has ever had revealed to it by God Himself, but 


60 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


also because we believe that Christianity, and Christianity alone, 
is the power of God unto salvation to every one who be¬ 
lieves. 


Schools and Colleges as a Factor in 
Evangelistic Work 


BY REV. L. B. RIDGELY. 



HE commission of Our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, 


entrusted to His Church as He ascended into the 


heavens, is expressed for us most fully in the Gospel 
according to St. Matthew, (xxviii, 19-20). “ Go ye therefore 

and teach all nations.” It is most remarkable that He uses 
here not the word kerusso (K^pua-aw) “to preach” or to 
“ Proclaim like a herald,” nor the word euangellizomai 
(emyy«\t£oju<u), “to spread good news,” to “preach the Gospel,” 
but matheteuo (/xa^ijrew), “ to make learners or disciples.” And 
the two acts He specifies in that process are baptizing and 
teaching. “Go ye and gather the nations,” (the “Gentiles”) 
“into my school.” Bring them into the community that bears 
the name of God, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, and 
in that Community, (that “ Universitas ”), go on ever teaching, 
teaching, teaching. “Teaching them to observe all things 
whatsoever I have commanded you.” 

It is true that St. Mark’s Gospel gives a briefer statement 
of the commission:—“Go ye into all the world and preach the 
Gospel to every creature.” The expression is briefer but not 
simpler. It leaves us compelled to ask, “ What is this Gospel 
which they are bidden to preach?” It is defined for us by the 
Evangelists and by our Lord Himself. The content of it is 
expressed in the one phrase in which His preaching is summed 
up for us by both St. Matthew and St. Mark. “The Kingdom 
of God is at hand.” This, He says, is the Gospel, and He calls 
on men to repent and believe it. (St. Mark, i, 15). 

To go forth as heralds, carrying the news of this fact; to 
bring the knowledge and power of it home to every individual 
soul, that was the duty laid upon the Apostles. And it was a 
duty which, in the very nature of things, could not be accom¬ 
plished by merely standing in the highways and crying aloud 
the fact. To all the nations (the Gentiles rather than the Jew’s 



19 10] Schools and Colleges as a Factor in Evangelistic Work 61 

are indicated by the Greek word) they were to bring this 
message. But to men who had not had an education of 
centuries, like that of the Jews, in the mysteries of religion, it 
would be necessary to explain the very meaning of the words. 
As a herald who came to a village of utterly unlettered men 
would have to stop and explain word by word the meaning of 
the announcement he came to proclaim, so would these heralds 
of the Kingdom of Christ have to sit down patiently and teach 
the ignorant the meaning of their words. 

The Church, then, from the beginning, by the very 
ordinance of Christ, is a teaching body,—an Ecclesia Docens. 
The Apostles recognized this. It is true we find the Christians, 
in the Acts, as they traveled about “talking the Word,” (Acts 
xi, 19, lalountes ton logon , AoAowres rliv XSyov) ; or going every¬ 
where “ telling the good news of the Word,” Euangellizomenoi 
(evayytXi&inevoi,. Acts viii, 4.) It is true that this more indefinite 
word, “ tvayyeXi&nat ' 1 is often used, but more generally the 
definite work of the ministry is spoken of under that more 
definite word kerusso Ktjpuavu —to do the work of a herald. St. 
Paul, writing to St. Timothy, once and again sums up his office 
in the three terms, “to be a herald, and an Apostle, and a 
Teacher.” (I Tim. ii, 7. II Tim. i, 11). It is, in fact, most 
illuminating to see how often in the Gospels and through 
the Acts and the Epistles, the two words preaching and teaching 
are conjoined and how often used separately. How often our 
Lord is spoken of as a Teacher, and as teaching, and how the 
Apostles gave themselves to teaching, and how the teaching 
office is honored as a part of the gift of the ascended Christ to 
His Church/ 

Teaching, then, by the very terras of the New Testament, 
is a factor in the evangelistic work of the Church. How far 
does it involve the necessity of establishing schools and colleges? 
And how far can these be made factors in accomplishing the 
evangelistic teaching mission of the Church? 

The history of education shows that Christianity was, by 
very force of circumstances, driven to establish schools. The 
Gospels and Epistles are themselves sufficient witness that there 
was in the earliest days of the Church a habit, if not a system, 

*See Mt. xi, x. iv, 23, Mk. ix, 35. i, 21-39. St. L,k. xv, 44. John, vii 14. 
Acts v, 42. 



62 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


of instructing Christians and candidates for baptism in the 
facts and the mysteries of the Gospel. Within a century of the 
Lord’s Ascension, and within a generation of the death of the 
last of the original Apostles, there had grown up schools for this 
purpose. And in these schools it became necessary, as we find 
it necessary in China, to.give instruction in reading and in the 
rudiments of general learning, in order to lead catechumens to 
a point where they could understand the meaning of the message 
and of the Holy Scriptures. 

Through all this earlier time, the children of Jewish Chris¬ 
tians had learned their letters and been educated, like other 
Jewish children, in the synagogue schools; the children of Gentile 
Christians in the heathen schools of their own town or neigh- 
borhood. But as Christianity became a more evident power, 
and the antagonism between it and Judaism and heathenism be¬ 
came more apparent and bitter, the danger of such an education 
to the Christian faith of the children became more evident, and 
Christian parents began to send their children to the Church’s 
catechetical schools, where already both adults and children, 
newly turned from heathenism, were being given the rudiments 
of an education, secular as well as religious. By the close of 
the second century there had been established at Odessa, by 
Protogenes, what has been called “the first Christian Common 
School,” in which were taught reading, writing, Scripture, and 
the singing of Psalms. It was the beginning of an institution 
that has never ceased to be a part of Christianity. 

The Christian Schools increased in number and in scope, in 
efficiency and in popularity. Side by side with them the Pagan 
schools continued, but decaying, till in A. D. 529 the Emperor 
Justinian decreed that they should be abolished. It is to be 
noted that then, and not till then, was paganism destroyed as a 
real influence in the Empire. Paganism held on as long as it 
could continue to conduct schools; and Christianity increased 
in extent and in efficiency as its own schools increased and were 
fostered. 

From that day on till Charlemagne’s time, the beginning 
of the 9th century, nearly 300 years, the education of the 
Western world was in the hands of the Church, and specially of 
the clergy and the monks. When, at that time, Charles the 
Great on the continent and Alfred the Great in England set to 


1910] Schools and Colleges as a Factor in Evangelistic Work 63 

work to reform education, they did not take it out of the hands 
of the Church. They only arranged so as to make it more 
effective in the hands of the Church. Nor did it even begin to 
pass out of those hands till long after the Reformation, in the 
political upheavals and readjustments of the 17th and 18th 
centuries. The great Universities, even though in some 
instances they began as groups of scholars and students not 
directly under Church control, yet soon became Church 
institutions, mid most of them in fact began as parochial, or 
cathedral, or monastic schools, and always maintained the 
ecclesiastical connection. It has been left for our own age to 
develop the idea that secular education for Christians can be 
accomplished entirely apart from religious education, and under 
secular authority ; and it yet remains to be proved whether, 
even in a Christian civilization, that experiment is an entire 
success. 

Now as a matter of practical import, we must remember 
that the evangelistic work of Foreign Missions is being done not 
amid a Christian civilization, but in the midst of heathen 
surroundings. Education, social life, administration of law, 
common moral conceptions, all are dominated by heathen habit, 
and heathen practice, and heathen thought. While then, we 
may pour the oil of our evangel on the fire on our side of the 
walk we must recognize the fact that on the other side stands 
heathenism, as Satan stands in the scene in the Interpreter’s 
House, in “ Pilgrim’s Progress,” pouring on a copious stream of 
water. If we can remove children, Christian or heathen, from 
that stream, and set them, for 6 hours a day, or all day, and day 
after day, in the midst of the stream of Church life, giving 
them there their education in things both earthly and heavenly, 
we have, incontestably, assisted the work of evangelization, if 
only by removing an obstacle. Here in China, in our own day, 
we find a recurrence of those very conditions which made it 
necessary for Christians in the earliest ages to open schools. 
We find that the children of our own Christians, if they attend 
heathen public schools, are held there all day, from dawn to 
dark, Sundays aud week-days, and have no opportunity to study 
Christian doctrine or to attend Christian worship. Heathenism 
is all about them all day, and we cannot reach them with 
Christian instruction. 


64 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


From this point of view, I take it schools and colleges 
are a factor in. Evangelization ; negatively, because they coun¬ 
teract the destructive influences of heathenism; and positively, 
because they give the opportunity for the direct evangelization 
of the individual child. The child whose parents have but 
just cotne from heathenism can indeed, at the best, receive 
but a partial enlightenment as to the meaning of the Gospel in his 
own home. Even in Christian lands, where the Christian 
life of the home is, to say the least, not always perfect, it means 
much for the child to be in school where the message of 
Christ and the meaning of Christ’s work, are constantly and 
definitely before him and the best habits of Christian life 
cultured in him and maintained round about him. 

But this is not the whole value of schools and colleges as 
factors in Evangelization. Under present conditions in China, 
it is perfectly possible to get children from heathen homes into 
Christian schools, and there to make known to them the good 
news we come to preach. The Church in that way may touch 
an element which would be reached by no other means, and 
touch it in a most valuable and effective way. Here, day after 
day the “Old, old, story’’ can be told to pupils, and the 
“ Life,’’ which is the “ Light of men,” be brought to bear on 
them and lived around about them. 

Schools and colleges, then, may be maintained as a part of 
the evangelistic work, from two points of view : Either (a) in 
order to educate the children of Christians; or (b) In order to 
influence the children of heathen. A brief and crude experi¬ 
ment in statistics, undertaken recently by the writer of this 
paper, indicates that the missions in China are about evenly 
divided between the two points of view.* 

Of twenty-four missions responding to the request for 
statistics in the matter all but four have day schools, and all 
but one have boarding schools. Of 19 reporting the proportion 
between Christians and heathen in the day schools, one reports 
“no Christian,” and one “ no heathen” ; while of the rest 8 have 
less than one-third Christian, and nine have more than one- 

* Note :—Circulars were sent to something less than 100 of the heads and 
superintendents of various missions asking various questions. A generous 
number of answers were received, for which the writer would express thanks. 
The date of sending was late, and answers are not yet all in, but the examina¬ 
tion is, of course, at best, very imperfect. 



1910] Schools and Colleges as a Factor in Evangelistic Work 65 

third running up to one-half, three-fourths, and in one case 
almost “ all.” (To be exact, six report from one-third to one- 
half ; one has seventy per cent.) 

The figures would indicate that there is a tendency in the 
majority of these missions to make the day schools a means of 
gathering in the heathen, in the hope of making them 
Christians, while a minority use their day schools rather for 
the education of the children of Christians, to guard them 
from heathen influence. 

In the boarding schools, however, the statistics seem to 
run the other way. Of twenty-four missions reporting boarding 
schools, four report that all the pupils are Christians, or of 
Christian families, and fourteen report more than a half. Five 
report less than half, and only one reports no Christian pupils. 
This would seem to indicate that a majority of the missions use 
their boarding schools as a means for the education of the 
children of Christians and a minority as a means of gathering 
in the heathen and influencing them. Either of these methods 
is, I take it, a work of evangelizatiou. (Our own mission is 
with the minority, in both cases.) 

As to the actual results of such school work in bringing 
heathen pupils into the Church, the question was asked,— 
“How many pupils who enter as heathen are baptized before 
leaving?” In the case of day schools, one mission answered, 
“ Few.” Twelve report from one to twenty-five per cent. Three 
from 25 to 50 per cent. One reports “a large number”, 
another “a good many.” One says “Pupils leave early”, 
Three report, “ We cannot say 

In the case of boarding schools, six report that “ few or 
none” of the pupils are baptized before leaving. Seven report 
from one to 25 per cent. Three from 25 to 50 per cent. Five 
over 50 per cent (all the way up to 90 per cent, in one case). 
One of those that reports “ Most do not enter the Church ” 
adds, however, “ The boys who have been through our schools 
can be trusted much more than those who have not.” 

It is to be noted that in these returns some missions state 
that they are just beginning educational work, or that it is too 
young to allow inferences or to give statistics as yet. The very 
fact that more missions are opening educational work is, in 
itself, instructive. 


66 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


One reports that almost all who finish the course become 
Christians and are baptized before leaving. Another, which 
maintains its boarding schools mainly for Christian students, 
reports of the few schools that do admit non-Christian pupils, 
that “ they are undoubtedly profitable in bringing scholars to 
Christ.” 

It is probably the experience of all, as it has been of some 
of us at Boone University, in Wuchang, where about one third 
of the students are Christian, and where we aim definitely to 
influence the heathen, that besides those who are actually 
baptized there are many others who would be baptized if the 
parents or guardians would consent. (Without such consent 
we never baptize minors). More than this, that there are 
many who really become Christians in heart and mind, though 
for differing reasons they cannot bring themselves openly to 
confess Christ in baptism. And yet more, we are convinced 
that few if any who enter the schools as heathen and finish the 
course leave it without experiencing a profound change in their 
convictions as to the meaning and value of religion. They no 
longer look on it with the contempt of the Confucianist, 
because they have seen that there is at least one religion which 
is not a superstition, but means power, light and life. To have 
such an element as this scattered abroad in China is surely a 
help, a factor in the evangelization of the people. 

There remains, however, one yet more important point to 
be noticed. Schools and colleges may serve as a source of 
supply which shall yield the Church a body of Chinese clergy, 
catechists, evangelists, physicians and teachers. The evan¬ 
gelization of China, or of any country, is not a momentary 
event. It is a process of generations. The establishment and 
the realization of an ever-enduring kingdom, a corporate union 
with a living head—this was the fundamental message of the 
Gospel. Even if it were possible to expect that, generation 
by generation, an increasing host of missionaries would come 
from foreign lands to preach here in China, and that so there 
should come to be a preaching station in every town and 
village; yet it can hardly be said that the ideal of the Gospel 
had then been accomplished. Is it, indeed, possible that the 
preaching of the Gospel can ever be thoroughly done in China 
till it is done by the Chinese themselves? We may lead them 


1910] Schools and Colleges as a Factor in Evangelistic Work 6 ? 

to it, and fit them for it. We cannot do it for them. The 
Gospel will hardly reach the hearts of the majority of the Chinese 
till it comes from Chinese hearts, through Chinese minds, on 
Chinese lips, in Chinese ways. It is the converted generation, 
rather than the converting generation, that will really evange¬ 
lize China. 

As the plant or animal is not mature till it develops the 
reproductive faculty, so is a Christian Church in any nation not 
mature till it is producing its own ministry, its own preachers, 
its own workers, and making its own converts. 

Now where are these to come from ? Are we simply to 
preach and to pray and to wait until the Spirit of God Himself 
moves some here and there among our converts, according to 
His will, to offer themselves as preachers and clergy? God 
forbid that any man should cast any scorn on these methods. 
We must preach. We must pray. We must wait. But as we 
pray for daily bread and trust God for it, and wait on Him for 
it, yet also plow and sow, reap and grind and bake, so surely 
we should also use rational methods to increase the supply of 
native clergy and workers in any land. 

The experiment in statistics mentioned above was, as has 
been indicated, too crude and partial to be decisive; yet it 
yields some interesting thoughts. 

Of 23 missions reporting, 12 answered that they had no 
Chinese clergy at all. It might seem at first as if this meant 
that schools are not a success as a means of raising up a 
Christian clergy, since most missions have schools and most 
have native clergy. But there are too many other elements 
involved to allow this conclusion. It would be necessary to 
inquire, for example, how long schools have been maintained 
in each mission, on what principle, whether that of educating 
Christians or that of converting heathen, and many other 
things. The whole history of the mission, doctrine, polity, 
and even personalities are involved, and the problem is too 
complicated to enter upon here. We shall have to be content 
with conclusions less sharply cut than this. 

Of 11 missions reporting Chinese clergy, three reported 
that all had been drawn from their own or other Church 
schools; four that from 45 per cent, to 100 per cent, had been so 
drawn, and only four that none had been so drawn. So far as 


68 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


these statistics go, they would indicate that the Church school 
is the principle source from which we may expect clergy. 

It must be added to this, a most important addition, that 
of five missions reporting candidates for the ministry, two 
reported all to be in or from Church schools, one reported four 
out of five, one reported one out of two. Another reported one 
such, but did not say how many others were in view not from 
such schools.* 

So far as these few data go, they support what has been 
concluded in the study of the statistics as to clergy,—that the 
schools and colleges are the principal source of supply. If this 
be so, surely it is of vital importance to retain them, if for no 
other reason, yet as in this sense a factor, and a primary factor, 
in the evangelistic work which is yet to be. 

The statistics given as to catechists and lay-readers or 
preachers are more difficult to deal with—six missions out of 
24 reporting only numbers, not percentages. Two report each 
two catechists from the schools, two report each three, and one 
reports six. One reports ten. None of these, however, have 
stated how many others are employed. One reports that all 
catechists are from its own schools, and six that none are so 
drawn. Five report more than half, and four less than half. 
Perhaps the fact is that, as is natural, catechists are more fre¬ 
quently drawn from adult converts, brought up in heathenism, 
and given special training after their baptism. Such men do 
indeed meet a present need, but as the nation becomes more 
generally Christian and the Church older there would be fewer, 
it seems likely, of this sort, and more drawn from schools, men 
who have had a primary Christian education. 

A few' missions report on lay preachers, as distinct from 
catechists. All seem to indicate that men educated in Chris¬ 
tian schools may be looked to as willing to work in this way. 
Four missions report each a lay preacher of this kind, one “a 
few,” one “ many,” and one reports that they get “more lay 
preachers than catechists” through this channel. Specially 
interesting is one report which says,—“I am thankful to write 

* Note Owing to the hurried way in which the experiment in statistics 
was made, no question was asked on this point in the circular. Statistics on 
the subject would be most illuminating. The writer specially thanks those 
who added this detail in their answers. 



1910] Schools and Colleges as a Factor in Evangelistic Work 69 

that the younger men in our churches.... trained in our schools, 
turn their thoughts to the service of the church in lay preach¬ 
ing,” and adds that they have from six to ten such, besides 
occasional preachers. In Boone University, Wuchang, a com¬ 
pany of a dozen or more students go out periodically for preach¬ 
ing at the street chapels of the mission; and many instances 
might be quoted of graduates who have proved efficient lay 
helpers in stations far away and near at hand, newly opened 
and old established.* 

Iu all this calculation, however, and specially in re¬ 
gard to the question of clergy, there is one consideration 
much more important than that of numbers, namely, quality. 
In the China of this and the coining generations it will 
evidently be imperative not only that we shall have many 
clergy, but also that they be men able to meet the needs, the 
questions, and the oppositions of men educated in the colleges 
and universities, not only of China, but also of America, of 
England, and of Europe—men who understand the modern, 
Western learning, and are read to a greater or less degree in 
science, in philosophy, in history, in religion. Are we to let 
this element in Chinese heathenism go? If not, how are we to 
care for it? Is there any other way than by maintaining col¬ 
leges of our own, wliere our own Christian men may be taught 
all these things from the Christian point of view, so that we, 
from among these, may find men to evangelize China? 

Two facts, from two different missions, in two different 
provinces of the Empire, seem to add conclusiveness to the 
suggestions intimated above. 

First :—In Boone University, at Wuchang, nine or ten 
years ago there was organized a Missionary Society 'among the 
Christian boys. For several years they worked as such, meet¬ 
ing for prayer and for study of the different mission fields, and 
supporting by their contributions a scholarship in a mission 


* Note:—Even in the United States of America, with its highly organized 
public school system, church boarding schools and day schools have been 
found a most valuable and even a necessary factor in working amidst Mormon- 
ism, in Utah, and the all-too-irreligious life of the mining camps of the Rocky 
Mountains and the Far West. From such have come continually the jay 
leaders and helpers in Sunday school and Church work in new settlements 
and needy places in these regions. 



70 The Chinese Recorder [January 

school in India. As years went by, however, the members be¬ 
came so interested that they every one of them concluded to 
offer themselves for Holy Orders. The society transformed it¬ 
self into a society of men looking forward to the ministry. As 
such it lived on. Of the six men graduated from Boone 
Divinity School last year, all belonged to this society, and of 
the seven who entered a year and a half ago, the most already be¬ 
longed, and the rest afterward joined. Last spring, the society 
embraced, besides these 13, about a half dozen more, in the 
lower classes of the college and school, who are looking for¬ 
ward to the study of theology when their college course is over. 
This year the society waked up to a new activity, and has now 
opened its membership to all students in the school or college 
who are looking forward to help in the work of the Church in 
any way, whether as clergy, as physicians, or as teachers. 
What the future may bring forth out of this can not now be 
said, but there seems good ground here for a great hope. 

Second :—It is a fact now perhaps generally known, that 
at the Shantung Union College, during the earlier part of this 
year, out of 300 students 100 signified their intention of study¬ 
ing for the ministry. In the Weihsien High School (Point 
Breeze Academy), out of 69 students 28 did the same. Of the 
two higher classes in the College, all, together with some of 
the professors, are about to go, or have gone, to Chingchow to 
take the theological and the academic courses together. 

Of these students, nearly every one on entering the school 
or college, was a Christian, coming from lower Christian 
schools. In fact, of the 300 students in the Shantung Union 
College, only 15 are not baptized. 

It is also a significant fact that up to one year and a half 
ago these institutions did not teach any English, and had no 
candidates for the ministry.* The change in policy, introducing 
English, far from driving the students off to worldly interests 
and occupations, as some of us have at times theoretically feared 
it might do, seems, on the contrary, to have drawn a host to 
the service of Christ. 


* Note:—This Statement is made only in regard to the institution as a un¬ 
ion institution. As such it has been in existence only a few years, and the 
writer’s attention has been called to the fact that the Presbyterian Mission 
which combined in this union, though teaching no English in former years, 
. had gathered many clergy from its schools. This does not seem, however, to 
invalidate the remark made below. 



1910] China and the Christian 5 Message 71 

That schools and colleges are uecessarily, in themselves, a 
help to the evangelistic work, is not true. The mere dis¬ 
semination of secular knowledge does not necessarily make men 
Christian nor even necessarily predispose them to Christianity, 
and is not, I take it, the Church’s business. The Church is 
not an institution for the discovery of truth, but a body for the 
preservation and the dissemination of a Truth “ once for all 
delivered.” It exists for the purpose of bringing men into 
spiritual union with Christ, with God and so with one another. 
Unless iu or through our colleges and schools we can work to¬ 
ward that end, we had better turn educational work over to 
other hands. But if by maintaining such institutions we can 
hold men in the atmosphere of Christ and preserve them from 
a “science falsely so called,” surely it is our duty to maintain 
them, and in them to carry education, iu all departments, up 
to the highest possible point; that as our students grow in the 
knowledge which modern science gives, they may also “grow 
in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus 
Christ,” attaining the “measure of the stature” of His “fulness,” 
and “growing up into Him in all things, who is the Head.” 


China and the Christian Message 

BY REV. ERNEST BOX. 

T O understand aright the special message which we as 
Christian missionaries have to give the China of to-day, 
it is necessary for us to consider first what revelation of 
His truth God has already given to the Chinese in the past. 

Believing that God has implanted in all men spiritual in¬ 
stincts, making it possible for them to have knowledge of and 
fellowship with Himself, let us see how far along this pathway 
the All-father has succeeded in leading out into the light these 
children of His—the teeming millions of this ancient land of 
China. 

Christ has taught us the great truth that God’s infinite love 
embraces the whole of His universe. He has also taught us 
that He Himself—as the Eternal Word of God, is ‘the Light 
that lighteth every man coining into the world’. That He 
came to seek and to save the souls of men groping as it were in 
a prison house, with no ears as yet to hear Him, and no eye to 



72 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


see Him, but with the sense of touch only, seeking if haply they 
might feel after Him and find Him, as a new born babe feels in- 
stinctively for the mother whom as yet it knows not but so much 
needs. 

Our Old Testament gives us the record of the infinite pa¬ 
tience with which God prepared a chosen people for the recep¬ 
tion of the Christ who was to be the Saviour of the world—of 
the Chinese as well as of the Jew, the Greek, the Roman 
and the Anglo-Saxon. We cannot presume to think that He has 
not also been preparing this ancient race for the Christ and the 
revelation of God’s love—the Gospel which Christ’s followers 
were told to go and preach to all the World. As the Jews had 
their patriarchs, lawgivers, poets, priests and prophets, so we 
may believe that God has in this land raised up chosen souls, 
who have been the pathfinders and teachers of the Chinese 
in their soul’s,quest after truth, in their search after God, 
and their struggle to attain rightness of life. 

Recognising as we do that the Jewish race was preeminently 
God's chosen agent through whom the clearest and highest 
revelations of the spiritual were given to the w ? orld, we must 
see to it that in our jealousy for God’s honour we do not 
dishonour Him by failing to recognize that here in this land as 
well as in Palestine of old, God has been at work preparing and 
fitting a people to receive the revelation He has given the world 
in the Christ. 

Believing then that no human soul, and no race of men, is 
left without some direct communication of light from the Father 
of lights, let us ask first how much God’s revelation has been 
grasped by the Chinese, and how far they have progressed along 
the road that leads out from the dense darkness of spiritual 
blindness into the light of clear spiritual vision. We remember 
the striking story recorded in Mark's gospel of the blind man 
to whom Christ gave the precious gift of sight. We have the 
man first with eyes that are sightless, then the Christ anointed 
his eyes and asked if he saw ought, and the man replied “I 
see men as trees—walking”—he had vision but as yet only 
distorted vision. Christ touched his eyes again, and, magic 
touch of the Master’ ! Ire looked up and saw every man clearly 
—his vision was perfected and he saw the Saviour’s face and the 
face of his fellow men, How easy it would have been at the first 


1910] 


China and the Christian Message 


73 


stage of this progressive miracle—when there was only distorted 
vision for both friend and foe—to have drawn wrong conclu¬ 
sions, and to have failed to justify the ways of God. Distorted 
vision—does not that express the stage China has reached in her 
progress out of the dark night of blindness along the way to the 
open vision ? Not yet have her eyes been opened to see the 
glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ, to see the world of men 
and of things as they really are, and yet neither is she utterly 
without vision, in ignorance of all spiritual truth, for some rays 
have penetrated her darkened orbs, and though still imperfect 
and distorted, she has some vision, some light to guide her on 
her way. 

What spiritual truths then do we find the Chinese already 
in possession of as we come to them with the evangel of Christ ? 
As we study the people round about us, and come to under¬ 
stand something of their lives we find in their customs, their 
conduct, their government and literature, the expression of 
many and varied religious conceptions, some of them mutually 
contradictory, but all of them giving us some insight into the 
complex world of Chinese religious thought. Dike the explor¬ 
ers of the ancient buried cities we have to arrange our discoveries 
in chronological order, and then we may trace the development 
of these religious conceptions as the explorer traces the develop¬ 
ment of the ancient civilizations. But whilst the archaeological 
explorer digs down to find the past, here in China the more an¬ 
cient as well as the more modern are alike near the surface, like 
geological strata, that have been exposed by a volcanic eruption, 
taking a horizontal instead of a vertical position. The Chinese 
mind of to-day is like a museum of antiquities in which the con¬ 
tributions of each successive age lie in peace side by side. Still, 
though complex, Chinese religious thought has been studied and 
can be arranged more or less in chronological sequence, and we 
can thus trace its gradual development. The early Chinese 
settlers probably brought with them into this land Nature Wor¬ 
ship in all its forms. Conceiving of themselves as possessing an 
animating soul, the seat of their consciousness and volition, they 
attributed a similar soul or spirit to all things in Nature, and as 
they were able to influence their fellow human beings, and make 
them hostile or friendly, so these myriad spirits were supposed 
to stand in similar relation to them, 


74 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


But above all these deified forces of Nature, and deified 
spirits, special emphasis seems to have been laid on the worship 
of heaven and earth, and the worship of ancestors. We read 
that amongst the ancient Accadians, who are generally supposed 
to have been, like the Chinese, of the Turanian race, and their 
successors the Assyrians and Babylonians, there was a tendency 
towards monotheism, first one and then auother of their deities 
being raised to a supreme position in their pantheon. But in 
the case of the Chinese from their very first introduction to us 
in their most ancient literature, we find they had already reach¬ 
ed out to a personification of Heaven, and to the conception of a 
Supreme Ruler who retained that position practically unchal¬ 
lenged. % Heaven, ^ Ruler, and ^ Supreme Ruler (or as 
Dr. Martin translates it “ The Most High”) were already familiar 
ideas with them and in constant use to express their religious 
thought. It is an important and interesting fact that this 
character, ^ Ti, is one of the phonetic or primitive characters 
of the Chinese; the most ancient in the language. 

Dr. Legge has told us that the “earliest distinct example of 
religious worship in China is that related of the Emperor Shun 
in the Book of History, where it says :— 

He sacrificed specially , but with the ordinary forms, to God 
at); sacrificed with reverent purity to the six Honoured 
ones ; offered appropriate sacrifices to the hills and rivers, and 
extended his worship to the host of spirits.” 

Here it seems to me we see how these ancient Chinese, in 
obedience to the instincts of their God-given nature, and under 
the educative influence of God’s spirit working within them, 
grasped dimly but truly the great fact that behind and above 
all the mysterious forces of nature, there stands one who is 
supreme over all—the Lord of Nature and of man. Unlike the 
ancient Jews however, who, with their unique spiritual insight 
followed the leadings of God’s spirit and worshipped Jehovah 
as the one and only God , the Chinese retained with the worship 
of this somewhat vague and shadowy conception of a Supreme 
Being “ a corrupt and depraving admixture of the worship of 
other beings,” laying emphasis especially on the worship of 
ancestors, which, as Dr. Legge has said, is so universally practis¬ 
ed in China that more than anything else it may be styled the 
religion of the Chinese. I wish to lay emphasis upon this fact 


t9io] 


75 


China and the Christian Message 

as the point of divergence between the Jewish and the Chinese 
races, for it seems to me it is here we must look for the cause 
of the arrested development of the religious consciousness of the 
Chinese, and the upward growth in spiritual truth of the Jew. 
Having grasped the great truth of the unity of nature and the 
sovereignty of God the Jew put his trust with whole-hearted 
devotion in God, and sought to know and obey His will, and 
worshipped Him and Him alone, whilst the Chinese failed to 
take the leap of faith , and tried to blend with the worship of God, 
the worship also of innumerable subsidiary spirits from the 
fear of which they could not shake themselves free. 

But we must not forget that though the development of 
the spiritual was arrested at this point, not a little had been 
gained and had become the possession of the race. They had 
discovered and have retained the truth that man is a spiritual 
being, that there is a spiritual world outside him to which he is 
related, and a Great Spirit supreme over all. They grasped, too, 
the stupendous fact that their soul-life did not cease with this 
life, but that when the body died they did not. Here truly we 
have a foundation on which to build other spiritual truths. 

Now let us glance briefly at what Confucianism (the system 
that was crystallized and transmitted by Confucius) did with this 
raw material, what addition did it make to it, and what has been 
its share in preparing the Chinese for God’s full revelation. 

That great Christian scholar, Dr. Faber, in speaking of the 
relation between Confucianism and Christianity said, “A clear 
statement of the points of similarity and agreement, and the 
cheerful acknowledgment of their harmonious teaching, makes 
mutual understanding between adherents of the two systems 
possible and easy.” 

Let me quote from Dr. Faber’s list in his article “ Con¬ 
fucianism” a few of the great truths which Confucianism has 
taught the Chinese :—That there is a Divine Providence over 
human affairs, and an Invisible world above and around this 
material life. That there is a Moral Law binding equally on 
men and spirits. The efficacy of prayer to the spiritual powers 
is taught, and sacrifices are regarded as necessary to come into 
closer contact with the spiritual world. Miracles are believed 
in, and the cultivation of the personal moral character is taught 
as of the greatest importance, and virtue is valued above riches, 


76 The Chinese Recorder [January 

honour, and life itself. The Golden Rule too is held up as the 
ideal principle of conduct 

It may be of interest to give here one or two illustrations 
from the ancient Classics—the Books of Poetry and History, 
showing how the Chinese gave expression to some of these great 
truths:— 

“God dwelleth in the great heavens.” (Shu-King). 

“ Great is God! Beholding the lower world in majesty, He 
surveyed the four quarters. I will examine these things in 
harmony with the mind of God. The good in you I will not 
dare to conceal , and for the evil in me I will not dare to forgive 
myself.” (Shu King). 

“The great God has conferred even on the inferior people 
a moral sense.” 

“God sends down all blessings on the good doer, and on the 
evil doer He sends down all miseries.” (Shu King), 

“God is with you. Have no doubts in your heart,” (She 
King). 

The Book of History speaks of two of the early sovereigns 
as follows:— 

Of the first, “Heaven guided his mind. He made himself 
acquainted with Heaven, and. was obedient.” 

Of the second, “Luxurious, dark, slothful and dissolute, he 
would not for a single day yield to the leading of God.” (Jblff 1 ) 

“The commentators,” we are told by the late Mr. Huberty 
James in his “Chinese Literature,” “have dwelt much on the 
words ‘ the leading of God ’ and interpret them as signifying 
‘ the constant monitions of conscience by which God endeavours 
to keep men in the right path.’ ” Truly the Light thatlighteth 
every man coming into the world was leading these ancient 
Chinese out from the dense darkness of heathen night—towards 
the light of the knowledge of God. 

But, alas, there were other influences at work retarding the 
growth of the Chinese religious consciousness and the develop¬ 
ment of their spiritual life. For, under Confucianism, the wor¬ 
ship of ancestors, polytheism and numberless superstitions 
were then and are still today countenanced and taught, and the 
tendency then and now has been to restrict the worship of the 
supreme God to the Emperor alone. Worship too has become 
more a matter of ritual than a spiritual exercise, the ceremonial 


1910] 


China and the Christian Message 


77 


part of worship claiming the chief attention, with the con¬ 
sequent deadening and dwarfing of the spiritual nature. 

Confucius himself followed the ancients in recognising a 
Supreme Being, as the following passages show, but his out¬ 
look on life was ethical rather than religious. 

“Alas there is no one that knows me. But I do not mur¬ 
mur against Heaven, nor grumble against men. There is 
Heaven ! That knows me.” 

“After the death of King Wan was not the cause of truth 
lodged here in me ? If Heaven had wished to let this cause of 
truth perish, then I, a future mortal, should not have got such 
a relation to that cause. While Heaven does not let the cause 
of truth perish, what can the people of Kwang do to me?” 

“He who offends against Heaven has noue to whom he can 
pray.” 

In these three passages we have the term Heaven in place of 
the Shang-ti, or Supreme Ruler, of the ancient classics, an in¬ 
dication, as scholars have pointed out, of a weakening of the 
monotheistic conception. Let me here give a passage which 
Dr. Arthur Smith in his “ Uplift of China ” quotes from Dr. 
Legge, “Confucius was un-religious rather than irreligious; yet 
by the coldness of his temperament and intellect in this matter, 
his influence is unfavourable to the development of true religious 
feeling among the Chinese people generally, and he prepared the 
way for the speculations of the literati of mediaeval and modern 
times which have exposed them to the charge of atheism.” Dr. 
Martin too in his “ Religious attitude of the Chinese mind” 
writes, “Confucius himself w 7 as strongly inclined to Agnosticism. 
In his intimate conversations with his disciples he refuses to 
give them any positive statement in regard to the things beyond 
the reach of human sight.” Perhaps we can best sum up the 
attitude of Confucius as regards the spiritual world, by quoting 
his own words, “ To give oneself earnestly to the duties due to 
men, and while respecting spiritual beings, to keep aloof from 
them, may be called wisdom ”—That is, he placed the chief 
emphasis on ethics and not on religion , and this doubtless pre¬ 
pared the way for the more materialistic conception of the 
universe which has prevailed among Chinese scholars since 
Chu Hsi and his school gave their interpretation of the classics 
in the Sung Dynasty. 


78 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


It explains, too, how it is that in more recent times in the 
Sacred Edict of the Emperor Kang-Hsi 44 no mention is made of 
God, and Heaven is nowhere referred to as the source of moral 
obligations. Filial piety—the worship of ancestors—is made the 
basis of the entire ethical fabric.” (Rees). 

But not only does Confucius fail to satisfy the want of 
man’s nature as regards his teaching of the hereafter, but his 
high system of ethics has behind it no quickening and ennobling 
power. 44 It altogether fails,” as Dr. Arthur Smith has said, 41 to 
recognise the essential inability of human nature to fulfil these 
high behests, and for this inability it has neither explanation 
nor remedy.” 

Or, as the late Alexander Wylie put it:—“ Alas, the de¬ 
pravity of the human heart is left out of the account, and man 
is consequently utterly unable to effect that self-renovation 
which lies at the foundation of the whole system. The system is 
a beautifully shaped automaton, but wanting the vital principle.” 
Confucius does not seem to have sufficiently taken to heart the 
warning that the Emperor Shun gave his successor Yii, 44 The 
mind of man is restless, prone to err ; its affinity for the right 
way is small.” 

Thus, whilst Confucius by his ethical teaching elevated the 
ideals of his nation, his system failed to meet its deepest needs 
in that it did not face the problem of sin and suffering, nor point 
to a way of salvation. It did not bring men into touch with 
God, nor throw light on the mystery of the 44 hereafter.” 

It was because the system failed at these points that Taoism 
and Buddhism, succeeded, in spite of fierce opposition at first, in 
winning a place side by side with Confucianism, making with it 
the 44 Three religions of China.” Our space will only permit us 
briefly to consider the contributions which Taoism and Buddhism 
have made to the religious thought and life of the Chinese. 
Taoism was an endeavour to escape from the growing strength 
and influence of materialism, a 44 protest against man being 
crushed under the foot of material nature,” and a protest too 
against the 44 frigid ethics of Confucianism.” It came, as some 
one has said, with ‘spiritual food for hungry souls.’ 44 The grand 
and primary object of the true Taoist is the preservation of 
his heaven-implanted nature. Nature requires no effort to 
stimulate her growth, and all the Sage has to do is to bring 


1910] 


China and the Christian Message 


79 


himself into perfect conformity with her.” (Balfour) Taoism pro¬ 
per is pantheistic, Tao is the spirit of Nature that is immanent 
in all things. “ In its opposition to a mere practical system like 
Confucianism, Taoism appealed to those deeper instincts of 
humanity to which Buddhism appealed some centuries later. In 
practice Confucianism was limited to the finite ... Its last word 
is worldly wisdom, not selfishness, but an enlarged prudentialism. 
To the Taoist such a system savours of ‘ the rudiments of the 
world,’ it belongs to an ephemeral state of being. The Sage 
seeks for the Absolute, the Infinite, the Eternal. He seeks to 
attain to Tao.” (Giles, Chuang Tzu. Introduction XXIII.) 

“ The true Sage takes his refuge in God and learns that 
there is no distinction between subject and object.” “ Abstrac¬ 
tion from self—that is the road that leads to Tao.” “ They were 
free for they -were in perfect harmony with creation.” “ Use 
the light that is within you to revert to your natural clearness 
of sight.” “ The perfect man employs his mind as a mirror. It 
grasps nothing ; it refuses nothing. It receives but does not 
keep. And thus he can triumph over matter without injury to 
himself.” “The flowers and birds do not toil, they simply 
live. That is Tao.” “ He who is unconscious of his own 
personality, combines in himself the human and the divine.’ 

“ Take no heed of time nor of right and wrong. But passing 
into the realm of the Infinite, take your final rest therein.” 

These quotations which Giles gives from Lao Tzii and 
Chuang Tzii, will sufficiently indicate the chief teachings of 
early Taoism. They are suggestive too of ideas and phraseology 
wffiich recent schools of thought have made familiar to us in the 
West. 

Man is a part of Universal Nature—the God of Taoism. 
Allow your nature, i.e., the God in you, full and free development 
and you will find yourself in true harmony with your environ¬ 
ment and thus become free from all ills. 

The history of Taoism in China is thus summed up by 
Balfour, “ The development of Taoism has been one of hopeless 
degeneracy. The lofty asceticism inculcated by Lao Tzii, became 
vulgarised into a means by which to achieve the sublimation of 
the body. Speculative research into the mysteries of Nature was 
degraded into an attempt to transmute the baser metals into 
gold ; aspirations after a never ending life beyond the grave 


80 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


sank into the meaner pursuits of prolonged temporal existence; 
and communings with the spiritual intelligences of Nature were 
resolved into a base belief in witchcraft, in which the Taoist 
priest arrogated to himself the power of exorcism over evil 
spirits.” 

Thus neither by putting his trust in himself, in human 
effort, as taught by the ethics of Confucianism, nor by allowing 
Nature to work within, as Taoism taught, could the Chinese 
obtain freedom from the bondage of sin and suffering and death. 

A third solution was now tried. Buddhism made its way 
into China in the first century of the Christian era, and spread 
rapidly throughout the Empire during the following three or 
four centuries. “ Its success was due to the fact that it came 
with a promise of redemption from sin and deliverance from 
misery, which was lacking in the more materialistic and worldly 
system of Confucianism.” (Dr. Arthur Smith.) 

'This deliverance was to be secured either by the slow 
process of transmigration to a final release from existence or by 
the easier and swifter way of faith in the saving power of the 
all-merciful Amitabha. 

Buddhism, both in its earlier form, the Hinayana, or little 
Vehicle, of Southern Buddhism, and in its later form, the 
Mahayana or Greater Vehicle, of Northern Buddhism, has in¬ 
fluenced Chinese religious thought, but it is the latter which has 
especially put its stamp on China. The Rev. George Owen in 
his sketch of Buddhism gives us in a concise form a comparison 
of the teaching of the two schools. “ Primitive Buddhism knew 
no God but law, but in process of time Buddha and his famous 
disciples (Bodhisattwas) became themselves gods and are wor¬ 
shiped in all Buddhist temples. Karma, or the doctrine of 
moral retribution, according to which every one reaps what he 
has sown, was practically set aside by the invention of a 
thousand-handed Goddess of Mercy, (and an Amitabha—the All- 
Merciful One) whose power and pity can save all (if there is 
Faith on the part of the suppliant). Nirvana, or the extinction 
of conscious existence, was the goal towards which Buddha 
himself strove, and towards which he bade his disciples aspire; 
but this was changed into a Western Paradise of wonderful 
beauty and blessedness, whither the souls of the faithful 
were borne after death.” 


1910] China and the Christian Message 81 

The earlier form of Buddhism approximates much more 
closely to philosophic Taoism than later Buddhism does. Both 
schools of Buddhist teaching differ widely in their outlook and 
aims from Confucianism. 

“The aim of the Confucianist,” as Dr. Richard has said, “is 
to lead a proper life in this world, the Buddhist according to 
his creed renounces everything in this world. To him the 
present life is empty show, pure vanity. He looks to the future 
for all his rewards and hopes.” And what briefly may we 
regard as Buddhism’s contribution to the religious thought and 
life of China? It has widened its conception of space and time, 
introducing the Chinese to an infinitely vaster universe, 
peopled with spirits innumerable, and taught them that man is 
a link in a great chain of life, and that the history of every 
individual soul reaches back into the distant past and will 
continue on into the countless ages of futurity. It breathed a 
divine pity for suffering humanity and all sentient beings, but 
taught what it considered to be a way out of misery into salva¬ 
tion. It taught of a retribution for the unrepentant evil doers, 
and of a Paradise of bliss for those who renounced the lower 
self, and of forgiveness and salvation for all who put their faith 
in the all-merciful Amitabha and the all-pitiful Goddess of 
Mercy, Kwanyin. Faith has been its Watchword, Love its 
Weapon, and it at first glowed with a radiant Hope. And yet it 
has failed, and hopelessly failed to regenerate, uplift and save 
China, and it is itself a decaying religion that has almost 
entirely lost its power in the land, and why 7 ? Because, although 
in its Northern form it apparently borrowed many of its con¬ 
ceptions from the purer monotheistic faiths of the West, 
Persian, Jewish and Christian, it did not know God, nor tl^e 
Christ who came to reveal Him ; and like Confucianism and 
Taoism was corrupted and debased by spiritually unscientific 
beliefs and practices. 

But Confucianism with its lofty ethical ideals, Taoism 
with its recognition of the all-pervading unity of nature, and 
Buddhism with its gospel of a salvation from sin and misery, 
through faith and the renunciation of self, though they have 
been insufficient to meet the needs of this great land, and have 
left it at this great crisis in its history, sadly lacking in ability 
to grapple with and solve the many problems that face it, have 


82 


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[January 


yet all prepared the way for the fuller —the perfect—revelation of 
God through Jesus Christ which has been given us to proclaim. 
What then is our Message to China in this hour of her need? 
What message has the Christ of the Ages—the Eternal Word of 
God who has been speaking to this people at sundry times and 
in divers manners in time past,—what message has He to give 
to this people to-day ? 

First of all it seems to me He would bid us, as His ambas¬ 
sadors, say to this people : — 

“Retrace your steps to that point in your history where 
your early sages in the Golden Age to which Confucius ever 
points you, caught the vision of the Supreme Ruler, bending 
down from His throne in the Heavens, to guide His people 
along the Heaven-appointed pathway that leads to the perfect 
heart, the perfect life and “the perfect state.’” 

Say to this people : “ If with all your heart ye truly seek 

Him, ye shall surely find Him. For I, the livingWord of God, the 
express image of His substance, have come down into the world 
to speak to you, not now through sage and prophet, but as the 
Incarnate Son of God, and in human form to reveal God to you 
that you may see Him face to face, and know Him whom to 
know is life eternal. For he that seetli Me hath seen the 
Father. I have come to reveal God, the God whom your fathers 
saw as it were in a mirror darkly, to reveal Him not as a 
majestic king, keeping afar off from His people, to be approach¬ 
ed only by His representative on earth—the Emperor, the sou 
of Heaven; but as the God whose name is Father, and whose 
nature is both Holiness and Love, the Father God who in Jesus 
the Christ—the Saviour of the World—has come to seek and 
to save each of you His children, and to lead you out of the 
darkness of error and sin and the loneliness of separation, into 
fellowship with Himself, into the light and liberty of the 
children of God.”? 

“ I appeal to you, through those strong instincts of filial 
piety, which I have taught you, to put aside your foolish 
pride and empty vaiu-glory, and to listen reverently and 
humbly to the message your Heavenly Father—the God whom 
your fathers knew, but whom ye have wandered away from 
and almost forgotten, has sent you through Me, His Son, the 
Living Word of God. For I am come with a message of gra- 


19101 


China and the Christian Message 


83 


cious pardon from the great king, your Father God, and I have 
sealed the message with my blood. I have come to redeem you 
from sin. I have given my life as a ransom for you. I have laid 
down my life for you. My life of service and sacrifice and my 
death of bitter agony on the Cross express God’s sacrificial love 
—a love that makes it possible for Him to save to the uttermost 
all who come to Him through me. ‘ For God so loved the 
world that He gave His only begotten Son that whosoever 
believeth in—links his life on to Him in a living faith—should 
not perish but should have everlasting- life.’ ” 

Tell them, too, “I am come to fulfil all your ancient desires 
and aspirations for virtue, and for harmony with the great 
laws of the universe, and for a life of blessedness hereafter 
through the sacrifice, the renunciation of self, and to give you 
power to realise these noble ideals. For I am come with the 
promise too of new life for you, a new in-filling of the Divine 
Fife, a new birth from above, an out-pouring of the Holy Spirit 
of God, which will empower you to become new men and 
women, to make you Christlike. I am come to give you Life—a 
more abundant, fuller, and richer life than even that which 
the greatest of your sages, in the far distant past, possessed. 
This gift of life I can promise you—it is the greatest miracle of 
the ages,—for I will unite you, who reverently take me as your 
Master, in living fellowship with Him who is Lord of all the 
worlds. Through me as the medium, the Divine Life shall 
come down from Heaven above, as the lightning runs down 
the kite string, or the dews of heaven are distilled by the 
quiet influences of the night air. It will come down to you as 
a quickening life and as concentrated force, and man’s heart 
will be renewed, and men and women will be born again, so 
that all through the laud, in every class of society, in every 
department of national life, good men and good women will in¬ 
crease in numbers, and you shall see the Kingdom of Heaven 
established more and*more firmly in the land,—renovated lives, 
a renovated society—a renovated nation.” Tell them that I call 
them to the service of humanity, to be saviours of men, to be co¬ 
workers with Heaven in saving a lost world, in lifting men up 
out of sin and degradation and the untold misery and suffering 
of humankind. Tell them that God’s Fatherhood binds all 
men, of every land and race, into one great brotherhood, and 


84 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


call on them to work for peace and goodwill among all men. 
Tell them that I bid them look at the lands where the peoples 
have tried to follow me as their Guide and Saviour, and let them 
see that, in spite of the tremendous forces working on the side 
of evil, there is a slow but steady upward movement of the 
Christian nations, and tell them that the best men everywhere 
testify that this is due alone to a living faith in the Giving 
God—to the influence of God’s Holy Spirit in the life—to 
obedience to Myself. Go and preach to this people this message, 
and lo I am with you and will bless you my messengers, and 
make you a blessing to this million-peopled nation, to which 
I have sent you and for which, if they be willing and obedient, 
a great and glorious future awaits. 

May I close with a word from the Master for ourselves, a 
word of heartening and cheer spoken first by one of China’s heroes 
3000 years ago to his soldiers on the battle-field just as they 
were entering into the conflict: “The Most High God, the 
Supreme Ruler, is looking down upon you. Let not your 
hearts waver,” and let us reply “ We can do all things through 
Christ which strengtheneth us.” 

“ And I John saw the holy city, the New Jerusalem, coming 
down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for 
her husband. And He that sat upon the throne said ‘ Behold 
I make all things new. ’ ” 

“And He said unto me Write: for these things are true 
and faithful.” 


An Inevitable Problem, How to meet it. 

BY REV. R. F. FITCH. 

W E are face to face with an inevitable crisis, already im¬ 
pending. The manner in which we are to meet that 
crisis affects not only the life of the Church from within 
but also the leadership of the Church in the future of the Chinese 
race. That crisis does not directly concern the individual lives 
of Christians, but rather that divergence of thought, of Biblical 
interpretation, of the teachings of science, which, if not rightly 
dealt with, will not only prevent true harmony and co-operation 
in the Church, but hinder it from doing the right kind of con¬ 
structive work for China. 



An Inevitable Problem, How to meet it. 


85 


1910] 


Within the Church there are two classes of leaders, which, 
broadly speaking, may be classed as liberals and conservatives. 
The beliefs of the individuals in these classes often overlap, so 
much so that at times it would be difficult or impossible to draw 
any sharp line of difference between the two, but for the sake of 
convenience, and for the sake of clearer discussion, we shall try 
and take that position in each class which is fairly representa¬ 
tive of the average of opinion which is held in that class. 
If these two classes take the right line of attitude toward each 
other, the greatest of the dangers which are possible are averted. 
If their attitude toward each other be wrong, as it already has 
been in certain cases, the immediate situation is fraught with 
the greatest danger to the Chinese Church as a whole. 

For example, some of our more conservative friends have 
identified the theory of evolution with atheism and scepticism. 
Hence, already, some of our Chinese students who have gone 
from educational influences such as these to foreign countries, 
and have become convinced of evolution in their study of biology, 
have been compelled to lose their old form of faith and made 
to appear either sceptics or indifferent to Christianity. I have 
already seen such men and am assured that their numbers will 
rapidly increase unless something is done for them. Again, 
some conservative brethren have identified modern views of 
Biblical interpretation with scepticism, with the result that 
other Chinese students, not only from our Christian colleges, but 
from the ranks of the Confucian scholars, have been led away 
from Christ into scepticism. 

The Chinese market is flooded with translations of Huxley, 
Darwin and Spencer, and if the Christian Church do but 
denounce these works instead of providing some constructive 
substitution in literature, the thinking men of China, serious, 
thoughtful men, the real leaders of the race, will be prone to 
regard Christianity as an exploded form of religious superstition. 
They are teaching that Buddhism after all is more in keeping 
with evolution and hence truer than Christianity. Our Chinese 
pastors, as they have been trained in the past, are unable to 
cope with this literature, as they are unfamiliar with it. Much 
of the Christian apologetic literature of today ignores such 
literature and hence is much out of date in respect to dealing 
with actual existing problems. 


86 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


Because I do not wish to go into any matters involving a 
personal discussion I shall not mention in detail two recent 
instances, which evidence a sincere, but not sufficiently intel¬ 
ligent, antagonism to men who have held modern views of 
Biblical interpretation. And though I dislike so to do, I feel 
compelled to go into a third instance, in order to accomplish a 
certain object, namely, to show clearly to my readers, the 
seriousness of the present crisis. Recently some of the Senior 
boys in our Hangchow College attended a lecture on evolution 
in the city. They returned, reported the matter to one of our 
foreign masters, and asked his assistance in formulating and 
publishing a reply. To their surprise, he told them that all 
three of the foreign masters of Hangchow College held to the 
general principles of a theistic evolution. The Chinese pastor 
of this college Church had been taught that evolution is one 
form of atheism, and occasionally he mentions it in his sermons 
and freely denounces it. 

While preaching, it is the duty of the minister to come 
from the presence of God with a divinely inspired message 
upon his lips for men, and hence to avoid such things, yet in 
the class-room, in the teaching of the first chapters of Genesis, 
it is impossible either for a conservative or a liberal Christian 
preacher, to be honest, and assume views which he himself does 
not hold. 

Hence the necessity, not of a policy of passivity, of silence, 
but of something somewhat aggressive, and thoroughly con¬ 
structive. 

Let me first state the case as it appears to me, both for the 
conservative and for the liberal, and show the difficulties, serious 
difficulties, which belong to either class. 

Our conservative co-worker claims that the Chinese are not 
a race of philosophers. They are simple, direct, practical. 
Philosophical subleties only confuse them, and it is better for 
them to receive from us some definite, final authority in religion, 
which cannot be questioned and which carries its own evidence 
of truth. The Spirit of God is one Spirit, who has inspired 
the writers of the Old and New Testament so that they have 
given us a religious literature that is consistent throughout, 
and in the main to be taken literally. If not taken literally, 
then the possibilities of all kinds of license in interpretation 


19 to] An Inevitable Problem, How to meet it 87 

will come in and we shall find our parallels in the allegorical 
schools of Alexandria. Let us have the simple direct statement 
of Scripture as the final, authoritative word of God, and use it 
as one whole sword of truth. If we question the degree of 
inspiration in parts, we are in danger of questioning the whole, 
and the Gospel of Christ as the power of God unto salvation is 
gone. 

Again, not only is the simple literal acceptance of Scripture 
more effective with men, we must also realise that the propa¬ 
gation of our faith depends yet more upon the lives of men. 
It is not necessary that we go out of our way to answer this and 
that “ism ”, our lives will evidence the Gospel truth even more 
than the particular form in which it is stated. The Bible is 
inspired in every thought, if not in every word, and it is a 
consistent whole in all its inter-related parts. It came direct 
from God to men and its self-evidencing power in Jesus and in 
those who receive of His Spirit, are sufficient to bring the final 
day of victory. 

To these remarks the liberal would make the following 
reply. It must be admitted that the Chinese are not distinc¬ 
tively, like the Hindoos, a race of philosophers. Nevertheless 
their scholars everywhere are strong men, interested in the 
literature that is coming to them from the West, and if their 
interest in such things is indicative of their capacity to think on 
such things, then their capacity is not to be despised and it will 
certainly grow. They may not care for mere philosophic 
subtleties, but if the great Christian Church of the West claims 
literal acceptance to her sacred writings, and if such writings are 
to be challenged by thoughtful scholars of the West, without any 
adequate reply, then instead of a philosophical subtlety, we have 
a great, simple, vital question, as it affects the hold of our faith 

upon the thinking Chinese mind. 

As the Chinese scholar reads the Scriptures, he finds 
tremendous differences, differences which read literally, must 
seem to him to be incompatible with the claim that all parts are 
equally inspired. In fact he finds parts which in their spirit 
also seem incompatible with other parts. For example, in that 
post-exilic Psalm, the writer, in recalling the sufferings of his 
race in Babylon, closes with the words.—“O daughter of Baby¬ 
lon, thou that art to be destroyed ; happy shall he be that 


88 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


rewardetli thee as thou hast served us. Happy shall he be that 
taketh and daslieth thy little ones against the rock.” Later on 
in the Gospel of Luke he finds these words,—“Love your enemies, 
do good to them that hate you, bless them that curse you, pray 
for them that despitefully use you.” As he goes through the 
Scriptures he finds many a passage, which ethically seems to fall 
below the teachings of his own sages, and many other passages 
which far surpass anything of what he had ever dreamed in the 
moral and spiritual life of man, and his relation to a heavenly 
Father. 

Hence the liberal feels himself forced to conclude that to 
the Chinese scholar, any acceptance of the Scriptures wholesale, 
without any differentiation in their parts as to historical and 
moral value, is often equivalent to driving a man from the 
possibility of faith, who might be won to faith in Christ as his 
Saviour. The liberal also admits that any loose interpretation 
of the Scriptures, or any distinction of values without relation to 
facts is dangerous, but he also claims that distinction in values 
as they do relate to facts are absolutely necessary. By so doing 
the great essentials of redemption through Christ are not hinder¬ 
ed by an insistence on what is less vital, but rather are they 
aided; this being clearly shown in the success which attends the 
labors of progressive evangelicals in our home lands. 

He would point to three sources for his evidence of facts— 
namely to science, archaeology, and recent Biblical investiga¬ 
tion. 

Though Darwinism pure and simple has passed away, 
yet there can hardly be found men prominent in the biological 
world to day, who do not hold to some general principles of 
evolution. The theology of today has been profoundly affected 
by it and many of our best writers in theology accept its General 
conclusions. 

Anthropology and Archaeology show that as early as five 
thousand B.C. there was an advanced civilisation in Babylonia, 
of which civilisation we have a record of her kings, her wars, 
industries, merchants, commerce, cosmology, and social life. 
Recent Biblical investigation too shows to what extent the early 
Jews were influenced by the early Babylonian and Egyptian 
civilisations. Abraham came from Haran, a stopping point on 
the great caravan route from Babylon to the Mediterranean. 


1910] 


An Inevitable Problem, How to meet it. 


89 


God led the Jewish race as a father leads a child. Incom¬ 
plete and even imperfect conceptions of Himself were first 
necessarv, to suit the immature mind of the Hebrew, and the 
Hebrew in his growth also had his misconceptions of God, and 
of God’s call to him. As the earliest Biblical narratives come 
to us they can be truly said to be inspired, but intended to be 
inspired visions, parables, apocalyptic in their nature rather than 
a literal statement of historical fact. In that age, they resemble 
the more perfect parables of our Lord, many of which were never 
intended to be literal statements of fact, but nevertheless inspir¬ 
ed representations of essential and abiding truth. 

The liberal therefore holds that inspiration is suggestive 
rather than definitive. If it were definitive, only one system of 
thought could have come from it. Since it is suggestive rather, 
many varying systems of thought have come from it, all of 
them holding more or less measure of truth. He also would claim 
that the statement of Christianity as given to the heathen is of 
great importance. As Protestants we can never claim that a 
system of truth is necessaily wholly defended by the lives of its 
exponents. For example, some of the most devoted men and 
women who have ever lived, were members of the Catholic 
Church, and yet we must distinguish to a certain extent between 
their lives and the truth for which they stand. Protestantism 
received its real intellectual backbone in Europe when in certain 
works of his Calvin stated and defended its principles. These 
works of Calvin became as it were the constitution of Protestant¬ 
ism, around which the strong men of Europe rallied. Protest¬ 
antism was expressed in such a manner as to compel their 
assent, and give definiteness and force to what they professed. 

I have just been reading a most interesting weekly, in 
which there is a symposium by many men, both missionaries in 
India and leaders of thought in England. One of the most 
significant statements I shall quote. It is by Rev. E. P. Rice, 
of Baugalore, India. “ Another fact in our Indian experience 
ig no less striking. It is that the very same persons who reject 
our theology, accept our teachings on every other science, even 
although it is subversive of the traditional view of things con¬ 
tained in the Puranas and other sacred books, and although it is 
foreign to their ancestral customs and prejudices. The explana¬ 
tion is not far to seek. It is that the science we teach is kept 


90 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


constantly up to date, it is in harmony with the fullest and 
latest knowledge of the universe possessed by any nation, and 
especially that it rests on a sound basis of induction which 
cannot be gainsaid. But much of the theology they hear of is 
of other days, ancient, mediaeval, traditional—possibly the best 
of its kind in the days when it was devised and in the light of 
the knowledge of the universe then available; but now in many 
respects difficult to harmonise with the fuller light of things 
seen and unseen which God has graciously put within our 
reach.” 

This same writer quotes from a Hindoo, tile author of the 
“ Oriental Christ,” one of the most spiritually minded of India’s 
sons, one who had testified that for long years “Christ had been 
the meat and drink of his soul.” This Hindoo says in speaking 
of the thoughtful and educated men of India,—“ These men are 
steadily imbibing the spirit of Christ, and yet it is useless to 
deny that their attitude is hostile to the Christian missionary. 
Their honor for the personal character of Jesus is ripening into 
personal love and spiritual acceptance, but their repugnance to 
what is known as popular Christian theology is complete. Your 
excellent people seldom care to make distinction between 
Christian theology and the spirit of Christianity. The latter I 
take it was left by Christ, and maintained by the humblest and 
worthiest of his followers in all ages. The former is the result 
of the controversies and accidents of the Christian Church, the 
result of law and logic and metaphysical and ethical speculations 
in the West. It is the spirit of Christ’s life that we demand in 
India—charity, temperance, wisdom, holiness,—but they cram 
us with the sawdust of theology.” 

My readers will understand why I have given more time to 
the statement of the liberal position rather than to the position 
of the conservative. In the first place we are more familiar 
with the conservative, and in the second place it takes more 
time to make a reply to a position, than it does to state it in the 
outset. 

It is not my purpose in this paper to try and convert men 
to one position or another. It is rather to show this, that an 
uncompromising attitude on either side must not only lead to 
dissension within the Church itself, but also weaken the faith 
of our native Christians. Rather must I make this plea, that 


An Inevitable Problem, How to meet it 


91 


1910] 


the conservative regard himself as most deficient when without 
the friendship and stimulus of more liberal thinkers, and 
that the liberal thinker regard himself as most deficient when 
without the friendship and counsel of men of the conservative 
school. Each needs the other. Both kinds of men are needed, 
and when they exist together in friendship and mutual respect, 
then and then only can extremes be tempered, and even be made 
impossible of any permanent existence. In the past these two 
parties as such have fought each other and wasted in recrimina¬ 
tion and strife, the energy that ought to be spent in the service 
of our common Eord. Hence history is full of blatant con¬ 
servatives and of blatant liberals. The blatant conservative 
has produced the blatant liberal, and the blatant liberal has 
been responsible for the continuance of the blatant conservative. 
Blatant conservatism side by side with blatant liberalism, 
produces atheism. Among missionaries today in China, there 
are many conservatives who shun the opinions of liberals, and 
there are liberals who shun the opinions of conservatives. This 
has been a distinct loss to all such men themselves, and truth 
has suffered even more. 

Christian theology as formulated in the West must be 
affected by Western science, even as the Copernican theory 
once altered it. Christian theology as we have it to day, must 
be affected by Chinese thought, if it be put into that form which 
will have most power in the East, and it is only by mutual 
respect, interchange of opinions, and mutual co-operation in the 
actual work of saving and serving men, that such a strong 
residue of vital, abiding, and unassailable truth shall be present¬ 
ed as shall be best suited to doing Christ’s work in the heart of 
the Chinese. I am aware that there are many who say that any 
introduction of new thought is attended with danger to both 
faith and morals. I might reply that if it comes into a Church 
divided by opposing systems, where there is insufficient mutual 
respect and co-operation, then there is great danger. So is 
there a yet greater danger if a consideration of the truth existing 
in modern thought be delayed indefinitely. For when it comes 
it will then come as a destructive cataclysm. Better for it to 
come slowly and be used constructively. For example, the 
Protestant Reformation has taught us great lessons. The truths 
which Luther taught resulted in the undermining of the accept- 


92 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


ed faith of thousands, and the increase of immorality amongst 
great multitudes of the people. The masses, in the surrender 
of their religious faith, lost for a time their respect for law and 
order as well. It was a cataclysm, for that was the only way 
in that intolerant age, in which truth could come to men. 

We are to-day entering upon a widespread renaissance, as 
great as that of the Reformation. Woe be to us if intolerance, 
or even the lack of mutual sympathy compel that renaissance 
to come as a cataclysm. For I feel sure that whatever comes, 
if we prepare for it together, lovingly, prayerfully, and in the 
unity of God’s Holy Spirit, we shall avoid the storm and the 
tempest, and prepare for a yet brighter day in the history of a 
universal triumphant Christendom. I believe that modern 
thought tempered by true conservatism is already giving to us 
new and yet surer bases for all the essentials of vital faith, the 
faith which has been ever the inheritance of the Christian 
Church, 


Review of the Year 

BY W. NELSON BITTON 

I N looking back over the work of Protestant Christian 
missions in China during the year 1909 an outstanding 
feature would seem to be its constructive character. In 
general attitude the missionary force appears to have come to 
closer grip with the whole situation as it confronts the mission¬ 
ary enterprise. The stock-taking process which has been very 
evident during previous years has not been in vain. ‘Let us 
then be up and doing’ has been the motto in the forefront of 
the work of 1909, and there are welcome signs of a well- 
considered and considerable advance in all departments of 
service, especially in connection with the problems of direct 
evangelization. This is only as it should be, for every year that 
passes ought to find the missionary agency better equipped for 
service, not merely in relation to men and material, but also in 
reference to a truer knowledge and fuller understanding of the 
situation. The day for magnificent dashes into unknown ter¬ 
ritory has largely passed ; most of the workers are no longer in 
the position of 4 pioneers in advance ’ ; clearings which denote 





WEST LAKE, HANGCHOW. 



CREEK SCENE, DONGSI. 


[Reduced from Missionary Home Postcards. See advertisement.] 












1910] 


Review of the Year 


93 


the presence of the camps of the kingdom of God are dotted here 
and there over the whole area of non-Christian China, and from 
these established bases the work of clearance, drainage, plough¬ 
ing and tilling advances, looking to the day when the whole 
land will bring forth fruit to the honour and glory of God. 
Our missions are giving evidence of the second century period 
of their existence in the empire. God has settled us here and 
given us a place to dwell in and a fine scope for our efforts— 
‘let us, His servants, arise and build. 5 This spirit has been 
very manifest in the various activities of 1909. Sorely needed 
attention has been giveu to the problems relating to ‘ homes 
for us and our little ones, 5 that from these spiritual homes, 
the churches called by the name of Jesus, all necessary activities 
may go forth for the accomplishment of the work of complete 
reclamation. 

I. Turning first to the movements connected directly with 
the Christian church , it is quite certain that the year has seen 
a very considerable ingathering of converts to the churches. 
Figures are not yet available, but all information received 
points to the fact that the past year has been considerably in 
advance of 1908 in this respect. And the character of the 
converts heightens with the passing years. Gradually but 
surely, in almost every province, law-suit enquirers are diminish¬ 
ing. A few more years of steady perseverance along the line 
of entire refusal to appear either directly or indirectly connected 
with Yam§n matters, save in cases of clearly proven persecution, 
should resolve the whole of this law-suit trouble and serve to 
clear the missionary cause generally from much suspicion in 
the eyes of the Chinese. The increase in Christian knowledge 
and the deepening of the spiritual life of the Chinese church 
members is a fact calling for profound thanksgiving. Without 
such signs of spiritual blessing the harvesting of souls even 
would have been a cheerless task. The response of the Chris¬ 
tian Chinese in so many widely separated parts of the field to 
the message of the Holy Spirit is a tremendous uplift. The 
revival movement, or better, the spiritual movement within the 
church, has been carried forward from 1908, and in Shansi, 
Shensi, Shantung, Honan, Fokien, Kiangsi, and Chekiang the 
fruits of the Spirit have been manifest in special blessing. Such 
works of grace, operating in the hearts of professing Christians 
first and chiefly, are an outstanding feature of the year under 
review. 


94 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


In this connection mention must be made of the growing 
part which consecrated Chinese workers have had in these 
enterprises . In Foochow and Shantung particularly this has 
to be noted. A Methodist pastor in the one case felt and 
responded to the influence of the Spirit, and great results flowed 
from that beginning, whilst in Shantung a remarkable move¬ 
ment among the students in the colleges followed the con¬ 
secrated efforts of a Presbyterian pastor. Many students were 
led to give their lives to Christian service and to offer them* 
selves to the ministry of the church. 

Iu connection with the various Bible Institutes which 
have been successfully carried on during the year, as well 
as at such conventions as that of the Christian Endeavour 
Societies, held in Nanking during April, much prominent work 
was done by Chinese preachers. Many of these workers have 
demonstrated clearly their possession of gifts of leadership and 
administration. Missionaries have testified frequently to the 
great assistance their work has received from a policy of trust 
in chosen Chinese helpers. In all respects the Chinese ministry 
has proven its capacity and value as at no period before. 

The Evangelistic Association of China met in Shanghai in 
March and successfully organized. The Evangelistic Com¬ 
mittee issued an appeal to the Home Churches and Boards 
calling for 3,200 additional men workers and 1,600 women in 
order to meet the urgent needs of China. Special evangelistic 
labours were undertaken by Messrs. Newell, Chapman and 
Alexander, from the United States, and F. B. Meyer, from 
England. The latter was the special deputation from Keswick 
to the summer resorts and was also a special deputation from 
the World’s Sunday School Association. Mention should be 
made of the first United Anglican Church Conference held in 
China, which took place in Shanghai during March, rfnd also 
of the meeting of the United Presbyterian Church Federation, 
held in May. 

Sunday School ivork has made considerable headway 
during the year; the literature published by the Sunday School 
Committee meeting with special acceptance. Sunday School 
conferences were held in the various summer resorts. The 
Tract Societies of China have been in receipt of special grants 
from the R. T. S. of London for the distribution of literature 
among the Chinese pastors and preachers, and tract activity 
has been a special feature of the year’s work. All the Bible 


1910] 


Review of the Year 


95 


Societies in China have had a record year. The whole question 
of Christian literature for China, especially for the scholars 
and the youth, still awaits, in spite of special efforts during 
1909, the worthy attention of the Christian church. Meetings 
of provincial federations have been held in various centres and 
plans for the furtherance of unity and for the adoption of 
special lines of work made and entered upon. There has been 
further evidence of the drawing together of church bodies in 
the empire for common service, and the sense of brotherliness 
has appeared in many ways. A growing spirit of mutual 
charity in regard to varieties of ecclesiastical and theological 
opinion has emphasized this, while there has not been wanting 
evidence of a deepened insistence upon the person and work of 
the Lord Jesus as the central fact and one foundation of mis¬ 
sionary labour. 

II. Turning then to the educational position . At the be¬ 
ginning of the year the plans for a Christian university or uni¬ 
versities in China were again definitely before the missionary 
body for consideration. The Rev. Lord William Cecil was 
in China acting on behalf of an influential committee re¬ 
presenting particularly the universities of Oxford and Cam¬ 
bridge and spent some time in consultation with educational 
authorities in various centres. As a result of that visit Wu¬ 
chang has been freely named as a probable centre for a union 
Christian university under these auspices. The fund opened 
in England last year for this purpose is being pressed forward 
at the present time. Two influential representatives of Chicago 
University, Professors Burton and Chamberlin, aiso spent 
some months in China during the first half of the year pursu¬ 
ing enquiries into the educational needs of China on behalf of 
a commission in the United States, which is said to be prepar¬ 
ing to give very considerable help along educational lines to 
the Chinese. The enquiries of the deputation were directed 
especially through missionary channels, but it is not yet as¬ 
certained what form the assistance projected from Chicago will 
take. A representative of Harvard University has recently been 
visiting various centres to enquire concerning the possibility of 
medical educational work being undertaken in definite con¬ 
nection with that centre of learning. The China Emergency 
Committee, formed in London two years ago, is still attempting 
to raise funds for the special development of literary and edu¬ 
cational work in China, and its labours are now bearing fruit. 


96 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


In Tsingtao the German government has made a grant 
equal to £30,000 for the foundation of a university and has 
apportioned a sum of ,£7,500 annually for its maintenance. 
The Chinese government made a special contribution towards 
the establishment of this new institution. In Hongkong private 
philanthropy of a munificent kind has produced a university 
scheme under the direction of the British government. Princely 
donations have been received from both foreign and Chinese 
sources, and the undertaking is assured. The viceroyalty of 
Canton gave practical expression of sympathy with the move¬ 
ment. Both these university schemes are entirely secular in 
scope. 

The triennial meetings of the Educational Association of 
China were held in May, and served to draw special attention 
to fresh factors in the educational problem. Steps were taken 
to associate Chinese educationists with the foreign members 
of the association and a Chinese co-secretary was appointed. 
The pressing question of the attitude of the government of 
China towards mission schools and their graduates and vice 
versa was discussed and has been further canvassed through 
the year. The Chinese government, through its Board of Edu¬ 
cation, has not been specially active in matters of internal 
educational reform. The elementary school system of China 
is growing very gradually, but the government scheme, of study 
has been steadily pressed forward and signs are given that the 
work of the Board of Education, though subject to slips and 
changes, will become finally effective and the curriculum in mis¬ 
sion schools must take count of it. More definite attention has 
been given to the problem of students educated abroaf In April 
twenty students went from the Nobles College in Peking for a 
period of study in Germany, and in October a band of fifty young 
men started for the United States. Christian work is being carried 
on amongst the students in America and Britain, and in each of 
these countries the Chinese students have organized themselves 
into societies for mutual help. The number of students in 
Tokyo has been further reduced, but a very large number of 
serious-minded and diligent men are still there pursuing 
courses of study. The V. M. C. A. work among them is 
still being carried on, though with a reduced and altogether 
insufficient staff of foreign workers. All round there has 
been a solid advance made in higher education, and mission 
schools and colleges have begun to feel the advance of govern- 


1910 ] 


Review of the Year 


97 


rnent competition, a competition which is not likely to decrease 
either in character or extent. 

III. Movements towards reform , which are of great con¬ 
cern to the Christian church, must be briefly touched upon. 
1909 will reckon as the year of opium reform in China, 
since it saw the meetings of the International Opium Com¬ 
mission, through the findings of which China received definite 
international approval of her anti-opium policy aud the 
unanimous consent of all civilized powers to her proposals. 
This commission met at the instance of the United States 
government, which is leading the w r ay in this reform. Great 
progress has been,made with the eradication of poppy growth 
over almost all China. Many provinces which aforetime grew 
large crops have been entirely cleared during the year. Much, 
however, remains to be done in order to accomplish the aboli¬ 
tion of the habit. The officials are not yet clear from the 
vice. Both the Prince Regent and Prince Kung have been 
very active and insistent in regard to opium reform. The 
last opium divans under the Shanghai Municipal Council, are 
being closed at the time of writing. 

Proposals for the abolition of the queue and for the adop¬ 
tion of foreign dress in China have again been made, but after 
consideration in official quarters, were rejected. The Anti-foot¬ 
binding Society has not been in evidence, but the movement 
has proved itself firmly rooted and is growing steadily. The 
Chinese press has showu its increased power in many ways, 
both for good and evil. I11 the treaty ports the papers have been 
often reckless in their anti-foreign propaganda and are at once 
both a source of help and peril to the best interests of China. 
Their antagonism to Japan is especially manifest, and during 
the year the feeling against that nation has shown no signs 
of waning. It is more virulent at the close of the year than 
at its opening and is a growing menace to the peace of the 
Far East. 

Apart from this standing difficulty the international rela¬ 
tions of China are peaceful, and although at one time it seemed 
that a rupture between China and Japan was imminent owing to 
protracted difficulties regarding railway matters in Manchuria, 
the year closes peacefully. The action of Japan in both Man¬ 
churia aud Korea has aroused deep resentment and the tragic 
death of Prince Ito evoked little sympathy in Chinese hearts. 
China’s present difficulties with other powers are largely of 


93 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


a financial kind and concerned with plans for development 
and with Chinese desires to be rid of the encumbrance of the 
foreign treaties. H. E. Tang Hsiao-yi made a tour on behalf 
of the Chinese government, to America and Europe, enquiring 
especially into the question of currency. At the present time 
Prince Tsai Hsun and Admiral Sail are abroad making enquiries 
into proposals for a new Chinese navy. 

Railway development has gone forward rapidly. Con¬ 
struction under both Chinese and foreign supervision has been 
a success.- The South Manchurian Railway, linking the 
Chinese Eastern aud the Trans-Siberian systems, was completed 
early in the year; the line from Peking to Kalgan has been 
officially opened, and trains are moving regularly from 
Shanghai to Hangchow. Work is proceeding on the Tientsin- 
Pukou line, on the Shanghai-Hangchow extension to Ningpo, 
on the Cauton-Hankow line, while the work of construction 
on the proposed line from Ichaug to Cheutu was recently 
begun. A good deal of diplomatic effort has been evident in 
attempts to secure the right to finance proposed lines of railway 
by competing nationalities, with the result that China is now 
able to obtain loans for railway development under her own 
auspices on very favourable terms. It remains to be seen 
whether China can manage as well as properly construct a 
railway system. In connection with charges of maladmin¬ 
istration of railway funds several leading officials and rail¬ 
way directors have been impeached and removed from their 
appointments. 

IV. Of political developments in China during the year the 
most startling have been the removal from office of two of the 
nation’s leading statesmen, H. E. Yuan Shih-kai and H. E. 
Tuan Fang. The reasons given for the degradation of the last 
named were very frivolous and inadequate. The Prince Regent 
has not been able to maintain the extreme popularity with 
which he came into power, and it is asserted that the more 
conservative Manchu faction has gained a Teading hold upon 
his mind and policy. The late Empress and Empress-Dowager 
were buried in May and October respectively. The mausoleum 
for the late Emperor is said to have been prepared at a cost of 
five million Taels, and six million Taels is the estimate of the 
cost of the funeral of the late Empress-Dowager. At this later 
event there was a revolt of the wives of the late Emperor Tung 
Chih, and a palace squabble of some magnitude resulted. Two 


1910] 


Imperial Edicts in 1909 


99 


outstanding deaths among high Chinese officialdom have to be 
recorded, namely H. E. Sun Cilia Nai, a venerable and highly 
esteemed official, and the well-known Grand Councillor, H. E. 
Chang Chih-tung. The Provincial Parliaments of China met 
in assembly for the first time in October, and herein has to be 
chronicled an event of historic importance. This is recognized 
as the first definite step towards constitutionalism in this 
Imperial kingdom. Elected representatives now become the 
mouth-pieces of the provinces. A united gathering of repre¬ 
sentatives of the provincial assemblies is being arranged for, to 
be held in Shanghai. The political events of the year may 
prove the beginning of movements of an epoch-making char¬ 
acter. At its close China presents a problem of entrancing 
interest to all who are intelligently acquainted with her history. 
Perils beset her on all sides and especially within, but careful 
foresight and enlightenment on the part of her rulers might 
make the present the beginning of an assured stage of steady 
and safe progress. To Christian missionaries the times are more 
than ever ripe for service in God’s kingdom here. A review of 
the events of the past year must serve to deepen faith in the 
divine purpose, to increase the measure of devotion and, above 
all, to drive the missionary worker to more constant and 
intelligent prayer for the future of this ancient empire. 


Imperial Edicts in 1909 

BY J. DARROCH, D. LIT. 

T HE following extracts are from the Edicts of 1909, such 
as had reference to, or especial connection with, and 
influence upon the work ol Christian missions. 

January 2 . Dismissal of Yuan Shih-kai. —Yuan 
Shih-kai, Grand Councillor and President of the Waiwupu, had 
been rapidly promoted and appointed to high office in the last 
reign. We have on our ascension to the throne bestowed a 
reward on him for his useful abilities and in order that he may 
exert himself. Unexpectedly he is suffering from leg disease 
(rheumatism) and walks only with difficulty. He is therefore 
incapacitated for office. Let him vacate his post and return to 
his native place for treatment of the disease. This is to show 
compassion and consideration of him. 




100 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


January 5.—Prince Pu Lun and others who have been 
commanded to inspect and find a suitable site near the Eastern 
and Western Mausolea for the mausoleum of the late Emperor 
Kwang Hsu, have now reported that they have discovered the 
Chin Lung Yun, near the Western Mausolea, to be a spacious, 
level, and most propitious site. The Chin Lung Yun is hereby 
styled the ‘Chung Ling,’ and a propitious date will be fixed 
for the beginning of work on the place. 

January 2 .—Decree commanding the Imperial Board of 
Astronomy to choose a propitious day in the 3rd Moon for the 
interment of Emperor Kwang Hsu’s coffin. Also to choose a 
propitious day in the 9th Moon for the removal of the Grand 
Dowager Empress’s coffin and another propitious day in the 
10th Moon for the permanent interment of Her Majesty’s 
remains. 

January 14 .—Decree stating that although Prince Kung 
has been commanded more than once to pray on behalf of the 
throne for snow in the capital only a slight fall has taken 
place. Prince Kung is again commanded respectfully to offer 
up incense in the temple of Seasonable Response on the 17th 
instant. 

February 7.—In these difficult times, when talents are 
needed to assist in the administration of the empire, the State 
does not grudge high emoluments for the inducement of scho¬ 
lars to join the public service and will also often make appoint¬ 
ment irrespective of precedent and rank. Recently, however, 
ministries and offices in the capital and provinces in official 
appointment and expenditure have not displayed sincerity or 
honesty of purpose in that the men they employ and promote 
from insignificant ranks to hold high office are seldom gifted 
with extraordinary talents and many are mere flatterers and 
parasites. The officials appointed by the different ministries, 
viceroys or governors are henceforth commanded to be strictly 
examined by the ministry of the civil office, and those who 
hold several positions with large salaries should have them 
reduced within reasonable bounds. 

February 77.—When the commissioners for the revision 
of laws last submitted the draft criminal code the office for the 
study of constitutional politics communicated it to the minis¬ 
tries and offices in and out of Peking for discussion. It has 
been recommended to us that the new and old laws of China 


1910] Imperial Edicts in 1909 fOi 

should be carefully compared and that the code should be 
revised properly so as to attach due importance to human 
relationships and to preserve government and peace. We then 
commanded the commissioner for revision of laws to revise 
carefully the code in conjunction with the Ministry of Justice. 

February 22.— In regard to the memorial of Chiang 
Han, Minister of Education, presented through the censorates, 
the memorialist states that since the abolition of corporal 
punishment in trials, although harsh and cruel feelings have 
been reduced, the harm of delay and implication has been ag¬ 
gravated, innumerable litigation fees are demanded, so that by 
the time the people’s wrongs are righted their properties are gone 
and they are ruined. This is detestable in the extreme. All 
officials are hereby commanded to eradicate these evil practices; 
any offence when discovered will entail severe punishment. 

March 25 .—Decree pointing out that the discharge of 
censors Li Chia-hua and others on the impeachment of the 
censorate are ordered with a view to exhorting breadth of mind 
and condemning bigotry and commanding censors hereafter 
to make suggestions and criticisms on reform with thorough¬ 
ness and on sound principles. 

Decree eulogising the lecture on the general history of 
Europe prepared and submitted by Wu Shih-chuen and 
commanding the other officials who are appointed to prepare 
lectures to make a careful and sound study of constitutional 
matters and reform and present the result for Imperial perusal. 

April 4 .—Decree commending a number of officials for 
promoting education in Chinese Turkestan and dismissing 
others in that province for neglect of educational interests. 

April 8 .—Decree in response to memorial by the Com¬ 
mission of Constitutional Reform on the Scheme and Regula¬ 
tions of the Imperial Noble’s Political School. The officials 
are commanded to conduct the school efficiently. The sons of 
Imperial nobles are commanded to enter the school and threat¬ 
ened with penalties in the event of disobedience. 

May 15 .—We have perused a memorial from the Board 
of Education submitting revised regulations for primary schools 
and primary courses to be taught therein. These are made with 
the object of securing a wide and universal spread of education. 
We find that they are practical and effective, and we command 
the viceroys and governors in all the provinces to direct the 


<02 The Chinese Recorder [January 

Commissioners of Education to put them into force effectually 
according to local conditions in all government and private 
schools. Eet them appoint deputies to supervise and scrutinize 
the regulations as they are being carried out. Should any 
officials or gentry in future in their management of schools be 
guilty of evasions and fail to comply with the regulations the 
Ministry of Education should acquaint itself with the offence 
and severely impeach the offenders. In this manner it is hoped 
that schools will multiply and thrive in the empire and the 
popular intelligence will become daily more enlightened so as 
to fulfill our earnest desire to educate and cultivate our people. 

June 20 .—Decree appointing a number of returned stu¬ 
dents who have passed the palace examinations to various posts 
and expectant ranks in the Hanlin College, the ministries and 
the provinces. 

July 15 .—The supreme command of the army and navy 
should be vested in the Emperor alone. We now anuounce 
that we will be generalissimo of the army and navy of the 
Chinese empire. We also command the formation of an 
army Advisory Board to assist us in managing naval and 
military affairs in the empire. 

November //.—Decree approving the curriculum of the 
Imperial Noble’s School and promising to grant the school a 
copy of the collected institutes of the empire. 


The argument for the missionary enterprise is three-fold— 
from the Word, from the World, and from the Work. We 
are pledged to missionary zeal and ceaseless activity— 

First, because the Bible is a missionary book ; 

Secondly, because the study of the World, as it is, 
reveals the fact that the Gospel of our Rord Jesus 
Christ is precisely what it needs ; 

Thirdly, because the success of the work, so far as it 
has gone, is surprising, and shows clearly that if 
the church were united, and set upou discharging 
the obligation, it would be quite possible, within 
one generation, to cover the earth with the knowl¬ 
edge of the Eord, 

Robert F. Horton. 



1910] 


Ode to Christmas Morning 


103 


Ode to Christmas Morning 

“ Born of a lowly maid.” 

’Twas when the earth lay bound in winter’s chill, 

Born of a lowly maid, our Lord Christ came. 

Not as of old, when God on Sinai’s hill 
Spoke in the thunder and consuming flame, 

No trumpet signal woke 

The simple Bethlehem folk 

To greet a son of royal David's line—» 

The Holy Babe lay cradled with the kine; 

And all in meekness, and in mercy mild, 

He came on earth, with man to dwell, and came a little child. 

Angels, in chorus high, 

With voices clear, rang praises from the sky ; 

Celestial brightness filled the heavens above. 

The shepherds rude, their flocks secure around, 

In wonder list, amazed at the sound, 

With fear attentive to that song of love. 

Glory to God ; on earth be peace, they heard ; 

While news of Israel’s Saviour King their sluggard spirits stirred. 

Low in the Hast gleamed bright God’s glorious star. 

Wise watchers of the sky, with souls devout, 

Hailed it the call Divine, and from afar 
To seek a new-born King, in faith set out. 

By night, by day, 

They sped their way, 

Through strange lands guided by that heavenly ray, 

Till at the manger-shrine their gifts they laid ; 

And with them worshipped blessed Mary, that meek Mother maid. 


Prophet and sage and King 

His reign foretold, Who came for matt to die. 

And, by an angel’s wing, 

Was wafted good news of eternity. 

What high hosannas greet Him at His birth ! 

What offerings rare before His feet are spread! 

That helpless babe; yet Lord of Heaven and earth, 

True God ; and but a manger for His bed— 

For us was born that bygone winter’s day 

And for our heavenly comfort in the straw-filled manger lay. 

Then I, this Christmas-tide would join the song, 

And chant my ‘ Glory ’ with th’ Angelic choir; 

Bend with the shepherds who to Bethlehem throng; 

To bring my treasure with the wise, conspire; 

Since ’twas for me Christ came on Christmas morn, 

And of a lowly maid, for me, the Prince of Peace was born. 

Nelson Bitton. 


Shanghai, December igog. 


104 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


Correspondence. 


GENERAL BOARD OF EDUCA¬ 
TION. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : Will you kindly 
insert in the Recorder that the 
majority vote of the members 
of the General Board of Educa¬ 
tion has transferred the head¬ 
quarters to Peking and elected 
the Rev. John Wherry, D.D., 
Secretary of the Executive Com¬ 
mittee, to whom any matters to be 
considered by the Board should 
be sent. 

H. H. Lowry, 
Chairman. 


“heresies.” 

To the Editor of 
“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : Your recent refer¬ 
ences to orthodoxy, the otber- 
man’s-doxy, and heresy, set me 
thinking, and the result is the 
following list of “ heresies.” If 
the gentle reader disagrees, all 
right. At all events the points are 
well worth thinking about:— 

1. That Chinese Christians 
are too poor to give a great deal 
more than they do now. 

2. That anything is good 
enough for our Chinese. 

3. That the salary of a foreign 
cook (without his “squeezes”) 
is enough for a helper. 

4. That Chinese advice is not 
worth getting (or following). 

5. That a Ch inese who can 
talk well is all right for a helper. 

6. That every missionary is 
fit for all sorts of work. 

7. That the upper classes are 
inaccessible. 


8. That a small vocabulary is 
enough “ to get on with.” 

9. That we are getting on 
pretty well in some things. 

10. That anything less than 
“ the fulness of the Spirit,” will 
do. 


Yours, etc., 


D. 


MR. WANG TO HIS REVIEWER. 

To the Editor of 

“ The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir-: I read with very 
much pleasure and gratitude from 
the Book Table in the December 
number of the Recorder your 
reviewer’s valuable comment on 
the last volumes of my Girls’ 
Readers. I feel that I am hardly 
worthy to be so highly praised, 
and I am sure that through that 
most valuable recommendation 
of yours the circulation of my 
books will be greatly increased. 

But allow me to say a word 
or two here with regard to the 
criticism you made on my books. 
You s aid that a tendency to 
exaggeration in the statement 
of facts was observable in some 
of the subjects. I dare not 
totally deny the existence of 
such a tendency, but I can say 
that most of the facts stated 
there come from quite reliable 
sources. Take, for instance, 
the lesson on “ Pearls.” You 
said that the sizes of pearls were 
greatly exaggerated, but I should 
like to hold responsible for my 
statements several books, among 
which is the Biblical Cyclopaedia 
or Dictionary edited by John 
Eadie, D.D., LL-D. If yon will 
please turn to page 504 of that 
dictionary you will see that some¬ 
times, though very rarely, pearls, 



1910] 

even larger than walnuts, have 
been found The statement that 
the small ones are as large as 
cherries is, I must acknowledge, 
greatly exaggerated, but in this 
case I was misguided by the 
wrong translation made of two 
Chinese books from which I first 
derived the statement. 

The story of the work of 
Florence Nightingale also was 
abstracted from a reliable Chinese 
book translated from the origin¬ 
al. I am sorry that I cannot 
find the original to quote it 
to you. In my opinion the 
reduction in the number of 
deaths from sixty per cent, to 
oue per cent, when the wounded 
are properly taken care of, is 
not impossible. Just imagine 
how thousands and thousands of 
people died of small-pox before 
the process of vaccination was 
discovered and how few people 
lose their lives now on account 
of this same disease! When, 
then, the wounded are properly 
and carefully taken care of what 
wonder is there that the number 
of deaths is greatly decreased. 

With regard to the expression 
*' foot-long-feet ” $ fZ Z J£> 
since even you, a Western gentle¬ 
man, was able to see that I was 
using “ a neat literary phrase ” 
to express the comparative large 
size of the Chinese girls’ natural 
feet over that of the bound ones, 
I am sure that no Chinese lite¬ 
rary inau would mistake that I 
was stating the actual size. 

I hope you will not think that 
by writing this I mean to argue 
against your valuable criticism. 

I thank you very much indeed 
for your kindness in paying so 
much attention to my books, 
and I shall always be exceed¬ 
ingly glad to receive your further 
valuable suggestions. 

Yours respectfully, 

Wang Hang-t'ong. 


105 

BIBUE DISTRIBUTION" AND THE! 

NEW REVISION. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : My attention has 
recently been more especially 
called to the matter of the far 
and wide distribution of the New 
Testament and portions among 
the Chinese. With reference to 
this matter I would call notice 
to a few points that may be of 
importance, 

1. The Bible and portions of 
the Bible have already been very 
widely distributed among the 
Chinese population generally, far 
wider than many of us think 
or perhaps are ready to believe, 
i. e., in the city of Tanyang, 
on the Grand Canal, contain¬ 
ing a population of 100,000, 
I was recently (old that about 
one-half of the families have the 
Bibles or portions iu their homes. 
I asked for evidence to this 
rather incredible statement, and 
my informant told me that on 
inquiry they will bring out these 
books and show them to you. 

2. But it is equally true that 
this book is not read by those 
that have copies. When a non- 
Christian Chinese buys a New 
Testament or a Gospel, which 
very many are quite willing to 
do, he will glance cursorily at 
the book, find a number of words 
and sentences in it that are unin¬ 
telligible to him, then throw it 
aside, never to take it up again. 
I think anyone will find that 
only a very small percentage of 
those who purchase these books 
ever read them to any great 
extent. Of course there are 
exceptions, but these are very 
few and far between. 

3. One very common reason 
given why the books are not 
read is, that they are unintelligl- 


C orrespondence 


106 

ble, and this reason holds good 
to a considerable degree also 
among the Chinese Christians. 
This is a good reason and a very 
effective one, and it is easy to 
see that it is very generally true. 

4. Hence the supreme im¬ 
portance of putting the Bible, 
especially those portions that are 
intended for far and wide dis¬ 
tribution, in an intelligible form. 
First, there should be a very 
clear and simple translation ; 
second, the portions and books 
distributed should be accom¬ 
panied with simple introductions 
and annotations. With refer¬ 
ence to the first of these require¬ 
ments I have recently been 
requested to make a comparison 
between the old and the revised 
Mandarin versions as to their 
relative fitness for distribution. 
While not in the least wishing 
to give an unfavorable criticism 


[January 

of the revised, truth compels 
me to say that in not a few 
places the meaning of the ori¬ 
ginal text has been obscured or 
rendered unintelligible to the 
ordinary Chinese by au over- 
strenuous attempt to give a 
verbally literal translation. This 
new version has many excellent 
traits, and it is doubtless best 
for the class room, where care¬ 
ful exposition is required, but 
that it is not as intelligible as 
the old version, will be, I think, 
generally admitted, not only by 
the Chinese Christians, but by 
anyone who will take the trouble 
to make a careful comparison 
between the two versions. 

We must make ourselves readi¬ 
ly intelligible to the Chinese, 
both in the spoken and written 
word, if we w T ould win them to 
the truth. 

Alex. 


The Chinese Recorder 


Our Book Table. 

The object of these Reviews is to give real information about 
books. Authors will help reviewers by sending with their books, 
price, original if any, or any other facts of interest. The custom 
of prefixing au English preface to Chinese books is excellent. 


The Chinese Language and How to 
Learn it. By Sir Walter Hillier, 
K.C.M.G., C.B. 2 Vols. Parts one 
to four. Kelly and Walsh. $5.00. 

These two paper-covered vol¬ 
umes form the second part of 
Sir Walter Hillier ? s book on 
“ The Chinese Language and 
How to Learn it. ’' The smaller 
of the two volumes consists of 
twelve stories from the Liao- 
chai, translated into Pekingese 
colloquial; the larger book con¬ 
tains the English translation of 
these stories, the author’s notes 
on the lessons and hints to stu¬ 
dents, also a glossary of the 
characters met with in the 
course studied. 


The books are printed on 
thick heavy paper and the type 
used is a black heavy print. 
The twelve stories contain, we 
are told, 25,000 characters. The 
Gospel of Matthew contains a 
considerably larger number of 
characters, and one cannot help 
thinking that these volumes 
might have been prepared in a 
more compact form and issued 
at a cheaper price. 

One can scarcely endorse the 
author’s opinion that a knowl¬ 
edge of 2,000 separate charac¬ 
ters is sufficient for ordinary 
use. The missionary who knew 
only the characters in the New 
Testament would be reckoned 



Our Book Table 


107 


1910] 

badly equipped for bis work, and 
there are more thau 3,000 in 
that book. 

The colloquial style of the 
stories is good. Even expe¬ 
rienced linguists could pick out 
a number of useful phrases to 
add to their vocabularies from 
a perusal of these tales. They 
are, moreover, both interesting 
and amusing. To one familiar 
with the language of Central 
China, phrases here and there in 
the narrative seem to be good 
Pekingese rather than good 
Mandarin. In the first story the 
following sentence occurs (page 

2): A WWM&m-Mlkt&W 

H 3 E * ft ft T. “ Clearly the 
man was carried off to its deu 
and eaten by the tiger.” Here 
the character twice repeated, 
is redundant. If it means any¬ 
thing, it is used in the same sense 
as as the sign of the pas¬ 
sive. Its omission would make 
no difference in the meaning of 
the sentence. Other instances 
may be given as £ $ jj| 
“Wang Cheng’s wife,” where 
the pronoun is used for the 
possessive particle (iff. And 
iiT $5 “wherefrom” 

where is used instead of $£. 
It may be said that there are no 
rigid grammatical rules in col¬ 
loquial Chinese, and that the 
people in Peking do in everyday 
conversation use the expressions 
quoted. This is to be fully 
admitted, but the expressions 
are colloquialisms nevertheless. 
Sir Walter Hillier quotes The 
Sacred Edict and The Dream 
of the Red Chamber as being 
works written in standard Man¬ 
darin. No such colloquial ex¬ 
pressions are to be found in 
these books. 

The author’s advice to the 
student to emphasize the third 
and second tones is one that the 
present writer is inclined to 


endorse with the addition of 
the “ruh-sheng” for Mid- 
China, but w r e cannot too 
strongly dissent from his dictum 
when he says : * ‘ When two third 
tone ivords follow each other 
one of the two has got to give 
way to the other, and the first 
generally gives way to the 
second by adopting a first or 
second tone.” The tones are 
difficult enough as it is, but if 
one had to remember a rule like 
“ Ih one and puli not, four before 
one, two, three, but always two 
before four,” it would be in¬ 
finitely more vexatious than 
multiplication and the rule of 
three. Then as to fourth tone 
words changing into the second 
tone ; as a rule a second tone word 
is always aspirated if it is capable 
of aspiration. The dictionary 
will show some exceptions to 
this statement, but the excep¬ 
tions are : (1) Pekingese second 
tone characters, which are real¬ 
ly “ruh-sheng” and are so 
given in Kang Hsi’s diction¬ 
ary, or (2) classical characters, 
which are not used in the spoken 
language, or custom would com¬ 
pel them to conform to the 
general rule. To illustrate this : 

ch'ang is a second tone w r ord, 
but it takes the third tone to 
mean “elder” and then it loses 
its aspirate and becomes 
“chang.” ^} “ chao ” is a first 
tone word meaning “ morning.” 
It takes the second tone and 
means “court” and it im¬ 
mediately becomes aspirated: 
“ ch'ao.” 1 |[ Chung is a fourth 
tone word and means “heavy.” 
It takes the second tone w ? hen it 
means 1 * repeated ’ ’ and is then 
aspirated “ch'ung.” §|i Tan 
is a fourth tone w T ord meaning 
“ a bullet.” It takes the second 
tone and means ‘ ‘ to thrum * ’ 
and is also aspirated “ t‘an.” 
Other instances might be cited, 


108 

but these are sufficient to show 
that there is a general, if not 
an invariable rule, that the 
second tone character is always 
aspirated when it is capable of 
aspiration and to indicate what 
confusion w r ould be introduced 
into the language if the rule 
suggested were adopted. The 
change of tone would, in many 
cases, involve the aspiration of 
unaspirated words and the con¬ 
sequent unintelligibility of the 
sentence in which they were 
used. 

The book has been printed 
without the author’s personal 
supervision, and this accounts 
for the fact that there are many 
typographical errors in the text. 
The character is wrongly 
written for JjL three times (pp. 
142 and 298 in part one and 
once in part four). |jg is put for 
on page 180 and Jj$ is printed 
for on p. 267. sg: “for¬ 
tunate” is correctly given on 
p. 218, but in a note warning 
the student against confusing it 
with ^ “bitter” the two 
characters are actually inverted 
and the author is made to com¬ 
mit the error against which he 
warns the student in the very 
act of giving the warning. 2^ 
is again wrongly written for 
on p. 303. A lengthy list of 
such errors might be pointed 
out; the author will be wise if 
he has them corrected in a new 
edition or his book will belie its 
title “The Chinese language 
and How to Learn it.” 


m M If !R. Children’s Hymnal, 
compiled by Miss Garland, China 
Inland Mission, Tsingchow, Kan- 
suh. Edited by Rev. F. W. Bailer, 
C. I. M., Chefoo. Paper, 17 cents; 
limp cloth, 50 cents. 

This is a collection of chil¬ 
dren’s hymns, nearly 200 in all, 
which has been compiled from 


[January 

the various hymn-books used 
by different missions, by a lady 
worker in Kansuli. In such a 
collection the hymns are neces¬ 
sarily of varying degrees of 
merit. The preface apologises 
for the simple style used, but it 
seems as if the apology is due, 
if it is due at all, for the use of 
those hymns in a children’s 
book which have a W£n-li cast. 
It is a good thing to have a 
hymn book specially prepared 
for children, and Miss Garland 
has earned the thanks of all 
who conduct children’s services 
for undertaking this labour of 
love. Most of the hymns run 
smoothly and well. With such 
a number to select from even 
the most fastidious taste will 
find something here with which 
it may be gratified. 


Wi Wi The Two Religions: 
Which is—? By Rev. Alfonso Ar- 
gento, C. I. M., Kwangchou, Ho¬ 
nan. 

This booklet—38 leaves—is 
written by one who has peculiar 
qualifications to deal with the 
subject of Roman Catholicism, 
its errors and deficiencies. A 
good book on the subject Is 
much needed and, though we 
must always deprecate heated 
controversy, a calm, dispassion¬ 
ate, and reasonable statement of 
the reasons why we protest 
against the doctrine and practice 
of the Roman Church would be 
found extremely useful in some 
districts at this present moment. 
The author knows his subject 
thoroughly and has the facts 
and the authorities for his state¬ 
ments at command. But while 
the book contains a mass of the 
most valuable information It is 
presented in such a dilapidated 
style that it is a positive dis¬ 
comfort to read it. The author 
will do Protestantism no service 


The Chinese Recorder 




Our Book Table 


109 


1910] 


until he whets his sword or, in 
other words, gets him a writer 
who will put his thoughts into 
readable Chinese. Where errors 
are so numerous it needs not to 
call attention to them, but let us 
notice the title,—^ ft ft 
The Two Religions : Which is, 
Which is what? Is $}, a mis¬ 
print for fj|? It is to be hoped 
the author will revise and re¬ 
issue his book. 

Murch6’s Science Readers. Book I. 
With Anglo-Chinese notes by Prof. 
Gist Gee. Translated by Sung Pah- 
foo, both of Soochow University. 
50 cts. 

An excellent little book in sim¬ 
ple English on the elementary- 
facts of science, culled from ob¬ 
servation of commonplace things. 
The Reader is intended to be 
understood by quite young chil¬ 
dren, and with the excellent notes 
in Chinese printed at the back 
of the book it should be found 
very useful by teachers in Chi¬ 
nese schools. 


Calendrier-Amiuaire pour 1910. The 
Siccawei Press. $1.50. 

This little book, issued annual¬ 
ly from the Observatory at Sic¬ 
cawei, contains the most varied 
information on a host of subjects, 
chiefly astronomical, to be sure, 
but metereology, hygiene, and 
statistics of various kinds all find 
a place in this little multum in 
parvo. It is cheap at a dollar 
and a half. 


The Transactions of the Asiatic So¬ 
ciety of Japan. Vol. XXXVI. Parts 
2 and 3. 

One of these volumes contains 
an exhaustive examination of 
the myth of the fox and the 
badger in Japanese folklore, by 
Dr. M. W. De Visser. Much of 
the information given is drawn 


from Professor De Groot’s Reli¬ 
gious Systems of China , so all 
that is said of the tricks of the 
fairy fox in Japan is said by the 
Chinese about the same animal 
in this country. One wonders 
how much longer this superstition 
will survive. Not long, we be¬ 
lieve. Nothing exorcises the 
fairies like the locomoti ve. When 
the puff of the engine is heard 
in the land the fairy foxes dis¬ 
appear. The other volume has 
a paper on the Ashikaga code by 
J. C. Hall, Esq., one on the 
Tengu ^ by Dr. De Visser 
and one on Confucian Philoso¬ 
phy in Japan by W. Deuing, Esq. 

m m it m t * 

A very well-written booklet 
of 15 pages, reciting the history 
and activities of the Norwegian 
Mission in China and other 
lands. 


“Makers of Cathay.” By C. Wilfrid 
Allan (Presbyterian Mission Press, 
Shanghai). $2. 

In the preface of this handy 
volume of 242 pages the author 
asks: “Who does not know 
something of Alexander the 
Great or Julius Caesar, of Char¬ 
lemagne or Lnther?”—names 
now familiar to Chinese stu¬ 
dents, on which many of them 
could pass an examination 
creditably. “ But who among 
ordinary readers knows any¬ 
thing about Chin Shih-huang or 
Ktiblai Khan, or Tai Tsung or 
Mencius?’’—perhaps the aver¬ 
age reader of the Recorder 
might hardly pass with honours 
an examination upon these not¬ 
ables. “And yet,” says Mr. 
Allan, “these latter names are 
worthy a place beside the 
former.” They were certainly 
as striking personages in their 
way and as famous among the 




110 

“yellow” quarter of the race 
as the former among an equal 
number in various other lands. 
And so in nineteen chapters of 
well-written material the author 
gives vivid sketches of the lives 
and times of “Confucius, the 
moral reformer; Mencius, the 
social reformer; Ch’in Shih- 
huang, the ‘ first Emperor ; ’ 
Chii Ko*liang, strategist and 
statesman ; Fa Sbieu and Suan 
Ts'ang, the Buddhist pilgrims ; 
Li Shih-min, the Emperor T‘ai 
Tsung; Li T‘ai-peli and Tu Fu, 
China’s greatest poets; Han 
Yli, the prince of literature; 
Wang An-shih, political eco¬ 
nomist and social reformer ; Chu 
She, scholar and philosopher ; 
Kublai Khan, the ‘ world’s Em¬ 
peror ; ’ Wen Tien-shiang and 
Lu Shiu-fu, the patriotic minis¬ 
ters; Hung Wu, the beggar 
king; Wu San-kuei, the peo¬ 
ple’s general; Koxinga, pirate 
and patriot ; K'ang She, the 
greatest of the Manchus ; Ch'ien 
Lung, the conqueror; Tseng 
Kuo-fan, the imperialist general; 
Li Hung-chang, statesman and 
diplomatist.” In these names it 
will be seen that out of mercy to 
English readers unfamiliar with 
the intricacies of the standard 
romanisation, Mr. Allan has 
slightly modified some of the 
spellings so as to make them 
pronounceable, for ksi and like 
spellings have proved insoluble 
problems to some across the seas. 

It is surely part of the mission 
of every reader of the Chinese 
Recorder (for the better under¬ 
standing of the Chinese people) 
to gain some knowdedge of at any 
rate the most striking epochs of 
Chinese history and of the lead¬ 
ing men who played their parts 
therein. But hitherto these 
details have been scattered about 
in a number of volumes, and 
Mr. Allan has done a great 


[January 

service to the missionary stu¬ 
dent, as well as to the general 
reader, in giving to both this 
well-planned and excellently 
written book. It is a reference 
work for every one of our per¬ 
sonal libraries. And it is hardly 
necessary to add that its paper, 
printing, and binding are of 
high quality. 

W. A. C. 


China and the Gospel. 

China and the Gospel is the 
title of the book which gives 
this year’s report of the China 
Inland Mission. It reflects 

i 

great credit on the editor. 

Its arrangement is a work of 
art, and it is also a compendium 
of useful information, both ge¬ 
neral and particular. The illus¬ 
trations are excellent, and are 
part of a scientific method for 
fixing the interest of the readers. 
In the various departments of 
the work it shows a substantial 
and well-merited progress. 

The total number of converts 
connected with the Mission is 
nearly 21,000; of these 2,540 
were received during last year. 
“For the shepherding of these 
souls and the evangelisation of 
those yet unreached” the Mis¬ 
sion has 211 central stations, 
more than 790 out-stations with 
995 chapels, 9 hospitals, 34 
dispensaries, 84 opium refuges, 
200 day and boarding-schools 
with about 4,000 scholars. 

The separate reports given by 
the superintendents reveal a 
steady growth at most of the 
centres, and the incidents recit¬ 
ed by the workers are full of 
interest and encouragement. 

One thing which gives the 
friends of the Mission unmixed 
pleasure is the increasing provi¬ 
sion which is being made for 
the education of the children of 


The Chinese Recorder 



Our Book. Table 


411 


1910] 

their Christian families and also 
for the training of the native 
ministry. Compared with other 
missions the China Inland has 
been somewhat backward in this 
work. Remembering, however, 
the main object for which the 
Mission was established, the fear 
of entering upon an extensive 
institutional work is pardonable. 
One cannot peruse the history of 
this work without admiring the 
Christian courage of its pio¬ 
neers. The efforts of George 
Hunter, who has located at Tih- 
hua-foo in the lonely province 
of Sinkiang, is especially worthy 
of praise. He exhibits the 
true apostolic spirit. The as¬ 
sociates of the Mission are also 
going forward, and it is stimulat¬ 
ing to read the wholesome con¬ 
ditions and promising prospects 
of their work. By far the most 
inspiring part of this neat little 
book is that which refers to the 
spirit of revival widespread' 
amongst the churches during the 
past year. The record of this 
movement proves that it has 
come not as the result of any 
emotional effort but as the out¬ 
come of God’s presence in the 
midst. The Chinese Christians 
have since given unmistakable 
evidence of a deeper knowledge 
of spiritual things. The out¬ 
standing element in it all has 
been a quickeued ‘ ‘ sensibility of 
sin.” This tidal wave of con¬ 
viction and genuine contrition of 
heart marks a decided advance 
in the character of the Christian 
church. 

It is cheering to find that the 
income of the Mission is steady 
and that the partners in the 
great enterprise of evangelism 
have been able to extend their 
borders. If one might venture 
a criticism on this report it is 
that the book contains 175 pages 
of matter, 63 of which are filled 


with statistics. It is expecting 
too much to think that outside 
of the severe student of missions 
and those immediately connected 
with the China Inland others 
should take time to wade through 
such a forest of figures. 

G. M. 


fiook review. 

Letters from China, with parti¬ 
cular reference to the Etnpress- 
Dowager and the women of China. 
By Sarah Pike Conger (Mrs. E. H. 
Conger.) Chicago : A. C. McClurg 
Co. 1909. 

Among this year’s books on 
China- the one- that will be most 
widely read, in America at any 
rate, will probably be this 
handsome volume of four hun¬ 
dred pages by the widow of the 
late U. S'. Minister in Peking. 
Despite a rather unfortunate 
style, which might best be de¬ 
scribed by the adjective ‘ ‘ sopho- 
moric,’'’ the book is thoroughly 
enjoyable, and should especially 
be appreciated by those feminine 
readers who will be glad to learn 
something, of the woman’s side 
of diplomatic life in Peking. 
If it be true that there is a 
“ diplomacy of the drawing¬ 
room,” as well as the more 
official type, then Mrs. Conger 
deserves high rank among the 
diplomats of her time in Peking. 
To her it was given in no small 
measure to gently remove the 
thoroughly Chinese wall of mys¬ 
tery that had long surrounded 
the Imperial Court of China. 
Ohe‘ appreciates the extent of 
that service after reading this 
book-. 

Mrs. Conger was one of those 
who shared the strange expe¬ 
riences of the siege of Peking, 
and among the most vivid pages 
of her book are those descriptive 
of that period, giving, one father 
a different view of the siege 



112 

from that given by Dr. Martin, 
Dr. Arthur Smith, or Mrs. Ada 
Haven Mateer. 

With Mrs. Conger’s philoso¬ 
phy of approach to the Chinese 
we can in part agree. The 
attitude of friendly sympathy 
and open-minded receptiveness 
is altogether commendable. But 
to hold that things Chinese 
must be right because the Chi¬ 
nese think they are right, is too 
easy a philosophy and one that 
the history of human progress 
cannot sanction. Many of us 
would not be in China if we held 
such a view. 

Some unfortunate vagaries in 
Romanization have been allowed 
in the book. The worst are per¬ 
haps the “ Pahz Ztah ” for Soo- 
chow’s famous pagoda, on page 
325, and “ the Viceroy, Joe Fu,” 
on page 359. “ Ruling, ” on 

page 339, is evidently a mistake 
for “ Kuliang,” and the German 
port in Shantung is several times 
written as “ Tsintan ” instead of 
the proper Tsingtau. A curious 
slip is in the reference to the 
“ Board of Rights ” on page 266, 
though doubtless such a Board 
could be of greater service to the 
Chinese people than the existing 
Board of Rites. His Excellency 
Yuan Shih-k'ai’s surname is 
repeatedly written as “ Yaun.” 
It would seem somewhat object¬ 
ionable to refer to Confucius as 
‘ ‘ China’s redeemer and saviour, ’ ’ 
page 320. 

The book is beautifully illus¬ 
trated from photographs; among 
the portraits being those of the 
late Em press-Do wager and a 
number of high Chinese and 
Mauchu princesses. A full 
index adds to the comfort of the 
reader. 

These letters of a bright and 
open-eyed woman, who used to 
the best advantage her six years 
in China, and who enjoyed a 


[January 

friendship almost intimate with 
the most remarkable woman 
China ever produced, will surely 
be of more than temporary 
value. 

P. E. C. 


Lights and Shadows of Chinese 
Life. By the Rev. J. Macgowan. 
Shanghai : North China Daily News 
and Herald, Ltd. 1909, 

Readers of Mr. Macgowan’S 
charming sketches of Chinese 
social life, as they appeared 
serially in the North-China 
Herald will be glad to have 
them in this more permanent 
and convenient form. They 
form a volume of 308 pages, and 
illustrations from photographs 
accompany the letter-press. One 
wonders if the illustrations could 
have been chosen by the cultur¬ 
ed author, for the picture illus¬ 
trating the decapitation of a cri¬ 
minal, opposite page 144, is in 
utterly bad taste. 

The volume would have been 
much more complete if furnished 
with an index. 

P. E. C. 


Inorganic Qualitative Analysis, by 
Liu Kuang-chao and Mr. Whitcker. 
Chemistry for Organised Schools of 
Science and Practical Physics, by 
the same. 

The first will be published 
early in 1910. The last two are 
finished and in use in the Shan¬ 
tung Christian University. Wilt 
also be printed during 1910. 
Will all teachers of science please 
note ? 


The Nanking University Magazine . 
Published by Nanking University, 
Price $1.00 per annum. 

This is the first issue of a new 
magazine, which is edited and 
managed by the students in the 
University. Beside the Edito¬ 
rial it contains an Historical 


The Chinese Recorder 





Our Book Table 


143 


1910] 

Sketch of Nanking University, 
and articles on the Provincial 
Assembly, Social Progress in 
China, etc. The paper opens by 
stating that “ It will be gratify¬ 
ing to the public to note the 


appearance of this magazine.” 
To be sure it will. On behalf of 
the public we offer our latest 
contemporary hearty congratu¬ 
lations and best wishes for a 
happy and useful future. 


Books in Preparation. (Quarterly Statement.) 

(Correspondence invited.) 


The following books are in course 
of preparation. Friends engaged in 
translation or compilation of books 
are invited to notify Rev. D. Mac- 
Gillivray, 143 N, Szecliueii Road, 
Shanghai, of the work they are 
engaged on, so that this column 
may be kept up to date, and over¬ 
lapping prevented. N. B. Some zuhose 
names have been on this list a long 
lime are asked to write and say if 
they have given up the work, or 
what progress, if any, they are mak¬ 
ing. Perhaps they are keeping others 
from doing the work. 

C. I,. S. 1.1 ST. 

Booker T. Washington’s “Up from 
Slavery.” By Mr. Kao Lun-ching. 

Wide Wide World. By Mrs. Mac- 
Gill ivray. 

S. D. Gordon's Quiet Talks on Ser¬ 
vice. (I11 press.) 

Religious Contrasts in Social Life. 
E. Morgan. 

American Education. E. Morgan. 
Romance of Medicine. McPliun. W. 
A. Cornaby. 

Fitch’s Lectures on Teaching. W. 
A. Cornaby. 

Chronicles of the Schonberg-Cotta 
Family. 

Law’s Serious Call. 

Meyer’s Elijah. 

Patterson’s Pauline Theology. 
Method of Bible Study. D, Mac- 
Gill ivray. 

Halley’s Comet. W. A Cornaby. 

Sterling’s Noble Deeds of Women. D. Mac- 
Gillivray. 

Speer’s Principles of Jesus, by Joshua Vale. 
Livingstone’s Travels (out). 

Gulick’s Growth of the Kingdom of God. 

(out), by D. MacGillivray. 

My Belief, Dr. Horton. 

IuteUectual Development of the Century. 
W. A. Cornaby. 

Ancient Principles for Modern Guidance. 
W. A. Cornaby. 

Face to Face. Mrs. Penn-Lewis (in press). 
Prose Mystics (out). 

Confessions of St. Augustine (out). 


GENERAL. 

Halley’s Comet. C.T. S. J. Darrocfa. 
Ballan tine’s Inductive Studies in 
Matthew. 

Organ Instructor. By Mrs. R. M. 
Mateer. 

Murray’s Like Christ. By Mr. Chow, 
Hangchow College. 

Illustrations for Chinese Sermons, 
by C. W. Kastler. 

By the same. Chinese Preacher’s 
Manual, and Daily Light for Chinese. 

Systematic Theology. 12 parts. 
Dr. DuBose. 

Torrey’s What the Bible Teaches. 
By J. Speicher. 

Stepping Pleavenward. By Mrs. 
Crossette. 

Expository Com. on Numbers. By 
G. A, Clayton. 

Expos. Com. on Hebrews, by G. L. 
Pullan. 

Little Meg’s Children. By Mrs. 
Crossette. 

Sermons on Acts. Genahr. 
Outlines of Universal History. H, 
L. W. Be van, Medhurst College. 

Tholuck’s Sermon on the Mount, 
By J. Speicher. 

“His Great Apostle,” and “His 
Friends.” By Rev. Chang Yang-hsiin, 
Stalker’s Paul. 

J. II. Jowett’s The Passion for Souls. 
(In mandarin.) Fulness of Power. 
Metaphors of St. Paul. Dean Howson. 
By J. Vale. 

Mrs, Nevius’ Mandarin Hymn 
Book. 

The Roman Theology and the Word 
of God, by Alphoriso Argento. 

Constructive Studies iu Life of 
Christ. H. W. Luce. 

New Primer of Standard Romauiza- 
tion on the Accumulative Method. 
By Frank Garrett. 

Training of the Twig. Drawbridge. 
J. Hutson. 



114 


The Chinese Recorder [January 


Prof. J. Percy Brace is preparing 
the following:— 

Elementary Outlines of Logic. 

Expository Lectures on the His¬ 
torical Parts of the Pentateuch. 

Expository Lectures on Old Testa¬ 
ment History (Solomon to Captivity). 

Biblical Atlas and Gazetteer. R. T. 
S., London. 

R. A. Hadeti is preparing Murray’s 
Humility and Holy in Christ. 


James Hutson Meyer’s Buidens and How 
to Bear Them. 

James Hutson : Willison’s Mothers' Cate¬ 
chism. 

Mrs. R. M. Mateer: The Browns at Mount 
Hermon. 

Samuel Couling: Tewish History from 
Cyrus to Titus (out). 

F. C. H. Dreyer: Bible Reading Outlines 
tor the Blackboard. 

Lectures on Modern Missions, by Leighton 
Stuart. 

Laboratory Manual in Chemistry (Man¬ 
darin), by J. McGregor Gibb. 


New Announcements. 


The Traveller’s Guide. Religious 
Tract Society, London. 

An Elementary Study of Chemistry, 
by Macpherson and Henderson. 

A First Course in Physics, by Mil¬ 
likan and Gale. 

These 2 books by Rev. Chang 
Yung-hsiin. 

Directory of Worship of Presbyte¬ 
rian Church, by C. D. Herriott. 

The Fact of Christ. D. MacGillivray. 
(P. Carnegie Simpson’s.) C. T. S. 

“What a Young Boy ought to 
know” (Stall). Li Yung-chwen, 
Chinkiang. 

Rev. J. Leighton Stuart, of Nan¬ 
king, has 15 lessons on " Greek for 
Chiuese students,” and hopes to go 
on with the work. 

Life of Lord Shaftesbury. E. Mor¬ 
gan. 

Torrey’s How to Pray (in press). 

Finney’s Revival Tract (out). D. 
MacGillivray, 

Methods of Bible Study. D. Mac¬ 
Gillivray. 

Supplement to Catalogue. D. Mac¬ 
Gillivray. 

Com. on Amos. C. Campbell Brown. 

Homiletics. W. M. Haye9. 

Life of Mrs. Kutnin. J. Vale. 

Newell’s O. T. Studies. J. Vale. 

W. A. Maw has been asked to tran¬ 
slate Clarke’s Outlines of Theology. 
Is anyone else doing this book? 

We have received a copy of a book 
in Mandarin called g| 2 . X> by 5 S 


m * db % it- Will the author 
please write Mr. MacGillivray, giving" 
some particulars, e.g., publisher, 
price, original? 


BOOKS IN PREPARATION IN WEST 
CHINA. 

From the West China Tract 
Society’s List. 

Safety, Certainty, and Enjoyment. 

Abridged Pilgrim's Progress; in verse. 

Christianity and Confucianism. By 
a Chinese student. 

Great Events of Old and New Testa¬ 
ment ; in verse. 

The Holy Spirit. How to obtain and 
how to retain. 

Our Bible Readings. 

Korea and its People. 

Griffith Thomas on the Acts. 

14 Prize Essays on the Duty of Men 
to instruct the Women and Chil¬ 
dren of their Households. 

Sheet Tract on Payment of Taxes. 

From Guilt through Grace to Glory. 

By Y. M. C. A. 

Temptations of Students, by John R. Mott. 

Power of Jesus Christ in the Life of Stu- 
deuts. John R. Mott. 

Achievement—O. S. Marden (abridgment.) 

Constructive Studies in the Gospel of Mark. 
Burton. 

Bismarck: His Life and Work (WSn-li), by 
Rev, F. W. Leuschner. 

Westcott's Commentary on St. John’s Gos¬ 
pel, bv Rev. G. Miles, Wesleyan Mission. 

Onward, Christian Soldiers. Talks on Prac¬ 
tical Religion (S. P. C. K.), by Rev. Wm P. 
Chalfant, Ichowfu. 

Expository Commentary on John’s Gospel, 
George Hudson. 

Mongol Catechism. Robert Stephen, Jehol, 
via Peking, from whom copies may be had. 




19101 


Missionary News 


115 


Missionary News. 


The Loyal Presentation. 

The proposition that the Chi¬ 
nese Christians should present 
the Emperor and members of 
the royal family with a copy of 
the Scriptures, has now taken 
definite form. 

The Shanghai pastors have 
heartily approved of it and ap¬ 
pointed a committee, of whom 
the Rev. Ytii Koh-tsung is chair¬ 
man. All funds may be sent to 
him, addressed 

Rev. Yui Koh-tsung, 
Henning Road, Shanghai . 


R. T. S. Grants. 

In our last issue we intimated 
that the R. T. S., London, had 
made a grant to the C. T. S. of 
Shanghai for the purpose of 
disseminating evangelistic litera¬ 
ture in the provinces of Che¬ 
kiang, Kiangsu, Anhwei, and 
Kiaugsi, and that the said 
Tract Society was giving grants 
of $5.00 worth of tracts to each 
one hundred missionaries in 
these provinces. We are now 
informed that the R. T. S. has 
offered a similar grant to each 
of the ten societies working in 
China and Corea. The societies 
concerned have agreed to a 
rough and ready division of the 
field for the purpose of distri¬ 
buting this grant though they do 
not bind themselves to observe 
geographical limits in their 
ordinary operations. Probably 
the other societies are intimat¬ 
ing to those within the area of 
their field of operations their 
readiness to distribute the grant 
named under conditions which 
they have severally drawn up. 
Each society is also authorised to 


make a grant of books not exceed¬ 
ing $2.00 in value to fifty Bible- 
wotnen working within their 
separate districts. These gifts 
should do much to promote the 
evangelisation of some hitherto 
untouched parts of the field. 


Needy Annam. 

The Rev. R. A. Jaffray, of 
Wuehow, South China, has re¬ 
cently published a powerful plea 
for the perishing of South China 
and Annam. The Christian and 
Missionary Alliance, to which he 
belongs, has a chain of stations 
running across the province of 
Kwangsi, bordering the Annam- 
Tongkin frontier. He points 
out that in Kwangsi there is only 
about one missionary to every 
320,000 people, but across the 
border to the south there is still 
more terrible spiritual destitu¬ 
tion. 

It is true that the Roman 
Catholic church is found in An¬ 
nam, but Protestants appear to 
be without a single representa¬ 
tive. It is high time that the 
attention of Christendom were 
directed to these needy millions. 


Dr. W. A. P. Martin. 

Our readers will be pleased to 
learn that our veteran friend, 
Dr. Martin, is at work on a new 
book entitled, “Review of My 
Life,” or “ Gleanings of a Long 
Life from Two Continents.” This 
he will put into Chinese. After 
about fifty years since the first 
publication of his “ Evidences,” 
he has just published a compan¬ 
ion volume on “Religion, Re¬ 
vealed and Natural.” Truly his 
is a green old age. 





116 


The Chinese Recorder 


Honan News. 

Dr. MacGillivray, after an 
absence of ten years from his old 
field in Honan, recently spent 
three Sundays there, holding 
meetings more especially to reach 
the officials, gentry, and students 
of Chang-te Fu, Wei-hwei Fu, 
and Hwai-king Fu, which are 
the three centres at present 
worked by his colleagues of the 
Canadian Presbyterian Mission. 

Railway facilities for visiting 
this field from north to south 
and from east to west are al¬ 
most complete, thus enabling 
him to leave Shanghai Novem¬ 
ber 8 and get back December 3. 

He reports the work to be in 
a flourishing condition. In ad¬ 
dition to the three Fus, the 
large walled town of Tao-k'ou, 
at the head of navigation on the 
Wei River, has also been oc¬ 
cupied. A fine new church, 
holding from 700 to 800, was 
dedicated at Wei-hwei. At 
Chang-te Fu the representatives 
of .seventeen Chinese congrega¬ 
tions assembled in conference 
for three days, and resolved to 
establish the first Presbytery of 
Honan. When the Chinese clerk 
had made up his roll it was 
found that there were sixteen 
foreigners and seventeen Chi¬ 
nese. The foreigners meantime 
are members of the Chinese 
presbytery until this body is 
able to get along by itself. The 
meetings with the officials on 
Sunday afternoons in all three 
cities were phenomenal in the 
history of the mission. The 
churches were crowded, and all 
listened with marked attention 
to an hour’s discourse on “ The 
Programme of Christianity,” 
after which copies of Drum¬ 
mond^ book on this subject 
were distributed to all present. 
The mention of the coming of 
Halley’s comet produced a sen¬ 


fJanuary 

sation, which seems to show that 
missionaries everywhere should 
prepare the minds of the people 
concerning this unusual visitor. 

Rally of Chinese Sunday Schools. 

On December 27th there was 
held in the Martyrs’ Memorial 
Hall of the Chinese Y. M. C. A. 
a united gathering of Chinese 
Sunday school scholars. This 
meeting was the first of the 
kind, and is significant of the 
rapid growth of Sunday Schools 
in this district. The schools 
gathered first on the grass-plots 
adjoining the Soochow Creek, 
and the scene here was a very 
animated one. Each school was 
mustered under its own banner, 
and at 2.30 p.tn. the march 
from the creek to the Y. M. C. A. 
Hall was begun. More than a 
thousand Chinese boys and girls 
were eventually crowded into 
the building. That they were 
packed like the proverbial her¬ 
rings detracted no whit from 
their evident enjoyment. The 
chair was taken by the presi¬ 
dent of the Chinese Mission 
Pastors’ Association, the Rev. 
S Ts Kya, and he was supported 
by other members of this body. 
After a hymn, the Rev. F. K. 
Li, of the London Mission, led 
in prayer, and addresses were 
given by the Rev. Mr. Yu, of 
the Presbyterian Church, and 
the Rev. Mr. De, of the Amer¬ 
ican Episcopal Mission. The 
feature of the first half of the 
afternoon’s programme was a 
singing contest. ‘ ‘Onward Chris¬ 
tian Soldiers” wms the piece sel¬ 
ected for competition, and seven 
schools entered, the prize being 
awarded to the Presbyterian 
South Gate Schools. Mrs. Farn- 
ham, the oldest lady missionary 
resident of Shanghai, presented 
the prize banner to the winners. 


1910 ] 


117 


Missionary News 


The second half of the meet¬ 
ing was given up to a cinema¬ 
tograph exhibition ; this was a 
source of great delight to the 
assembled children. After more 
than three hours of solid, un¬ 
alloyed enjoyment, during the 
whole of which the best of order 
prevailed, the youngsters dis¬ 
persed, each receiving on depar¬ 
ture a bag of sweetmeats. 

Iu all fifteen schools were 
represented at this gathering, 
and these were representatives of 
all the Protestant missionary 
denominations carrying on work 
in Shanghai. It is anticipated 
that now this event has made 
its opening appearance it will 
become a regular annual func¬ 
tion, and that to the programme 
of recognized Christmas gather¬ 
ings there must be added the 
Chinese Sunday Schools’ Rally. 


West China Religious Tract 
Society. 

Mr. James Murray, the Hon¬ 
orary Secretary, reports : 

The work is increasing on our 
hands and funds are urgently 
needed. The circulation from 
Chungking for the present year 
has mounted up to 947,078 
Christian books and tracts, and 
from Cheng-tu other 205,000 
have been circulated, and there 
are the other tw r o sub-depots 
whose accounts are not yet made 
up at Yachow and Mienchow. 

The calendar for 1910 has 
been a great success; the first 
two editions (75,000) being al¬ 
ready nearly sold out, we are 
printing a third edition. 

At our Executive Committee 
meeting this month other 268,000 
books and tracts were ordered 
to be printed at the Canadian 
Press, Cheng-tu. 

We are also getting a supply 

pf Pr. Me All’s M Catechism of 


Health ” from Hankow-, which 
will now appear on our cata¬ 
logue. 

A new tract, entitled “A 
Prayer for Rain,’ ’ has been added 
to our list. Price, eight cents 
per i00. 

Also “ Important Words of 
Scripture.” Price $1.20 per 100. 

The well-known tract, “The 
Training of the Twig,” tran¬ 
slated by the Rev. J. Hutson, 
has passed the examiners and 
gone to press. 

The following three Tibetan 
tracts are being printed, and 
1,000 of each will be sent to each 
of the nine mission stations on 
the Tibetan frontier, and future 
supplies may be had at fifty cents 
per 1,000:—‘‘Sin and Idols,” 
“The Gospel,” “ Conversion.” 

158 grants for preacher’s 
libraries have been approved 
and are being dealt with, and 
the remaining forty-two will be 
appropriated within the next few 
weeks. If you have not taken 
advantage of this most valuable 
offer of the London Tract Socie¬ 
ty, send application to Mr. 
Whittlesey now. 

The six pastor’s libraries, 
which the Religious Tract Socie¬ 
ty of London have enabled us to 
establish, have now been relegat¬ 
ed to the Friend’s Mission at Tai- 
he-chen, the Church Mission¬ 
ary Society at Mien-chow, the 
China Inland Mission at Pao- 
uing-fu, the Methodist Episcopal 
Mission at Cheng-tu, the United 
Methodist Mission at Chao-tong 
fu, Yunnan, and the Loudon 
Missionary Society at Chung¬ 
king. 


Chinese Students in America. 

Nearly 150 Chinese students 
spent a week at Hamilton, New 
York, the end of August, parti¬ 
cipating in a progiam of plat- 




118 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


form addresses, literary contests, 
athletic sports, social intercourse, 
and business. Colgate Univer¬ 
sity and the town of Hamilton 
met them with open doors. Dr. 
W. W. Yen, Secretary of the 
Chinese Legation in Washing¬ 
ton ; Professor Jenks, of Cornell; 
Mr. Merrill, Director of Peiyang 
students in America ; and Dr. 
F. D. Hawks Pott, just arrived 
from Shanghai, were among the 
speakers, but everything w y as 
managed by the students them¬ 
selves, and it was well done. 
Their organization, the “Chi¬ 
nese Students’ Alliance in the 
Eastern States of America,’’ 
numbering about 300 members, 
was holding its fifth annual con¬ 
ference. From all the leading 
colleges of the east and middle 
west of the United States they 
came, bringing their yells and 
their colors with them. In fact, 
these students, coming originally 
from every section of China, ap¬ 
peared here as American college 
men ; each one jealous for the 
glory of his adopted alma mater. 
Their varied accomplishments 
and gentlemanly deportment 
won golden opinions from town 
and gowm at Hamilton. 

Of profounder significance was 
the conference of Christian stu¬ 
dents which followed. This is 
the first general gathering of 
Chinese Christian students in 
America. In order to define 
and promote their purposes as a 
body, a constitution was framed 
and officers elected, including a 
general secretary, who will give 
part of his time to traveling 
among the colleges in the inter¬ 
est of promoting the religious 
life of Chinese students. The 
meetings, which lasted from 
Thursday to Sunday night of 
the first week of September, 
were of a spirit and power to 
gladden the hearts of the few 


“old China hands” who were 
present as guests. Mr. Robert 
E. Lewis (now of Cleveland), 
Prof. W. H. Sallmon (fresh from 
a season of service at the Chi¬ 
nese “ Yale ” in Chang-slia), and 
Secretaries Robertson and Rugh, 
gave addresses; the five daily 
Bible classes were led by Chi¬ 
nese, and the strong, effective 
■work of the conference was done 
mostly by these Chinese young 
men and women themselves. 

There has always been much 
question in the minds of mission¬ 
aries as to the wisdom of sending 
young men from our inisson 
schools to home colleges for 
studju For this and other rea¬ 
sons the number who have come 
abroad, bringing the vital expe¬ 
rience of Christ in their hearts, 
is comparatively small, w'hile 
the total number of Chinese 
students in America—especially 
of those sent by the Chinese 
government — is increasingly 
large. At Cornell, for example, 
there are some thirty-five Chi¬ 
nese students and nearly as 
many at Harvard. The Chinese 
Students’ Christian Association 
in America has a peculiar mis¬ 
sion which no one but Chinese 
can effective^ meet, of bringing 
their non-Christian fellow-stu¬ 
dents into a realization of that 
higher life without which West¬ 
ern science and culture wall prove 
a delusion and snare to China. 

No one who w 7 as present 
at these two conferences can 
doubt that momentous issues for 
China, in the lives of Chinese 
who are to be leaders of tlieir 
countrymen, are being determin¬ 
ed now in America. American 
college life, especially in the big 
State universities, makes it easy 
for freedom to become license 
and for independence to induce 
unfaith. New, strange ways of 
thinking and acting, standards 


119 


Missionary News 


1910 ] 

of social propriety which often 
seem utterly at variance with 
the moral training which these 
young people have had at home, 
—all this makes it our due to 
them while they are receiving 
the impress of obvious things, 
to see that they also come in 
contact with essentials. Min 
wei pang pen (‘ ‘ the people are 
the root of the state,”).—in¬ 
dividual character the prere¬ 
quisite of national strength,— 
Christ the pattern and the source 
of strength for living the life 
that is worth while,—ibe invest¬ 
ment of life in service that will 
count most lor the kingdom of 
heaven and for brother-man ;— 
these are the ideals for which 
gifted and devoted young leaders 
of Chinese in America are work¬ 
ing. 

C. M. E. S. 


Impressions of Formosa. 

Rev. Hope Moncrieff, E. P. 
Mission, formerly of Eug-cliun, 
Amoy, but now of Sho-ka, 
Formosa, sends us the following 
interesting letter:— 

After ten years of work on the 
mainland, coming over to the 
island of Formosa with its sepa¬ 
rate history, traditions and va¬ 
rious strata of population, one 
finds oneself in a different world. 
And yet, strange to say, it is 
the same old China after all. 
Mr. Moody puts this very pithi¬ 
ly in his excellent book on For¬ 
mosa, “The Heathen Heart.” 
“ As for the Chinese,” he says, 
“whether in town or country, 
they laugh and weep as they 
did a thousand years ago ; they 
have the same cares, the same 
anxieties about crops and busi¬ 
ness, the same planning to find 
wives for their sons, and hus¬ 
bands for their daughters, the 


same dread of demons and 
offended spirits, the same long¬ 
ing for wealth and sons and 
honour and length of days, the 
same vague fear of death. The 
new thing in Formosa is this : 
not a little modification in their 
surroundings, a slight change 
in their customs, a shortening 
of their coats, a lengthening of 
their trousers, a tightening of 
their sleeves, some smattering of 
knowledge, a handful of foreign 
phrases, a taste of science, a 
touch of agnosticism.” 

I have not been long enough 
here to compare the climate of 
Formosa with that of the main¬ 
land. I arrived in the very 
hottest season. The tempera¬ 
ture seemed, even during the 
heat, to cool down wonderfully 
at nights. The country is flat, 
and being near the sea, high 
winds prevail at times. For¬ 
merly, too, Chiang-hoa mos¬ 
quitoes were proverbial, almost 
notorious, one might say. 
There was a rhyming couplet 
which ran thus :— 

“The wind of Tok-kang (a town on 
the coast some miles away) 

And the Chiang-hoa bang” (bang- 
mosquito). 

The large number of stagnant 
pools and filthy drains which 
seemed to be breeding places for 
the little carriers of the malarial 
germ, have been superseded by 
broad deep drains, running 
along the sides of the wide 
streets. The result is that mos¬ 
quitoes have been enormously 
reduced in numbers, and along 
with them the fever also. 

There are more of what are 
called the comforts of civiliza¬ 
tion than in the inland parts of 
Fukien. There are few places 
of importance that cannot be 
reached by railway or trolley. 
It is a pleasure to walk on the 
smooth well-made roads. One 



120 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


can post letters to any part of 
the world from the remotest 
village. Generally speaking, al¬ 
most anything can be purchased, 
and if the articles are not 
“made in Germany” they are 
“ made in Japan.” Any mission¬ 
ary coming out here need supply 
himself with a very small outfit 
until he sees what can be had 
on the island. There are some 
striking differences in the cus¬ 
toms and habits of the For¬ 
mosan Chinese. The greater 
number live in hamlets on the 
plains. These hamlets are en¬ 
circled by tall bamboos, com¬ 
pletely screening the dwellings 
from view. Travelling along 
the railway line, nothing is 
visible but clumps of bamboo 
trees, and one who did not know 
the customs of the people would 
be inclined to ask, as a visitor 
once did, “Yes! Formosa is a 
beautiful place, but where are 
the people?” Business and 
farming may be said to be the 
chief occupations. No longer 
does the Chinese scholar take the 
first rank in the time-honoured 
quartette of employments—scho¬ 
lars, farmers, workmen, and 
traders. The Chinese literary 
man, with the long flowing 
garment, has almost disappeared, 
and along with him have gone 
many of the old courtly manners 
of the Chiuese gentleman. All 
the associations that gathered 
round the anuual goings up to 
the prefectural city for examina¬ 
tion, as dear to the heart of a 
literary Chinaman as the going 
up to the feasts at Jerusalem 
must have been to the heart of 
the devout Jew, are a thing of 
the past. A new learning and 
new ambitions have taken the 
place of the old. In another 
generation it will be a rare 
thing to find a boy on the 
island well-versed in Chinese 


literature. The Chinese classics 
are no longer taught in the 
schools in the same thorough 
way that they used to be. Mod¬ 
ern text-books and primers 
have taken their place. Japanese 
is eagerly sought for its com¬ 
mercial value. Japanese-speak¬ 
ing clerks and accountants in 
batiks and offices and post offices 
are now wanted, just as English- 
speaking men are wanted on the 
coast of China. 

It is fairly evident that the 
Japanese are exploiting the 
island of Formosa for their own 
benefit. They are here to develop 
the resources of the island, 
primarily for themselves. The 
other day when the engineer in 
a sugar mill was explaining to 
me how the modern machinery 
extracted 80 per cent, of the 
juice out of the cane, twice as 
much or more as the old native 
mill drawn by cattle, I thought, 
Well ! that is just an illustra¬ 
tion of how the Japanese are 
squeezing as much out of the 
island for themselves as they 
possibly can. Of course the 
Chinese benefit incidentally, and 
possibly they are grateful. On 
the whole they like the new 
order of things, although they 
do not love the nation that 
rules. They are fully alive to 
the benefits that the new itgime 
has introduced. But although, 
like the dogs, they do eat fairly 
big crumbs from the master’s 
table, it is not to say that they 
would not prefer to share in the 
feast. 

The coming of Japan has 
wrought many changes in the 
social life of the Chinese. Some 
of these are for good and some 
for evil. The rights of property 
have become more secure. The 
endless feuds as to the owner¬ 
ship of land have come to an 
end. Courts of law have been 


1910 ] 


Missionary News 


121 


established where a certain mea¬ 
sure of justice is meted out to 
all, Christian and heathen alike. 
As an instance of the thorough 
way in which the Japanese deal 
with disease, they levy on every 
household a monthly tax of two 
rats. A fine is imposed on those 
who fail to produce the tax. 
Every rat is examined, and if 
found to be plague-infected the 
house from which the rats came, 
has to be thoroughly cleansed 
and disinfected.' Twice a year 
every house and shop has to 
disgorge all its effects and be 
thoroughly cleaned out. Rows 
of tables line the streets, covered 
with bottles, and boots, and 
fruits, and boxes, and tins, and 
cans, and pots, and pans, while 
the inspector passes along and 
goes in to see that the shops 
have been properly cleaned. 
Fancy Fleet St. in London or 
Princes St. in Edinburgh having 
to undergo an ordeal like this. 
Then there is such a complete 
aud thorough system of espion¬ 
age that open crimes, such as 
theft and gambling, are rare. 
A few days ago I met at the 
Cliiaug-hoa station a drove of 
forty handcuffed men being led 
off to the central Formosa prison 
for secret gambling. Opium¬ 
smoking among old smokers is 
tolerated, but new licences, as 
far as one can find out, are not 
easily obtained. Thus the gov¬ 
ernment have reduced and al¬ 
most abolished violent and open 
crime. As a man said when 
preaching with me in a village 
the other day : “Is not this a 
time of peace ! Tether your 
cattle to that tree over the 
night, and who will dare to 
come and steal a single one ! 
What a change, from the former 
time!’’ The Japanese are de¬ 
monstrating in the eyes of all 
that much that is good can be 


brought into the social life of a 
people by making crime difficult. 
But the missionary problem 
remains the same. These out¬ 
ward changes leave the heart of 
man untouched. The nature 
remains in a state of alienation 
from God the P A ather and His 
Son Jesus Christ. The very 
nation that seeks to put down 
opium-smoking and gambling 
with such a firm baud, brings 
with it wine-drinking, prostitu¬ 
tion, anti-Christian literature 
and many other evils. The heart 
of man seeks out many inven¬ 
tions. New forms of evil take the 
place of the old. As one set of 
vices goes out, another comes in. 

Iu missionary work one of the 
most striking differences between 
the conditions of work on the 
mainland and in Formosa seems 
to be the liberty of the indivi¬ 
dual. In China to become a 
Christian often meaus the loss of 
all things. Many of the older 
converts iu Formosa suffered in 
this way under Chinese rule. 
Pastor Eim, of Chiang-hoa, gave 
up everything when a mere lad 
to follow Christ. But that day 
has gone past. No mail now can 
seize a neighbour’s goods just 
because lie is a Christian. A 
certain measure of civil aud re¬ 
ligious liberty has come with 
Japanese rule. The hand of the 
oppressor is restrained. Persecu¬ 
tion, bitter enough, still prevails. 
But a Christian man can now 
call his house aud his fields his 
own. The Japanese do not allow 
a man to be openly persecuted 
just because of his Christianity. 
Several of the leading officials 
in the capital city of Tai-ho-ku 
are connected with the flourish¬ 
ing Japanese church there. 

This new state of things has 
brought about two great changes 
in the conditions of missionary 
life. That department of work 


122 


The Chinese Recorder 


known in China by the name of 
“Cases,” ending sometimes in 
law-suits, has entirely disappear¬ 
ed. Seldom do preachers ever 
visit a missionary with a view 
to obtaining his influence on the 
side of a Christian in the settle¬ 
ment of a case at court. The 
Japanese would not tolerate 
interference for one moment. 
What a blessing it would be for 
missionaries in China if only offi¬ 
cials would take up this attitude ! 

Then it has brought fresh 
openings for the Christian 
church and the missionary. It 
is a favourite thought with Paul 
that Christ came just at the 


[January 

fittest moment in the world’s 
liistory. The extent of the Ro¬ 
man Empire as an open field of 
evangelization, the diffusion of 
the Greek language as a channel 
of general communication, the 
dispersion of the Jews, —all these 
things had prepared the way for 
the spread of the Gospel. Now 
in Formosa is the fit moment 
for the church to step in and 
press forward in the work of 
evangelization. Many of the 
preachers are alive to the call 
that faces them. One notices 
how ready all earnest preachers 
are to prosecute the work of 
evangelization. 


The Month. 


GOVERNMENTaE. 

One of the Chinese Ministers abroad 
has telegraphed to the Peking govern¬ 
ment to the effect that the proposal 
to establish a financial commission 
has been dropped. 

T.E. Wu Ting fang, Lin Shih-hsun, 
Chien Hsun and Du Tseng-hsiang 
have all urged the government to 
appoint a commission of inen well 
versed in law to enquire into the 
question of extra-territoriality and to 
make suggestions for the abolition of 
that privilege so as to make China a 
free country in fact as well as in 
name. The government is said to 
view the proposal very favourably. 

The Peking government has tele¬ 
graphed to the Imperial Residents at 
Lhasa instructing them to make clear 
to the Dalai Lama the difference be¬ 
tween the spheres of religions adminis¬ 
tration and of civil administration, 
and to give him to understand that he 
has no concern with the latter, his 
interference in which only retards the 
progress of the dependency. 

Trade and Commerce. 

The National Review “ reports that 
the Chinese people are most enthusias¬ 
tic over the National Debt Fund. We 
have reported that the Chinese mer¬ 
chants here unanimously decided to 
support it at a meeting held a few days 
ago, and we hear now that telegrams 
have been received by the Tientsin 


Chamber of Commerce from Mukden, 
Chengteh, Shanhaikwan and Hang¬ 
chow promising assistance. The Tien¬ 
tsin Educational Association lias un¬ 
dertaken to deliver lectures in further¬ 
ance of the object and the Protestant 
Mission has called a meeting to sup¬ 
port it. The Prince Regent is taking 
the keenest interest in the movement 
and has instructed his Ministers to 
draw up some regulations with a view 
to encouraging it. He is said to be 
very pleased with the support given 
to the movement and to have remark¬ 
ed to a certain member of the govern¬ 
ment that it shows that the patriotism 
of the people is on the increase.” 

Railways in all parts of the empire 
are projected, plans for raising funds 
laid, and some carried out. The link¬ 
ing of the north-western provinces 
and the coast becomes an affair of 
the near future. 

The Board of Agriculture, Industry 
and Commerce has cabled to H.E. 
Yang-shu, Chinese Minister to Bel¬ 
gium, informing him that the Board 
has raised a fund for the expenses of 
the Chinese section of the coming ex¬ 
hibition in Belgium and instructing 
His Excellency to request the Belgian 
government to reserve a piece of land 
for the Chinese merchants in the ex¬ 
hibition grounds. 

The Board of Agriculture, Industry 
and Commerce recently sent fifty ex¬ 
students of the Higher Industrial 
School to Hupeh to prospect for iron 



Missionary Journal 


123 


1910] 

mines. They have returned to Peking 
and reported that there are six rich 
iron mines in the province which can 
supply sufficient material to manu¬ 
factories, but that transportation is at 
present very difficult and light rail¬ 
ways should be constructed, 

Education and Reform. 

The government contemplates send¬ 
ing a delegate to Lhasa for the pur¬ 
pose of inducing the Dalai Lama to be 
faithful to China and not to prevent 
reform measures being put into opera¬ 
tion. 

The Prince Regent has verbally 
stated in the presence of the Ministers 
of the Grand Council that the news 
contained in the Chinese press relating 
to the depraved history of covetous 
officials is very beneficial in the re¬ 
organization of the official system. As 
the news is so interesting, councillors 
should pay attention and read the 
papers so that investigations may be 
made into the facts. 

H. E. Chien Hsun has memorialized 
the Throne through the Waiwupu 
stating that he has been abroad over 
twenty years and lias always conformed 
to Chinese customs and etiquette and 
praying that a decree be issued forbid¬ 
ding Chinese Ministers to foreign 
countries to cut off their queues or 
change their costume. His Excel¬ 
lency has presented another memorial 
saying that he is in favour of mono¬ 
gamy and praying that Chinese Minis¬ 
ters abroad be prohibited from taking 
foreign ladies as wives, as some of 
them have done to the harm of the 


country. These memorials are, how¬ 
ever, directed against H.E. Lu Tseng- 
hsiang, with whom lie is noton friend¬ 
ly terms, and who is known to be 
partial to the foreign style of dress. 

Missions. 

Dr. Edwards visits China in order 
to study the opportunities and pos¬ 
sibilities of founding a medical college 
and inaugurating a school for the 
study of eastern Asiatic diseases and 
medicine and hygienic conditions, to 
be supported by Harvard University. 

During the past week Archdeacon 
Thomson, of the American Church 
Mission, celebrated the fiftieth an¬ 
niversary of his work in China—a 
wonderful record indeed. On Tues¬ 
day afternoon, at the Chinese Y. M. 
C. A., the venerable archdeacon was 
the guest of honour at a reception 
given by the Chinese members of thir¬ 
teen churches belonging to the Amer¬ 
ican Cl lurch Mission in Kiangsu 
province, when he was made the re¬ 
cipient of a handsome silver tea ser¬ 
vice as a token of the love and esteem 
ill which he is held by the people 
amongst whom he has laboured for 
such a lengthy period. The interest¬ 
ing function was attended by nearly 
i.ooo Chinese Christians, and though 
he is already well beyond the allotted 
span it will tie the earnest wish of all 
who know him that Archdeacon 
Thomson may yet be spared for many 
years to continue his good work 
amongst the natives of this country.— 
National Revieiv. 


Missionary Journal. 


BIRTHS. 

AT Ruling, 7th September, to Dr. and 
Mrs. Geo. F. DeVoe, Friends M., 
a son (Ezra). 

AT Galetin, Pa., 22nd September, to 
Rev. and Mrs. U. R. Jones, M. E. 
M., a son (Robert Wood). 

AT Lienchow, 4U1 October, to Rev. 
and Mrs R. F. Edwards, A. P. M., 
a daughter (Mary Eleanor). 

In England, 15th October, to Mr. 
and Mrs. E. Tomai.in, C. I. M., a 
son (Edward Dauiel Josd). 

AT Laohokow, 22nd October, to Ot.av 
and Sophie EsfEeCxREan, Norw. 
M., a son (Sigurd Gabriel). 


At Tientsin, 10th November, to Mr. 
and Mrs. O. J. Krause, M. E. M., 
a son (William Owen). 

At Nancbang, 10th Novembe-, to 
Rev. and Mrs. F. C. GaeE, M. E. 
M., a son (Francis). 

At Chinkiang, 12th November, to 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Tuee, C. I, 
M., a daughter (Sheila Rosalie). 

AT Fengsiangfu, 13th November, to 
Mr. and Mrs. R. W. MiDDEETON. 
C. I, M., a son. 

AT Yunnaufu, 14th November, to Mr, 
and Mrs. GLADSTONE PORTKUS, C. 
I. M., a daughter (Ruth Catherine). 



124 


The Chinese Recorder 


AT Shanghai, 19th November, to Rev. 
and Mrs John Darroch, a daugh¬ 
ter (Eleanor Maude). 

At Wuhu, 25th November, to Mr. 
and Mrs. Robert Young, C. I. 
M., a daughter (Alison Mar}'). 

At Chingchowfu, Shantung, 30th 
November, to Rev. and Mrs. Frank 
Madeley. E. B. M., a daughter 
(Marjorie Nowell). 

At Shanghai, 1st December, to Rev. 
and Mrs. J. T. McCutchan, A. P. 
M. (South), of Chinkiang, a son. 

At Shenchowfu, Hunan, 7th Decem¬ 
ber, to Rev. and Mrs. C. E. R\nck, 
Ev. Assn, of N. A. M„ a daughter 
(Esther Marguerita). 

At Kietining, Fukien, 10th De¬ 
cember, to Dr. and Mrs. H. M. 
Churchill, a daughter. 

At Foochow, 14th December, to Prof, 
and Mrs. A W. Bieeing, M. E 
M., a daughter (Elizabeth). 

AT Ningpo, 16th December, to Dr. 
and Mrs. A. F Cole, C M. S., a 
.sou. 

At Shanghai, 19th December, to Rev. 
and Mrs. J. M. Espey, A. P. M., a 
daughter (Mary Frances). 

MARRIAGES. 

AT Chengtu, 2nd November, Mr. C. 
H. Coates and Miss H. M. Over¬ 
land, both C. I. M. 

At Chefoo, 25th November, Mr. 
Arthur Taylor and Miss L. C. 
Button, both C. I. M. 

AT Shanghai, 1st December, Rev. E. 
Rowlands, L. M. S., Haukow, and 
Miss F. M. Sherwood. 

DEATH8. 

AT Shasi, 4th October, Frideeorg, 
aged nine months ; and at Tihang, 
9th October, Walbokg, aged 2 
years, 5 months, children of Rev. 
and Mrs. A. P. Tjellstrom, Sw. M. 
S 

AT Chowkiakow, 19th November, 
Mrs. W. E. Shearer, C. I. M. 

ARRIVALS. 

14th October, Rev. and Mrs. Wal¬ 
ter R. Williams and child, Friends’ 
M. 

At Chefoo, 16th November, Mr. 
and Mrs. G. Cecil-S.viith and child, 
C. I. M., returned from England vid 
Siberia. 

20th November, Mr. and Mrs. H. 
Lyons and three children, C. I. M.j 
returned from Australia. 


[January, 1910 

25th November, Rev. W. E. Comer- 
ford, Rev. Wm. Mudd, Dr. C. F. 
Robertson, Prof. H. D. Evans, all 
Eng. Bapt. M. 

26th November, Miss G. Wyckoff 
(ret.) and Miss L. I. Mead, both A. 

B. C. F. M. 

27th November, Mr. and Mrs. B. 
Curtis Waters and child, C. I. M., 
returned from England. 

3rd December, Rev. and Mrs. F. J. 
White and two children, Am. Bapt. 
Sem. (ret.); Rev. and Mrs. C. F. Mc¬ 
Rae, Am. Ep. M. (ret.); Rev. and Mrs. 
A. B. De Haan, A. B. C. F. M.; Mr. 
and Mrs. J. H. Brown, Indepen¬ 
dent; Mrs. Murdo Mackenzie and 
Miss Alice Mackenzie, E. P. M.; 
Messrs. N. Syenson and T, E. Lund- 
strom, both C. I, M., fromN. A. 

6th December, Misses Mattie Pe¬ 
terson and Mary Ogren, Free 
Meth. M. 

7th December, Rev. and Mrs. A. J. 
Elson, Miss Wood, Miss B. G. Mc- 
Naughton, Dr. J. R. and Mrs. Cox 
(ret,), all Can. Meth. M. 

10th December, Mr. and Mrs. A. E. 
Seward and children (ret.), and Miss 
J. M. Leete, all C. M. s. ; Messrs. W. 

L. Oakes and E. Cowling, both 
Wes. M. S.; Mrs. E. Tomkinson, 
Misses H. G. Apltn and R. L. Smal¬ 
ley, all C. I, M., returned from Eng¬ 
land. 

nth December, Dr. and Mrs. Jas. 
Botchart (ret.), Miss K. G. Miller, 
all For. Ch. M.; Dr. G. Taft, and 
Miss Alta Newby, both M. E. M. 
and both returned ; Rev. aud Mrs. T. 

C. Britton, S. Bapt. Con. 

13th December. Mr. and Mrs. I., 
Mason, Friends’ M. 

24th December, Mr. and Mrs. T.'L. 
Blalock, Gospel M. (ret.). 

25th December, Rev. G. A. Fitch, 
Y. M. C. A. 

departures. 

12th December, Mr. and Mrs. J. G. 
Nilson and six children, C. I. M., to 
N. A. 

13th December, Rev. and Mrs. F. 
H. Trimble and child, Bishop and 
Mrs. W. S. Lewis, all M. E. M. aud 
all for U. S. A. 

17th December, Mr. and Mrs. W. 
N. Ferguson, B, and F. B. S., for 
London. 

25th December, Miss Maggi, A. P, 

M. , for U. S. A. ; Rev. and Mrs. J. H. 
WORLEY and family, M. E. M., fo? 
U. S. A., vid Europe. 



SCHOOL BUILDING IN KINCHOWFU (SWEDISH AMERICAN MISSION). 


















THE CHINESE RECORDER 

AND MISSIONARY JOURNAL 


Published Monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 

Editor-in-chief: Rev. G. F. Fitch, d.d. 

Associate Editors: Rev. W. N. Bitton and Rev. D. W. Lyon. 

Bishop J. W. Bashkord, Rev. A. Foster. Rev. D. MacGii„t.ivray,d,D. 

Rev. E. W. Burt, m.a. Rev. J.C. Garritt, d.d. Mr. G. McIntosh. 

Rt.Rev.Bishop Casskls Rev. J.C. Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. F. Mosher. 

Dr. J. Darroch. Rev. D. E. Hostk. Rev. A. H. Smith, D.D. 


VOL. XL1 


FEBRUARY, lQlO 


NO. 2 


Editorial 


Ube problem 
of Cburcb UlmtE. 


This number of the Recorder calls special attention once 
again to the subject of federation and church union. The 
magazine will continue to do so on all 
possible occasions because its editors believe 
that, next to the foundation work of evangel¬ 
izing the Chinese nation, the outstanding work of the mission¬ 
ary enterprise in this country is to set forward the unity of the 
Christian church. So many extra-religious questions which 
affect the churches in the home lands, and which stand in the 
way of a full and frank understanding of the whole question, 
are eliminated here, while at the same time the forces that draw 
all Christian people together are so much more powerfully 
operative in the face of common duty and need that the 
problem for us is simplified. If, in the mission field, we cannot 
practically advance in a considerable measure the day of 
church union the prospects of this cause are dark indeed. 
The papers presented in this issue are a hopeful sign of the 
waning of counsels of despair. We could scarcely have found 
a fuller representation of the whole problem in the mission 
field with the difficulties as well as the promise of the situation 
clearly advanced, and through all the writers the very heart of 
desire for a better understanding aud for an effective union 
is clearly visible. It is in this spirit alone that this most vital 












126 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


matter can be advanced towards settlement. And it lias to be 
solved, and solved fully, before the kingdom conquest of our 
Lord is finally accomplished. 

* * * 

In any discussion of the topic of church unity in con¬ 
nection with the method of federation, it must be constantly 
borne in mind that uniformity, either of creed or 

mi practice, is not the ideal after which we are striv- 

TUntformitE. f ’ . f 

lug. So long as our ideal ot church unity is knit 

up with that of orgauic union it will be generally found on 
examination to have for its basic centre an ideal of church life 
with which we ourselves have been connected. The method 
of absorption is scarcely the process along which we can hope 
to work. The contributory and conflicting constituents are too 
numerous. Blit if we bear constantly in mind the ideal of a com¬ 
prehensive unity upon a recognised common basis of essentials, 
then there is no cause for either hopelessness or despair. A better 
understanding of the principles which underlie existing deno¬ 
minational life, and a better knowledge of church history on 
the part of all, would help forward very considerably the solu¬ 
tion of the whole question. By common consent it is upon the 
representatives of the Christian church in the Far East more 
than upon those in any other portion of the world that the 
responsibility for solution lies, for the Chinese and the Japanese 
bring, in a unique degree, a capacity for considering the ex- 
clesiastical question in relation to religious life from an im¬ 
partial point of view which should be of the deepest service in 
clearing from the whole problem all extraneous matters. 

* * * 

This is not, tlien, the time for us to come to a consider¬ 
ation of the question with any prior demand as to what others 
are to give up in order that we may link our- 
se * ves * n 11 n ’ 011 with them. Whether the ques¬ 
tion concerns the form of baptism, or any other 
of the ordinances of the church, or whether it deals with the 
method of church government, the open mind and sympathe¬ 
tic heart are essential. If the Episcopalians come forward with 
the assertion, as some do, that episcopal government in its 
diocesan sense is the sine qua no 7 i of church life and that 
without a recognition of this there is no room for them to discuss 
the problem of church union, then so far as they are concerned 


Editorial 


127 


1910] 

the door is shut for a majority of the Protestant Christians of 
the world. Similarly, for a Congregationalist to insist uptfti 
the acceptance of the congregational order of church govern¬ 
ment by the whole body, would illustrate his unfitness to dis¬ 
cuss the problem before us. It is the points we hold in 
common which are de facto the essentials of our saving faith. 
If they are not so, then we are by implication daily unchurch¬ 
ing each other. We have a common centre, one which 
is fixed for us, our radii vary ; let us not confuse the two. 
Above all we must beware of coming into the discussion 
of this whole problem with a preliminary statement of what 
others are to give up to us in order to secure the support of 
our denomination. 




* 


WE trust, therefore, that the final expression of opinion on 
the part of our Baptist brethren has not been outlined by 
our contributor, Mr. Latimer, ill his instructive 
Concession anO art j c ^ w j ieil p e sa y S: “It is a reasonable 

request of the Baptists that for the sake of 
closer union and deeper harmony, this practice (infant baptism) 
be given tip.” We do uot wish to undertake any brief for 
infant baptism, but we are convinced that the way to Christian 
union does not lie along this line of “give it up.” It seems 
much more useful for us to point out to our Baptist friends in 
general, and to all who are interested in questions of federation, 
that one of the foremost Baptist societies in China occupies 
a leading position on matters of union. The members of the 
English Baptist Mission in the province of Shantung work 
freely and successfully in a uuiou movement with Presbyterians 
and High Church Anglicans, and their denominational position 
proves no bar to a union in theological training schools with 
the Presbyterians. There is every reason to believe that the 
Shantung representatives are good enough Baptists, and from 
this fact we draw a happy augury. It may be taken to mean 
that mutual concessions for the common good are not incon¬ 
sistent with the conservation of the denominational point of 
Our final demands are sure to decrease in the face of 


view. 


a working experience of each other’s Christian faith, and by 
joining hands wherever possible in work as it lies before us, we 
do much to dispel difficulties which too often appear insuperable 
when they are really not so. 


128 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


Gbe Catholic 
BpostoUc /iBetbob 


As things are, is there any valid reason why we should 
come to the Chinese with a message of denoniinatioualism at all, 

save in so far as we teach church history and 
illustrate by our denominational connections 
a certain emphasis laid upon some leading 
aspects of Christian faith and practice? That there are varieties 
of the human mind prone to run in divergent channels, yet keep¬ 
ing the same direction, is evident enough, and room must be 
left in any cburcli unity movement for the adequate expression 
of individual feeling. Otherwise the spirit of progress will 
forsake the church. But to begin our work in China with 
the presumption that we are facing here denominational instincts 
among the Chinese, is wrong in point of fact. The Chinese 
churches are denominational only so far as the foreign mission¬ 
aries have made them so. Under grace the conviction of cer¬ 
tain sections of the Chinese church may run towards a Pres- 
byteriau or an Anglican Cburcli polity, or towards a Baptist 
interpretation of New Testament injunctions. The comprehen¬ 
sive church of the future will find room for them all. This is, 
however, a very different matter from pressing sectarianism of 
any kind upon Chinese indiscriminately, as they may happen to 
come under our teaching. The question for the missionary to 
face is, What is it necessary for him to give to the Christian 
Chinese ? The problems of denominationalism may and pro¬ 
bably wdll arise, but for the foreign missionary to raise them at 
the outset is surely wrong. If we are working along the lines 
of the primitive type of missionary enterprise, our work is 
apostolic and not ecclesiastical. We have to preach neither 
Peter, nor Paul, nor Apollos, but Christ. 


* * ' * 

In this issue of the Recorder we are very glad to be able 
to present for consideration the opinion of one of our Chinese 
Christian ministers. The article which is here 

Chinese published from the pen of the Rev. Cheng Chin- 

Contributors. \ i, i 4.1 4. n 

yi was written in English by that gentleman, 

and we are sure bis truly Christian expression of opinion 

on the matter of federation and church unity will be read 

with deep interest. As time goes by and we come into closer 

contact with our Chinese fellow-workers it is the hope of 

the editors of the Recorder that room will be found for 

a free expression of Chinese opinion upon all points affecting 


1910 ] 


Editorial 


129 


the Christian church and the Christian evangel in China. 
We are assured that if it were possible for us to get nearer 
to the Chinese point of view in regard to many of the pro¬ 
blems which distress us as foreign workers in this land, we 
should receive very considerable help ill the study of them, 
and in more than a few instances they might disappear as 
problems altogether. 

* * * 

It is an instructive and optimistic study to survey the 
missionary map of the world as it was fifty years ago and 

compare it with that of the missionary world 
Sursum Corda. to . ( 3 a y < Then, Japan was without a Pro¬ 
testant Christian church; Korea, barred and bolted against 
the Gospel, and indeed closed to all foreign intercourse ; China, 
having a handful of missionaries attempting what seemed an 
altogether impossible task. In Siam little was accomplished ; 
India appeared a well-nigh hopeless enterprise, while the 
greater part of the continent of Africa was ‘undiscovered.’ 
To-day over all these fields we see nations struggling to throw 
off the bonds of ignorance and seething with progressive life. 
The influence of Christianity has set its seal upon them all, 
and over these countries are to be found, scattered in all 
directions, churches, schools and hospitals, testifying to the 
power and pity of the Christian Gospel of salvation. To 
realize what the message of Christ, directly and indirectly, 
has done to call this chain of sleeping nations into life is 
the supreme antidote for pessimism. While much that is 
transpiring in our home lands, the slackness of spiritual 
life, retrograde movements in religion and social life, the 
deepening power of greed and vice as exemplified in the 
drink trade and in unprincipled corporations, saddens our hearts, 
yet we realize, as we review our Christian world-map, that 
behind all these depressing phenomena there must be an 
enormous force, making, in the providence of God, for 
righteousness, or the world had never moved forward into light 
as it has done in this last two generations. 

'And the end is not yet. The activities of the laymen’s 
movement and of many kindred Christian enterprises speak 
of bigger things still to be seen and known. Christianity is at 
once the cause of, and the answer to, the question expressed in 
the awakening of the heathen world. 


130 The Chinese Recorder [February 

What edicts are effective and what are not in China ? 
For it has been made very evident by recent events that some, 

if not many, of the recently issued Imperial 
Tfinpeilat JSMcts commanc } s are f re ely ignored by a number of 
ant> Progress. J J 

Chinese officials. The case of a Shanghai 

rice merchant, who was first illegally arrested, then, illegally 
imprisoned, and thereafter, in spite of edicts issued abolishing 
corporal punishment in the courts, illegally beaten with the 
bamboo until near to death, is the last, and we trust the final, 
illustration of a general disregard of the Imperial mandate. 
Now China, for her own sake, cannot afford to have it declared 
to the civilized world that her laws are made only to be 
broken by those who should administer them. Her adminis¬ 
tration of the law must provoke the respect of the nations of the 
world if she is ever to come, upon equal terms, into the 
comity of nations. Delinquents who hold official position 
should be punished not less severely than the common offender 
but, for the sake of example, rather more in order that the 
common weal may flourish. 

For the sake of enlightenment and progress we trust that 
the abolition of punishment by the bamboo is to be made effect¬ 
ive throughout China, save for serious crimes against the person. 
It ill becomes the advocates of civilization to urge a return to 
the barbarous methods of mediaeval punishment. Moreover, it 
is certain enough that undiscriminating severity in punishment 
serves to increase the intensity of crime. It may be a deterrent 
in regard to quantity, but it deepens its degree. If we have 
found in the West that it does not pay to hang for stealing and 
to thrash for petty larceny, it will be no less true for China. 
For the laws underlying the moral order of the world are no 
less operative in the East than in the West. 

* * * 

The unexpected arrival of a new comet upon the heavens 
cannot fail to become the cause of a good deal of uneasiness 
to millions of ignorant Chinese, and in the hands 

an& 'mnresT unscru P u ^ ous persons may easily be used to 
add to the dangerous spirit of unrest evident 
over large portions of this empire. Missionaries should make 
it a part of their duty to instruct the people by oral teaching, 
and by the dissemination of special literature, concerning the 
nature and laws of these heavenly bodies. Explanatory sheets 
regarding comets have been prepared by the Christian Eiter- 


Editorial 


1910] 


131 


ature and by the Tract Societies, and tliese it would be useful 
to scatter broadcast. 

The ignorant prejudices of the mass of the Chinese people 
are ready fuel to those unprincipled schemers, who for the sake 
of revolutionary projects, or in order to make the foreigner eat 
bitterness, would use them to evoke the ungoverned passions of 
which Chinese mobs are so capable. Anything which serves 
to produce outbreaks at the present time may prove fatal to the 
integrity of China, and as the friends of this nation, and as 
workers for her highest welfare, much of the attention of 
missionaries ought to be given to the correction of dangerous 
and false rumours and to the calming of ungrounded fears. 
Speak peace to the people ! 

* * * 

Attention is called to the observance of a universal day 
of prayer for students, which has been arranged in connection 

with the World’s Student Christian Federa- 


praser toe 
Student Volunteers. 


tion. The day appointed is the 27 th Febru¬ 
ary, and all those who are in charge of 
schools and colleges are requested to bear the date in mind. 
Unfortunately the day occurs during the period of the Chinese 
New Year holidays and many schools which would have been in 
a position to observe it will be having vacation. But the churches 
of China might well bear this request in mind. Nowhere 
in the wide world is the problem of the student class and its 
influence for good or evil on the life of the nation more serious 
than here in China. If, in the providence of God, there might 
come a movement among the students in China of the same 
kind as has so impressed the university students of Great 
Britain and America, it would bring the salvation of this 
empire very near. The Christian church cannot possibly afford 
to neglect the student question in the Far East. Moreover, 
many missionaries have been keeping in touch w T ith the univer¬ 
sities and colleges from whence they came in the home lands, 
and the act of prayer, in union with the church at home, for the 
student movement will help to deepen the spiritual link between 
the schools and colleges of the home laud and the mission 
field, which is one of the necessities of our day. China must 
continue to call forth from the universities at home the service 
of the best developed and most spiritual of the student life 
there if Christian work is to maintain in this empire the high 
standard which is necessary for successful accomplishment. 


132 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February, 1910 


<Tbe Sanctuary. 

“ The effectual fervent p> aver of a righteous man availeth muck." —St. Janies v, 16. 

“ For where two or three are gathered together in my Name , there am I in the midst of 
them."—SI- Matthew xviii, 20. 


A Hymn. 

In a land where all are strangers, 

And our sojourning so short, 

In the midst of common dangers, 

Concord is our best support ; 

Heart with heart divides the smart, 
Lightens grief of every sort. 

Let us shun all vain contention 
Touching words and outward things, 
Whence, alas ! so much dissension 
And such hitter rancour springs; 

Troubles cense where Christ brings peace 
And sweet healing on His wings. 

Judge not hastily of others, 

Rut thine own salvation mind ; 

Nor be lyux-eved to thy brother’s, 

To thine own offences blind : 

God alone discerns thine own 
And the hearts of all mankind. 

Pray 

For r growing realization of the 
full brotherhood of all those who 
love the Lord Jesus Christ. (P. 133). 

For such understanding of the uni¬ 
ty of the church militant that the 
campaign may be planned with the 
highest wisdom, the fight fought with 
the fullest confidence and the victory 
’organized aright. (P. 133). 

That we may maintain as essential 
only such creeds as are scriptural, 
primitive, and universal. (P. 138). 

That from the first the church in 
China may take a firm stand in the 
manner of keeping the Lord’s Day. 
(P- M 3 )- 

That the approach of unity, though 
slow, may be wise—and not depend¬ 
ent upon any agreement that involves 
compromise of principle. (P. 146). 

For deeper consecration in prayer 
and a more truly devout attitude to¬ 
ward denominations other than your 
own. (P. MS). 

That branches of the Christian 
church while acknowledging its out¬ 
ward divisions may grow beyond all 
spirit of antagonism toward one an¬ 
other and find the way in which 
division may be done away. (P. 151). 

That the necessity for translating 
the disposition to unity to practical 
terms may rapidly be brought home 
to Christian people. (P. 151). 

That grace may be given us to dis¬ 
regard matters of secondary import¬ 


ance until those of first importance 
have been settled. (P. 152). 

That the expectation that the mis¬ 
sion field will furnish at least the 
impulse to grapple with the problem 
of unity, as expected by the home 
churches, may be realized. (P, 152). 

For a widening of minds and hearts 
until they shall entertain a conception 
of the unity that embraces all Chris¬ 
tian peoples. (P. 153). 

That no efforts to partial reunion 
shall be allowed to erect additional 
barriers against the larger unity for 
which we hope and pray. (P. 154). 

That the life of Christ shall be so 
manifest in His disciples as to win for 
Him the mass of men who live in 
darkness. (P, 157). 

That the missions may indeed lead 
the Chinese Christians to the realiza¬ 
tion of their own responsibility as 
well as privilege. (P. 158). 

F'or a closer relationship and a 
more united spirit between the Chris¬ 
tians of the East and of the West. 

(P. 159 )- 

A Prayer for Unity. 

O Lord Jesus Christ, Who saidst 
unto Thine apostles, peace [ leave 
with rou, My peace I give unto you ; 
regard not our sins, but the faith of 
Thy church, and grant lier that peace 
and unity which is agreeable to Thy 
will, Who livest and reignest for ever 
and ever. Amen, 

Give Thanes 

For the peculiar contribution made 
to the sum total of Christian life by 
each denomination. (P. 138). 

For the growth in spiritual life 
which has led to the acknowledgment 
and deploring of the evils of division. 

(P- MO- 

That the evils of division have been 
so greatly tempered by an exercise 
of Christian feeling and common 
sense (P. 152). 

For the many experiments in pract¬ 
ical cooperation that appear to be 
workiug successfully. {P. 153). 


Contributed Articles 


The Next Step in Church Unity 

(Read before the Killing Convention) 

BY CHARLES GEORGE SPARHAM, L. M. S. > HANKOW 

T HE convention in which we are now gathered is one that 
has for its aim the deepening of the devotional life and 
the broadening of our missionary horizon. In such a 
convention the whole question of church reunion must of 
necessity be regarded as vital, for until we recognise the full 
brotherhood of all those who love the Lord Jesus Christ in 
sincerity and know that the whole company of believers is 
truly one in spirit and aspiration, devotion can never sound its 
deepest depths nor soar to its highest heights. And similarly, 
Until we can recognise the true unity of the church militant 
and see in every missionary a loved and trusted comrade, it is 
impossible for us to plan the campaign with the highest 
wisdom, to fight with the fullest confidence or to organise aright 
the victory won. 

It is often said that, however at times the unity of the 
church universal may be obscured, at the centre and circum¬ 
ference it must always be manifest. At the centre, when with 
one heart and one mind we draw nigh to our common Lord, 
and at the circumference, where each section of the one 
indivisible body of Christ is sending its representatives to strive 
for the extension of the Redeemer’s kingdom in the regions 
where darkness reigns. 

Men and women whom God has by His Spirit called from 
all parts of Christendom to take their stand in the high places 
of the field, gather together here for a little time in united 
devotion. In lowly awe we bow before the Eternal Father. 
We desire together to gain a fuller, a more experimental knowl¬ 
edge of the great atoning sacrifice, we hunger and thirst for 
the infilling of the Divine Spirit. We seek together for that 
strength which shall enable us to press forward more effectually 
in the one great holy war. Verily we are members one of 
another, members of the one true body of Christ, rejoicing in 

Noth —Readers of the Recorder are reminded that the Editorial Board 
assumes no responsibility for the views expressed by the writers of articles 
published in these pages. 










134 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


the one great head, our L,ord Jesus Christ, in whom are hid all 
the treasures of wisdom and strength that we alike need, and 
the question arises in our hearts as to what more we can do to 
make the blessed unity that exists, in spite of all difference of 
opinion or diversity of organisation, more apparent to all, and 
the more effectually to lead the world to believe that Christ is 
truly the sent of God. 

I. As a first step we must gain not only a clear vision of 
our objective, but also a clear conception of the method by 
which that objective is to be reached. We shall agree that our 
objective is the gathering together into fellowship of all who 
love and serve Christ, the gathering into one great union of all 
the spiritual forces at present working in Christendom. Then 
at once the question forces itself forward, Is this fellowship, 
this union, to be realised in a great corporate reunion of 
Christendom, or are we to seek it on a federal basis ? If we 
decide that our hope lies in a corporate reunion, it will be 
necessary for ns to consider whether there may be one church 
to-day which occupies a position more truly central and more 
truly scriptural than the rest, and having decided on the church 
which is to have the central position to see what steps can be 
taken to bring all other churches into organic relationship 
with it by bringing all under the dominant principle of this 
one church. It is unquestionable that spiritual union might 
conceivably be achieved in this way, and it seems certain that 
if it were once thus achieved the union would tend towards a 
great uniformity. If, on the other hand, we decide that our 
hope lies in a federal union, we shall need to study the whole 
range of ecclesiastical organisations in which the life of Christ 
is being revealed to this generation and through which the 
Spirit of God manifestly works. We shall need then to group 
these organisations as far as they may be grouped, to study the 
New Testament principle to which each specially conforms and 
then to recognise, within the one universal church, a brother¬ 
hood of churches, in which the Christian liberty of each shall 
be secured ; the genuine equality of each in the presence of God 
shall be recognised ; and between which a spirit of brotherly 
fellowship may flourish. Within this fellowship no church 
shall be called upon to give way to another by way of sub¬ 
jection, but each shall realise its duty while seeking to work 
out its own divinely appointed destiny not to live unto itself, 
but rather by love to serve every other church. 


1910] 


The Next Step in Church Unity 


<35 


I am convinced that it is only on the lines of federal union 
that any substantial progress can be made. The spirit of the 
Centenary Conference and the response that is being made to 
its appeal for the formation of provincial councils show con* 
clusively that federation on some such lines is both desirable 
and possible. Our minds should be fully open to the possibility 
of some closer union evolving in time, and should this be the 
case we will not doubt that we shall be prepared for it and 
rejoice in it. Still do not let us sacrifice the attainable for that 
which God has not—at least for the present—placed within our 
reach. On the federal basis it becomes the duty of each church 
to guard faithfully that deposit of principle for which God has 
made it a trustee and on that line to work out its full salvation ; 
yet must it ever remember that it is but a part of a greater 
whole and that the progress of the whole must be the concern 
of each part. 

While, however, we loyally guard those principles for which 
God has made us severally responsible, let us see to it that we 
are not wasting time and energy in guarding that which is no 
longer a living issue. And let us not impose upon those who 
come after us limitations that the New Testament itself does 
not require. You remember that old Russian story, how 
that a Czarina noticing a soldier always standing on watch in 
the centre of a wide lawn raised the question as to what he was 
stationed there for. The Czar could give no other explanation 
than that for as long as he could remember there always had 
been a soldier stationed there. Then search was made in the 
military order books, and it was found that long ago a beauti¬ 
ful flower had sprung up in the centre of the lawn, and feariug 
lest it should be trodden under foot the Czar of that day had 
ordered a soldier to guard it. Day by day a man was placed 
on duty, the flower died down, but the order was not removed 
from the book, and hence, year by year, decade after decade, a 
man was told off to keep a watch that had become meaningless. 
I fear at times we are keeping watch by many a dead flower, 
that we have out our sentinels on many an old battle field from 
the site of which the battle has long rolled away never again 
to return. 

If my view of the situation is right, each separate church 
or denomination of Evangelical Christendom has been raised 
up by God to safeguard some special interest or some great 
principle of Christian faith or Christian practice. Final truth 


1)6 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


is only reached through stress and storm, and in the centuries 
that have gone by we find that a period of religious quickening 
has often been accompanied or followed by a period of fierce 
controversy, and in some cases a new denomination, or new 
denominations have arisen. There was a providential need for 
the commencement and growth of each denomination. May 
there not, however, cornea time when there shall no longer be a 
need for separate existence? A contention for which a few 
men have banded themselves together to struggle, may come to 
an end because the principle for which they strove has been 
generally adopted by the Christian church, and once this has 
been the case there is no longer necessity for keeping up this 
particular denominational demarcation. 

The history of the evangelical revival of the eighteenth 

century, with the rise and development of the Methodist 

movement, with the various denominations of Methodists that 
from time to time arise—Primitive Methodists, United Free 
Methodists, Bible Christians and others that for the assertion of 
one principle or another differentiated themselves off from the 
main Methodist church, but now tend more and more to 
reunion with her—the history of all this movement, I say, 
would give numerous examples of the point for which I am 
contending. It is not easy to believe that the two great 

evangelical hymns, “ Rock of Ages cleft for me ” and 

“Jesus Lover of my Soul,” come to us from a time of fierce 
controversy and that the men who wrote these hymns that are 
now so wedded together took opposite sides in the controversy. 
The issue that so filled their souls and that finally brought the 
parties of Wesley and Whitefield into such violent theological 
and then ecclesiastical opposition was a great and living issue. 
We are not to condemn the men who strove as for their soul’s 
salvation to maintain the truth of God that had been specially 
impressed upon them. We are largely indebted to the stress 
of that time for the fact that the whole evangelical church 
does at this time hold so firmly alike to the truth that every 
human being may be saved and to the complementary truth 
of the divine sovereignty pervading every human life. No 
small gain. 

We recognise all that we owe to the fathers of that great 
formative period, yet is it true that in some matters, notably 
of trust deeds, they have involved their successors in grievous 
difficulties. The trust deed of my own college is an iliuminat- 


1910] 


The Next Step in Church Unity 


137 


ing instance of this. The college was founded in the midst 
of the Wesley-Whitefield controversy by the Countess of 
Huntingdon!, who worked with Wkitefield. Fifteen articles, 
strongly Calvinistic in tone, were drawn up, and it was provided 
that every student and professor must subscribe to them. The 
extreme Calvinism was early found to be a difficulty, but the 
college went on with its work, sending Chalmers to Hongkong, 
Muirhead to Shanghai, Gilmore to Mongolia, James Chalmers 
to New Guinea, and many another missionary to the mission 
field and minister to the home pulpit. Still, as time went 
on, it was felt increasingly that the articles no longer accorded 
with the general consciousness of the evangelical churches, 
and first before the Board of Education and then before the 
highest law courts, an attempt was made to secure modification. 
The lawyers got to work, and soon brought to light certain 
documents that had been lost in the archives of the college and 
of which no man living had previous knowledge. One of 
these ordained that each professsor in addition to signing 
the articles, must on accepting office denounce Armiuiauism. 
When finally the decision of the highest courts was given, it 
was to the effect that the trust deed was absolutely binding, and 
that no relief could be given by any court of law ; that the 
students and professors must subscribe to the articles and that 
professors must denounce Arminius and all liis teachings when¬ 
ever called upon to do so. Truly a pitiable plight! Happily 
what the law courts could not do an Act of Parliament has 
done, and the college goes on with its work, secured in its 
evangelical position and yet fiee to -work in close fellowship 
with other institutions and colleges and with a free and open 
outlook towards the future. 

The moral of all this is that as we have striven to free 
ourselves from the dead hand of the past so we should exercise 
care, lest we impose our limitations upon the Chinese church. 
Let us fight bravely the battle to which the Lord has called 
us, but let us not entail upon others issues which may ill 
time to come cease to be living issues. 

The present time will be looked back upon as a great 
formative period in the history of the Chinese church, as of the 
Chinese people. All over China churches are being organized, 
institutions started, trust deeds drawn up, old creeds are 
being translated or new ones formed. For weal or for woe 
our actions to-day will mightily affect the future. God give 


138 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


us grace to plan wisely! If we are forming trust deeds let 
them be of sucli a nature as will make it easy for the churches, 
colleges or universities of the future to come into closer 
fellowship than to-day exists with other communions. If we 
are handing on creeds let them be those that reflect only that 
which is scriptural, primitive and universal in our faith. As 
far as in us lies, let us pass on that which unites evangelical 
Christendom and not those things which divide it into rival 
camps. It is the faith once delivered to the saints that must 
overcome the world ; let it be ours to hand on this in its 
simplicity. By doing so we shall be preparing the way for a 
great drawing together of all sections of the church in the days 
to come. 

While, however, we strive to hand on the one faith do not 
let us cramp ourselves in the matter of church organisation. 
In Europe to-day we see among the evangelical churches five 
predominant types of church government, viz., Episcopal, 
Presbyterian, Congregational—dividing into two sections, Bap¬ 
tist and Paedo-baptist, and Methodist, which chiefly flourish 
in Britain, and Eutheran and Reformed, -which chiefly flourish 
on the continent. The same five types, with possibly some 
modifications w r ould, I believe, account for the overwhelming 
majority of the evangelical churches of America. Let us add 
a sixth class to cover all that are not included in this classifica¬ 
tion. Now let us study the history of each group, of each 
church, and we shall find that each has done a work for God 
and for man that the others were not equally fitted to accom¬ 
plish. That to-day in each section there is a recognition of 
trusteeship for some special principle, making for order in 
some cases, for freedom in others. Every man may therefore 
well be loyal to the church of which by God’s providence or 
by special conviction he finds himself a member and yet 
recognise the marks of grace in other churches. Long ago 
John Ruskin charged us o remember that not all of God’s 
truth lay under the shadow of the steeple of the church in which 
we might severally worship, dear as that church might be to us. 

A Presbyterian may be pardoned if he finds in the early 
history of his church and in the zeal and sufferings of the 
covenanting days his chief stimulus to fidelity to Christ to-day. 
He may well thank God for his spiritual ancestry. Yet must 
he be blind to the heavenly vision and deaf to all the higher 
voices if he canuot see iu the Episcopal, Methodist, Congrega- 


1910] 


The Next Step in Church Unity 


139 


tioiial and other churches, evidences of that same divine power 
and grace, adapted in its manifestations it may be to other 
lands and other conditions. There are diversities of gifts, but 
the same Spirit. And there are diversities of ministrations 
but the same Lord ; and there are diversities of workings, but 
the same God who worketh all things in all. 

Now if my contention is right it means that no one 
ecclesiastical organisation adequately represents the whole New 
Testament conception of the universal church, but that when 
all -work together in loving fellowship, maintaining the unity of 
the spirit in the bond of peace, then there is scope for the 
manifestation of the manifold wisdom of God in all its richness 
and in all its fulness, then the greatest number of human 
souls may be drawn within the influence of the church and 
the full and effective evangelisation of the whole world be 
brought nigh. That was a wise man who, speaking of the 
reunion of Christendom and with reference to the various 
churches now in existence, said : “What we want is not this 
or that, but this and that.” 

As students of philosophy we have early to learn that 
truth is found not in a compromise between two apparently 
opposed statements, but rather in a deeper unity that can 
hold the apparent opposites together. And it may be that 
as students of ecclesiastical systems we are to find that the 
one true body of Christ is an organism more complex than 
can be fully represented by any one Christian organization. 
That it is so wide in its scope, so strong in its vitality 
that it is able to express itself through many organisations, 
that in the present stage of our development it can only 
adequately express itself through many organisations—many 
churches—finding a place for all, holding all together in 
a deeper spiritual unity. 

The Episcopalian, the Presbyterian, the Congregational, 
the Baptist and Methodist Churches represent types, strong 
types, types that have persisted long and are still full of vitality. 
The oldest of these churches shows no sign of the decrepitude 
of age. The youngest shows a power of conservation as well 
as of aggressive energy that gives promise that, great as 
have been the achievements of the past, the achievements 
of the future shall be still greater. Each of these types 
has become naturalised in China, and promises to persist 
here as it has persisted in the west. * My concern is that 


140 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


each type shall have full scope for developing its own spiritual 
genius in so far as that genius conforms to the law of Christ, 
and yet that as wise master builders we should so draw type 
into touch with type that a deep, rich, full spiritual union 
shall be brought about which shall grow with the growth and 
strengthen with the strength of the church of Christ in 
China. 

I have sometimes heard the suggestion made that all 
the missions should be merged into one great undenominational 
mission for the whole of China. It involves that the Baptists 
compromise in one direction and the Paedo-baptists in another, 
that the Episcopalian yields some cherished principle and the 
Friend some other. I should personally view any such action 
as fraught with one of the greatest calamities that could 
well befall the Chinese church. Apart from the fact that 
we can never build strongly if we build on a compromise of 
principle, I would urge that if we are to give to China the 
best that God has given us, we must—in their broad outlines— 
give those systems of church government and systems of 
organisation, which, by the teaching of the New Testament 
or under the providential guidance of God, have come to 
us and have proved so great a blessing to us in the homelands. 
The bitterness of controversy that may have sprung up in 
connection with these systems is no part of the system, and 
must be avoided. We must leave behind the bitterness, but the 
solid results for good we should pass on. Let us look at 
this question from two points of view. (i). The work of 
the strongest and most effective missionaries that we have 
known. (2). The blessings to be found in linking the 

churches in China with those in the homelands with which 

they have closest affinity. 

1. I do not know what the general experience is, but 
personally I have found that the missionaries who are most 
Christlike in their affection, and most Catholic in their outlook, 
are most often strong denominationalists also. Take two or 
three of the outstanding names in Central China. There was 
David Hill, a man who kept in touch with the whole church 
of Christ, and his friendships were as deep as they were far 

reaching. He seemed to find his way as by a natural instinct 

to the spiritual centre of a fellow-Christian’s nature, let 
him belong to what church he might. Roman, Anglican, 
Protestant, his heart went out to all. He seemed to have 


1910] 


The Next Step in Church Unity 


141 


an affinity for all. Yet David Hill was a strong Methodist. 
To do his best work he was bound to work on Methodist 
lines. He rejoiced in the work of the Evaugelical Alliance, 
he laboured for the Central China Religious Tract Society, 
he was the friend of every undenominational and interdenomi¬ 
national effort, yet the church that he laboured to build 
up was on Methodist lines, and the sum total of the best 
work of his life was all bound up with the Methodism that 
was so dear to him. And I think we all loved him the 
more for it. Then again we had Bishop Ingle. A man 
of more massive sincerity I never knew, and his influence 
on the Central China Mission was strong and deep. Alike 
in the common worship here in Killing and in our monthly 
prayer meetings at Hankow, he loved to join. He deeply 
valued the prayer of the united Christian body and desired 
both to join in those prayers and to receive the benefit that he 
realised resulted from them. He looked sympathetically upon 
the whole work, and I believe as truly loved, as he was beloved 
by, every member of the Central China missionary community. 
Yet Bishop Ingle was an Anglican through and through and 
could not have done his best work on any other than Anglican 
lines. May I refer for a moment to the beloved leader for fifty 
years or more of our London Mission, Griffith John ? It was his 
joy to be of assistance to any mission. In the earliest days at 
Hankow he started the English liturgical service, which he 
gladly handed over to an episcopal clergyman as soon as the 
community was able to arrange for bis support. He rejoiced 
to transfer his first convert at Hankow to the Wesleyan Mission 
to be trained as an evangelist when the Wesleyan Mission was 
started in Hankow, and this man, Mr. Chu, was subsequently 
ordained as the first Methodist pastor in Hankow. Yet it 
is absolutely certain that Griffith John could not have done his 
life work on either Anglican or Methodist lines. He felt 
at home in the somewhat modified Congregationalism that 
is typical of the work of the London Missionary Society, 
and I do not think he could have done equally good work 
under any other system. 

The whole Central China work is the stronger and richer 
to-day because of the influence of men so diverse and yet so 
like-minded who have spent their lives in it. God fulfils Him¬ 
self in many ways, and then is His work the fullest revelation 
of Himself when through many personalities and many systems 


142 The Chinese Recorder [February 

He can show forth His manifold wisdom, which yet all centres 
in the one divine personality of onr Lord Jesus Christ. 

1 might also refer to our Presbyterian brethren in other 
parts of China. They have not shunned to declare the whole 
counsel of God ; they have been prominent in every good work, 
but all the same they have built up their churches in accord¬ 
ance with the Presbyterian polity, and by common consent these 
Presbyterian churches are among the strongest in China today. 

There seems to be a sense of breadth about the sentiment 
we sometimes hear : “Let the Chinese evolve their own church 
government ; why should we trouble them with ours ? ” I do 
not doubt that the Chinese will ultimately develop their own 
church organisation, as they will develop their own scheme of 
Christian civilisation, but the final result will be reached more 
easily and will be vastly more satisfactory if in the matter of 
civilisation and of church organisation we first give them the 
principles which through long ages have approved themselves 
in the West and are the best that we know. 

2 . In the second place, consider the gain alike to the 
churches in China and to the churches in the home lands that 
will come from linking the churches of the same order in world¬ 
wide federation. As travel becomes easy and communication 
rapid we see increasingly a tendency for churches to gather not 
iu national but in world-wide conferences. During the past 
few years we have had the Pan-Anglican Conference, the Pan- 
Presbyterian Congress, the Pan-Congregational Congress, the 
Methodist Ecumenical Council and other similar gatherings. 
In each, China has been represented, but in the main only by 
the missionary. May we not hope that in the near future the 
Chinese churches may be directly represented by delegates of 
their own nationality and appointment ? These men will then 
take their place on terms of equality among the representatives 
of the different churches in all these great gatherings. It will 
be to the mutual benefit of the Chinese and the home churches 
when such thorough-going organisation and representation can 
be effected. The best life that ebbs and flows through our 
Western Christianity will then permeate the Chinese churches. 
Our Chinese brethren returning from such conferences will come 
back with vastly enlarged conceptions of what Christianity 
can do for a people and for the church at large. They will 
gain, too, a confidence in their standing that perhaps nothing 
else can give them. We desire that as soon as possible the 


143 


1910] The Next Step in Church Unity 

Chinese church should become self-supporting and self-govern¬ 
ing. It will save the young churches from many a false 
doctrine and many an error in conduct if they can be so 
connected with churches of like affinity in the West as will 
both aid their stability and give to the younger churches 
the benefit of the accumulated wisdom that experience lias 
taught the older. 

It may be objected that such denominational gatherings 
tend towards exclusiveness and spiritual pride. I believe that 
the exact opposite is the truth. There may be some self- 
gratulation at the commencement, but I tliiuk it is always the 
case that as the days of meeting proceed there comes a deep 
consciousness that those gathered together are, after all, only a 
part of a larger whole and that it is the duty of the part to 
serve the whole of the denomination, to serve the whole uni¬ 
versal church of God’s elect. In these great denominational 
gatherings we realise that we each form one of the several 
buildings that are built upon the foundation of the apostles and 
the prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the chief corner stone ; 
but if we realise this, so also do we realise that each several 
building only fulfils its function when, fitly framed together 
with the other like buildings, the whole groweth into a holy 
temple in the Lord. 

I may be asked whether my view of federation includes 
the possibility of the Roman Catholic church joining in this 
intercommunion. I reply : that my paper is concerned with 
THE NEXT STEP in church union and that any form of 
intercommunion with the Roman church must at least be 
regarded as remote. As I conceive the situation, unless the 
Roman church passes through the regenerative fires of a new 
reformation, such as may bring her back to the simplicity of 
the New Testament, intercommunion is out of the question. 
While, however, I feel bound to say this, I note with thankfulness 
an increasing tendency for the members of the Anglican, the 
Free churches and the Roman church to cooperate in certain 
religious or philanthropic enterprises. 

When I was in England two years ago all the churches 
were lamenting the growing disregard of Sunday as a day of 
rest and worship. And I was glad to see that in certain towns 
meetings -were being arranged at which the Anglican vicar, 
the Roman Catholic priest, Father Bernard Vaughn, and the 
president of the Free Church Council, the Rev. Scott Lidgett, 


The Chinese Recorder 


144 


[February 


stood on the same platform to advocate a truer observance of 
the Lord’s day. 

Again, for some two years past the editors of the yellow 
press in England, and I fear some men of like mind in Ger¬ 
many, have been striving to sow seeds of ill will and to stir up 
the war spirit between these two sister nations. Twelve 
months ago, at the invitation of the London Federation of Free 
Churches, acting together with representatives of the Anglican 
and Roman Communions, a number of German pastors of 
different churches visited England. Recent papers have told 
us of the return visit of English ministers to Germany, and we 
have been interested to see that among the one hundred and 
ten outstanding Christian men who travelled by the yacht 
Meteor were to be found Roman Catholic Monsignors and 
Non-conformist pastors, Anglican Bishops and Quaker philan¬ 
thropists, all travelling together in good fellowship, convinced 
that by fraternising with their German confreres an entente 
cordiale might be fostered and a practical demonstration be 
given to the truth that the churches have power to influence 
international relationship in the direction of righteousness and 
peace if only they will speak with one voice and act as one man. 

We recognise all such beneficent and united action, but are 
still convinced that as things stand to-day federation with 
Rome is neither possible nor desirable. What is feasible 
and what in a hundred ways God by His divine Spirit is 
pressing upon us, is such a spiritual federation of the Anglican, 
the Lutheran and all other evangelical churches as may 
make it possible to demonstrate the essential oneness of the 
common faith by the strength of mutual affection and united 
action. This I take it must be the next step ill the direction 
of church unity. Towards it let us bend our most earnest 
and broad-minded efforts, and for it let our most earnest 
prayers arise. At the Lambeth Conference and subsequently 
at Shanghai the Anglican Bishops not only expressed full 
sympathy with all efforts tending towards church unity, 
hut also made known their thorough-going determination to 
forward union by mutual conferences with other Christian 
bodies, or in such ways as might be possible. For this 
frank approach on the part of the Bishops those of us 
who view the question from the non-Anglican side owe 
grateful acknowledgment. But the anxious question at once 
confronts us, Is the acceptance of the historic episcopate 


1910] The Next Step in Church Unity 145 

as a binding principle within and upon all the churches 
to continue a condition sine qua non for such spiritual federa¬ 
tion and intercommunion ? 

We must admit that there are grave difficulties in finding 
a solution at this point, alike from the side of the Anglican 
and from the side of the Free-churcliman. To many an 
Anglican it appears that all ordination not derived through 
the historic episcopate is irregular if not ineffective. The 
outlook of the free churches is very different, and I want 
as simply as I can to show how the question appears from 
their point of view. It is not altogether easy to do this, 
for the free churches are many in number and differences 
of opinion on many points undoubtedly exist between them. 
In the main, however, I think their general position may 
be stated somewhat as follows :— 

a. The free churches do believe in an apostolic ministry. 
They see that in various communions men of apostolic faith 
and purity of life, set apart for the ministry of the word, 
are striving as the apostles strove for the bringing in of the 
kingdom of Christ, and these men seem to them to be in 
a true apostolic succession. 

The free churches believe in ecclesiastical continuity, but 
it is the continuity of the living and abiding society which is 
the one universal church, the mystical body of Christ, iu 
which all who are united by faith to Christ have their place as 
members, and through which the grace of God is revealed to 
the world. Of this society, presbyters, presiding presbyters or 
bishops, and deacons are the officers, the servants or ministers— 
those through whom the chief ministry of the church is made 
effective. They believe that the whole church is an inspired 
community, that to-day as in Antioch the divine life is 
working and that, as moved by the Holy Ghost, the pro¬ 
phets and teachers with prayer and fasting laid their hands 
upon Saul and Barnabas and sent them forth to the ministry 
of the word, so to-day may the ministers, the prophets and 
teachers of our modern church, ordain in the name of the 
church, and for the church, those who have already received 
the inward call and have shown proof of possessing the grace 
of ministering. 

b. The theory of the historic episcopate as a link with 
the apostles, continuous through all the centuries, does not 
commend itself to the hearts and minds of the great mass of 


146 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


the free churchmen in such a way as to produce conviction. 
In the first place the historic proof of such continuity seems 
lacking. The fact that the earliest records only trace the 
succession to the sub-apostolic age and there leave it, seems to 
indicate that it was rather after the death of the apostles than 
during their life time that the system was evolved. But even 
could a connecting link be established, it would still seem to be 
a mechanical limitation of the free grace of God, to confine the 
authority to ordain to a close succession of men, for while 
very many in the succession have manifested the ripest fruits 
of faith, spirituality and devotion, of others it is possible to 
doubt whether they could in any true sense be said to be in 
fellowship with Christ. 

c. By how much the historic episcopate is made the basis 
of the sacerdotal nature of the ministry, by so much must the 
overwhelming majority of free churchmen feel the more 
unable to accept it. The priesthood of all believers in the 
sense that they are called to make prayers and supplications 
for all men, is fully recognised. The eternal high priesthood 
of our Lord Jesus Christ is the central thought of all their 
thinking, but they fail to find in the New Testament that any 
special sacerdotal authority is entrusted to the ministers of the 
church. 

Now I have endeavoured to state as briefly as possible 
what I believe to be the crux of the whole situation. If I have 
stated the free church position more fully than the Anglican 
I trust at least that neither is stated unfairly. We shall, I 
believe, all assent to the proposition that no lasting union can 
be built upon an agreement which in itself involves any com¬ 
promise of principle ; that the acceptance of the historic 
episcopate, unless it came from a deep spiritual conviction 
would, in the long run, profit us nothing. Indeed such accept¬ 
ance might, in course of time, make a larger rent in the seamless 
garment than any that are now there. In his most interesting 
article in the Outlook twelve months ago Dr. Newman Smyth 
maintained that a large number of Congregational ministers 
might, without much difficulty, be brought to accept the 
historic episcopate, and apparently he himself would look with 
sympathy upon such a movement. By the new light that he 
has thrown upon old faith, and by his exposition of the 
religious feeling, Dr. Smyth has laid us all under deep obliga¬ 
tion, but in this article in the Outlook I find myself unable to 


The Next Step in Church Unity 


147 


191o] 


follow him. Even were sncli a movement as lie suggests to 
take place in the Congregational churches, I can but fear that 
the sequence of events would be as tollovvs :— 

First. Those congregationalists who had accepted the 
historic episcopate would feel, to some extent, separated from 
their colleagues who had not taken the step. They would also 
feel that they -were more or less in an outer court of the 
Episcopal church. 

Second. They would take a farther step and become 
thoroughgoing Episcopalians, with the result that while 
numerical gain might accrue to the Episcopal church a great 
deal of bitterness would also be engendered, which would put 
off indefinitely the day of final reunion and greatly increase 
the difficulty of fellowship between those within and those 
outside the Anglican church. The conviction on either side 
is, I well know, intense. Some time ago there came to my 
hands two sermons preached in London. One was by a canon 
of St. Paul’s, preached in the Cathedral and maintaining witli 
much scholarship and eloquence that the church of England, 
in doctrine and organisation, represented exactly the faith and 
order bequeathed by Christ to the apostles and handed 011 by 
them to their successors. 

The other was by a leading Congregational minister, 
maintaining, with, I think, equal scholarship and earnestness 
that the Congregational polity alone represented the churches 
of apostolic days and that every departure therefrom involved 
a departure from primitive simplicity. 

We might smile at the situation -were not the matter one 
of such tremendous import I quote the incident to show that 
if we are to find a basis of union it must he one that is not 
bound up with Episcopal, Presbyterian, Baptist, Congregational 
or Methodist polity ; but it must be one that shall go deeper 
than all and embrace all. “ Where Christ is there is the 
church,” said St. Ignatius, and his words give us the clue for 
the basis of union. Those who acknowledge the true deity of 
Jesus Christ and call Him Lord, those in whose assemblies 
His presence is manifested, all these must, on a common basis 
of oneness in Christ, be drawn into a common fellowship. 
“Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in 
uncorruptness” were the apostle’s last words to the Ephesian 
church, and in them we have the one sound basis upon which 
we can work for church union. 


148 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


Some such statement with reference to our common belief, 
as was adopted by the Centenary Conference at Shanghai, 
should be heartily accepted by all the churches entering into 
the federation, and there should be no difficulty in arranging 
that in the administration of baptism and the holy communion 
the very words of Scripture should be used. Indeed, as far as I 
know, it is already the custom of the free churches to do this. 
While, however, such agreement may prepare the way, may 
develop the atmosphere which should make it easy for true 
church union to take place, effective union will only come 
from a drawing together ill living fellowship of all who love 
Christ, and for this we should prayerfully and systematically 
seek with all our powers. With a view to this I make the 
following suggestions :— 

First. Let those of us who desire to bring about this 
church union pray regularly, not only for our own missions, 
but also for all missions in our neighbourhood, by name. If 
criticism at any time seems necessary, let it be given and 
received with frank brotherliness, and let us see to it that not 
only our words about one another’s work, but also our thoughts 
are kindly. We live among a people who attach more import¬ 
ance to hints and facial expression than to formal statements. 
We may make any number of fraternal speeches, but the Chi- 
nese will read our hearts, and unless as missionaries of different 
societies we are at heart loyal to one another, we can do 
nothing to draw the Chinese Christians into mutual fellowship. 

Second. Let us do our utmost to coordinate the educa¬ 
tional work in each province. At Hankow we are getting to 
work upon a scheme which aims at coordinating the educa¬ 
tional work of the missions in primary, intermediate and 
secondary schools ; and also in the first two years of college 
life ; the scheme also providing for inter-mission examina¬ 
tions. By this means we trust that the boys in all our schools 
will realise how truly the missions form one great agency. 
We trust that in time Christian universities may be established 
in different parts of China, in which the work of all the 
mission schools may find its completion and crown. In such a 
university each interested mission should maintain its hostel, 
so that it may keep in religious touch with its students and 
provide for their spiritual instruction. 

Third. Let us do our utmost to support the federation 
movement and let us strenuously avoid proselytising and over- 


1910] 


149 


The Next Step in Church Unity 

lapping. It is detrimental to all our work to have two 
churches in one small market town, or to work in any way 
that suggests rivalry between two missions. Would it not be 
prudent to say that in the country we will never open a new 
chapel within five li of the chapel of another mission, and 
that we will never receive a member of another mission into 
our church without a letter of introduction from the pastor of 
the church he leaves ? 

Fourth. Let us do our utmost to support all united 
prayer meetings, whether for missionaries or the Chinese 
Church. Let us encourage the Chinese pastors and evangel¬ 
ists of different missions to hold a monthly meeting for prayer 
and consultation. In these gatherings let them work out their 
own solutions to their own problems without the hampering 
presence of the foreign missionary. Where this custom has 
been established its influence has been most admirable, both 
as inducing right feeling between the churches and as provid¬ 
ing a ready means for adjusting inter-mission difficulties and 
so promoting union. 

Fifth. Let us arrange for occasional united services for 
worship and preaching, in which the arrangement shall be 
such as to make it clear to all that every mission has an equal 
interest, and that all are acting with one common motive to 
accentuate our unity before men and offer our common prayer 
and praise to God. 

Sixth. Wherever it is possible let us arrauge annually 
for a united communion service. What better conclusion than 
this could we have for the series of prayer meetings during the 
first week of January that are so generally held throughout 
China. Where for any cause there are dificulties in the way 
of holding such services let us seek to get these difficulties 
removed. 

When we can meet as brothers: one in the school and 
university, one in the prayer meeting, one in the services of 
God’s house, and one at the table of the Lord, we shall prove 
our essential unity in spite of all diversity. We shall teach 
our Chinese brethren to love one another in sincerity, and the 
way will be prepared for that fuller manifestation of God’s 
presence that comes when all His people are of one mind in one 
place. 

These suggestions are simple ; they are practical. We 
wonder why in every place they are not already in operation. 


150 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


Could we with heart and soul put them into operation a new 
day would dawn on missions in China, and the welding toge¬ 
ther of the churches of this land would largely influence the 
churches of the homelands in the direction of reunion. 

You and I who are gathered here can perhaps do more 
towards reuniting Christendom than is apparent to-day. Ku- 
ling is getting to have a spiritual significance to many of us 
because of the fellowship that it makes possible between the 
Christians of many lands and many churches. We have learnt 
here to esteem one another very highly in love for the work’s 
sake. In common worship we have come to know our essential 
unity. During this very week we have been gathering together 
under the presidency of a greatly beloved bishop of the Amer¬ 
ican Church while we have been listening to the inspiring 
teaching of an English Free Churchman. From the day of the 
opening of the old Killing church our motto has been :— 

ALL ONE IN CHRIST JESUS, 

and if we can carry the spirit of that motto into the practical 
work of all our missions, the question of church union will be 
on a fair way to solution. 


The Problem of Church Unity in China 

BY RT. REV. BISHOP F. R. GRAVES 

T HE subject of church unity is one which is beset by so 
many prejudices and beclouded by so many controversies 
that it is extremely difficult to write about it so as 
to be clearly understood and yet to avoid wounding feelings 
which are associated with the most sacred convictions which 
men hold. I do not pretend that I can treat of it adequately, 
nor to offer any final solution. Indeed I am so strongly im¬ 
pressed by these considerations that I should never have offered 
to write of my own motion and if I had not been assured that 
it might be of some use. Controversy is idle and harmful and 
something for which there is no space in the face of our press¬ 
ing work in the mission field. And yet it is useless to say 
anything unless it has a direct bearing on what may be done 
to bring about union. Nothing is to be gained by repeating 
platitudes and vague expressions of our mutual oneness and 




1910] 


The Problem of Church Unity in China 


151 


the Christian love we bear one another. The fact is that we 
are outwardly divided, sometimes openly antogouistic, and 
what we have to find out is the way in which division may be 
done away. It is of no use repeating phrases about unity 
while we refuse to take thought and exert ourselves to attain 
it. It is true we may never be able to solve the problem, 
but we can at least do a little to make its conditions plainer 
and to clear away some preliminary obstacles. Of course in 
the brief compass of this paper all one can hope to do is to 
state what is the present position of things and indicate some 
directions in which our efforts are likely to bear fruit. 

There was a time, not so long ago, when church unity 
was but the pious aspiration of a few. Men were contented 
with separation and competition, and viewed the spectacle of 
the divisions of Christianity without realising the evil and 
sin of them and without being stirred to bring them to an end. 
Happily, at the present time, the evils of division are acknowl¬ 
edged and deplored and men have gone back for inspiration 
to the prayer of our Lord that all may be one. Of course there 
has always been a large amount of unity of heart amongst those 
who held so much in common, but the necessity for translating 
that disposition into practical terms, for exhibiting outwardly 
the unity we feel inwardly, is only just beginning to come 
home to the mass of Christians. 

If we are to describe the state of things in China to-day 
it will be something like this: Christian missions from all the 
great countries of the world are working here each on its own 
lines and each perpetuating its own ecclesiastical character. 
There is the great mass of the Roman Catholics separated from 
the Protestant churches by what appears to be an impassable 
gulf; the Greek church, a small mission, but the representative 
of a vast body of Christians in Europe and Western Asia, 
which is separated from Roman Catholics and Protestants 
alike ; the Protestant missions sent out by the churches which 
arose at the time of the reformation or have sprung from 
those bodies since; and the Anglican Communion, which is 
historically Catholic and at the same time reformed. All 
these bodies are separate and not in communion with one 
another. 

Erom this state of division all sorts of evils have arisen, 
rivalry and competition, needless reduplication of churches and 
institutions, jealousy and misunderstanding, and as the gross 


152 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


result of all a divided witness for Christ and a weakened in¬ 
fluence for Christian life and morality in the face of the heathen 
yvorld. One knows that these evils are tempered by the exer¬ 
cise of common sense and Christian feeling, but they exist 
nevertheless. 

Now we feel these evils more acutely in the mission field 
because we see so clearly the necessity of this united 
witness, and we are likewise inclined to seek for more 
of union, for we are driven here to deal with essentials and 
to disregard matters of secondary importance, and are drawn 
closer together by a sense of a common cause and common 
effort no less than by the pressure of surrounding heathenism. 
It is well recognised in the home lands that, in this matter 
of unity, missions must furnish, if not the solution, certainly 
the impulse to grapple with the problem and the spirit of love 
and sacrifice in which it must be solved. Thus in a sermon 
preached in Westminster Abbey on St. Andrew’s Day (Novem¬ 
ber 30 ), at the consecration of two bishops for Japan and 
of the bishop for the new see of Kwangsi and Hunan, the Dean 
of Westminster spoke as follows :— 

“If the Church of England is set, as we believe, in the middle 
place, holding tenaciously to the immemorial creeds and customs 
of the Catholic past, and yet claiming and appropriating the fresh 
light and new lessons that come with the progressive ripening of 
the human mind ; if our position in God’s time may prove to be 
a mediating one in the Western world, then you may face your 
problems with an eager hope. Nay, more—and I say it advisedly 
•—it probably rests with you and your brethren in these two great 
mission-fields to take steps in advance towards the Christian unity 
of the future which seem wholly impracticable to our stereotyped 
divisions at home. The imperative requirements of native con¬ 
verts, the necessity of shaping truly native churches, the brother¬ 
liness of missionaries who are serving the same Master with the 
same spirit under the same difficulties, the repeated suggestions 
of combined effort in regard to medicine and higher education,—all 
these things force the pace and offer an opportunity to a Christian 
statesmanship.” 

Surely if the churches which sent us out are looking to 
their missions to contribute their part to bring in this great 
consummation we in the field must not be found wanting nor 
disappoint so great a hope. 

And now to turn to what has been done and to what 
remains to be accomplished. It is unquestionable that the 
Shanghai Centenary Conference did a great deal to promote the 


153 


1910] The Problem of Church Unity in China 

spirit of unity and set in motion influences that have been felt 
at home. Out of it have sprung many experiments in prac¬ 
tical cooperation, as in medical and educational work, which 
appear to be working successfully. 

The conference tried to attain its broad and high concep¬ 
tion of unity by two paths. It appointed a Committee on 
Federation and a Committee on Church Union. 

The first committee has succeeded, to a certain extent, in 
federating missions in different parts of China by a system of 
representation. It is probably too soon to say what the result 
will be. For myself it has seemed to me that it was an at¬ 
tempt to accomplish by the creation of a machinery of repre¬ 
sentative councils, provincial and so on, a union which could 
have no real basis, which was, so to speak, in the nature of a 
truce and not of a peace. If one is impatient of delay and 
eager for visible results, federation promises a short road to 
the desired end, but it ignores differences which must ultimately 
assert themselves. Behind any such expedient always lies the 
greater and more difficult question of church unity, the real 
and vital question which w r e must answer soon or late, and all 
attempts to put it aside and accept some substitute are sure to 
fail. I believe that the longer and more difficult patli through 
the work of the Committee on Church Union is the safer and 
surer. 

It is well at this point to ask ourselves what we mean 
when we speak of church unity in China. Are not most 
missionaries thinking of a union of Protestant missions? As 
one reads much that is written on the subject this seems to be 
the underlying assumption. It was not ignored in the con¬ 
ference, however, that we have to face a far larger and graver 
question. Unless church union can embrace all Christians 
in China, Catholic and Protestant, the problem will be nearly 
as far from solution as ever. One sees sometimes an uncharit¬ 
able map which professes to be a map of the world’s religions, 
with black for the heathen, dark grey for the Catholics and 
white for the Protestants. That is an image of which we 
have to rid our minds. We have to remember that Christian¬ 
ity is a greater thing than Protestantism and to widen our 
minds and hearts to entertain the conception of a unity which 
shall embrace all. We have to confess that the practical 
difficulties are at present insurmountable. But yet we must 
recall our minds to the fact that church unity, with the 


154 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


majority of Christians left out, would be no solution of the 
problem. But if the difficulties are insurmountable now they 
may not be so forever. What we have to see to is that in 
our efforts at partial reunion we do not erect additional barriers 
against the larger unity for which we hope and pray. 

From these general considerations let us turn to consider 
how things stand in relation to church unity between the 
various missions in China. Though we can thankfully say 
that there is a real desire for unity we must frankly confess 
that the efforts of the Committee on Church Union have had 
little or no visible result. The same is true of the Committee 
on Unity appointed in 1907 by the Conference of the Anglican 
Communion. That committee addressed a brotherly letter to 
all missionaries, but in the three years that have intervened no 
response has been received. The fact that these two com¬ 
mittees which exist for the promotion of church unity receive 
no response sufficiently indicates that the time is not ripe for 
any movement in that direction. But it would ill become us 
to cease our efforts. We can all do a great deal by preparing 
the way for such a movement in the future. 

1 . By prayer for the unity of the church. 

2 . By such mutual cooperation as is possible on common 
ground and for common objects. 

3 . By informal meetings where such explanations of our 
respective positions might be made as would clear away the 
misunderstandings which now obscure the true issues. 

4 . By putting practices which are of secondary import¬ 
ance and mere theological opinions into a subordinate place 
and concentrating attention upon the essentials in doctrine 
and practice. In this way documents like the XXXIX 
Articles or the Westminster Confession would take their proper 
place as subordinate to the statement of belief in the facts of 
Christianity as contained, for instance, in the Nicene and 
Apostles’ Creeds. Men can never unite on the ground of 
theological opinion, but there is no reason why they should not 
unite upon a confession of belief in the great facts which are 
the foundation of Christianity. 

5 . We must learn to know that union will have to take 
place by inclusion and not by exclusion. That it will never 
be reached, that is, by stripping away all to which anyone may 
have an objection, but by recognising that each is to contribute 
the best he has to the final result. 


1910 ] What Federation Can Accomplish for the Chinese Church 155 

6. We must keep the ideal before us, distant as its realisa¬ 
tion may seem to be, and learn to prepare for it by greater 
personal devotion. It is only as each one of us is united to 
God by union with His Son that we can ever hope to over¬ 
come the many obstacles that divide us and attain to union 
in the one Body, the reunited church of Christ. 


What Federation Can Accomplish for the 
Chinese Church 

BY CHENG CHING-YI, L. M. S., PEKING 

T HE day is excellent! sunny, bright, and warm ! As I 
stood on the hill-side, where I and a great many 
others encamped, I looked down upon the small town at 
the foot of the hill a little way off, at the mass of trees, at the 
one-storied cottages, aud the conspicuous spire of the parish 
church, which were all within sight. It was a typical view of 
the English country. So picturesque ! Now the hour of 
meeting has arrived, and with others I marched down the hill 
towards the meeting place somewhere in the little town. After 
one turning or two I entered a street in front of the other end 
of which a large tent was within sight. Many people were 
gathered from all directions into this tent—people of different 
conditions and nationalities—this formed the natural indication 
that here was the meeting-place I wanted. On entering into 
the tent something seized one’s attention. Above the doorway 
there hang these words in red and white : 

“ALL ONE IN CHRIST JESUS.” 

What an inspiration ! Any one who attends the Keswick 
Convention cannot fail to be attracted by these beautiful words. 
As a foreigner in a foreign country they seemed especially 
comforting and delightful. I do not think I can recollect now 
the helpful and eloquent addresses I heard in that tent, but 
this grand text has ever been a comfort in my soul aud con¬ 
stantly before my mind’s eyes: “ All one in Christ Jesus.” 

I count one of the most gracious blessings that God lias 
bestowed upon the church in China during recent years to be 
the spirit of unity. It would be an exaggeration to say that 



156 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


in this matter the church has reached her lofty ideal, and 
that she is on the mountain-top, but I do say that she is going 
onward and upward towards that ideal. God grant that the 
day is not far 'off when we shall taste and enjoy the loveliness 
and beauty of it in a much fuller measure. The more we are 
united with Christ, the more we are united with one another. 
Unity is power and is strength ; it is born of God and not 
created by man. 

The federation movement has been for some years mani¬ 
festing its activity in several ways in this part of the empire. 
The work which has already been achieved is of great advantage 
to the Christian cause in China at large and in the north in 
particular. The settlement of the term question, the publica¬ 
tion of the union hymn book, the unifying of the titles of 
different missions for Fu Yin Tang, and the establishment of 
several union colleges, all of these have done, in a large 
measure, great service of unity amongst God’s people in this 
land. For all this God be praised ! 

Well I remember while in Uondon some years ago au 
English friend brought to me, for the first time, the good news 
of unifying the different terms for the titles of God and Holy 
Spirit which unhappily hitherto had been adopted by various 
missions in China, and my friend wished to know my opinion 
on the subject as to which is the better one to use, Shang Ti or 
Ti‘en Chu, Sheng Ling or Sheng Shell. But I, in my peculiar 
delight, replied something to this effect: “ Any of these titles 
will be quite good aud suitable, as long as such a harmony 
will be made!” I have reasons to believe that that reply 
expressed the feelings and attitude of not a few of my Chinese 
fellow-Christians. 

In preparing this paper I went to see a Chinese pastor in 
this city who was present at the Pei Tai Ho Conference, and 
hoped to get some information from him, as I was not at home 
when that conference was held. When the subject of federa¬ 
tion was mentioned to him, the good pastor’s face bright¬ 
ened up with delight, and he earnestly said to me that he 
thought never before had the church enjoyed such a good 
spirit of unity ; it was heavenly and it was divine ! With 
reference to the Pei Tai Ho Conference the pastor thought 
that although the Chinese workers did not take any large part 
in it, all the changes and proposals were heartily welcomed 
and appreciated by them. Later on the pastor himself arrang- 


1910] What Federation Can Accomplish for the Chinese Church 157 

ed a large meeting in the Chinese New Year, when Christians 
of all denominations and even of other sects were gathered 
together in wishing each other “A Happy New Year.” They 
spoke, they sang, and they greeted one another in a most 
friendly way such as never happened before in this part of the 
world. This clearly shows that the Chinese people appreciate 
very highly Christian federation and unity ; such a spirit suits 
very well with the disposition of the people too. Unity and 
harmony is one of China’s fine qualities notwithstanding she is 
far from being perfect in many other ways. 

So much has been done towards federation one cannot 
help feeling happy and grateful, but there seems to be more 
room for further development and reform. I would like, if 
I am permitted, to build my castles in the air and dream my 
midnight dreams. It is a grave problem to deal with, but its 
importance and necessity excel its greatness. One would like 
to see in the near future a large organization of a union 
Chinese church where denominatioualism will be out of the 
question. While making suggestion one is aware that deno- 
miuatioualism has, in the past, its historical value and worth, 
and many who are under their denominations are there not 
merely because they are born into them, but because they have 
great admiration for the fathers who were the founders of these 
denominations. But for all that we have to consider the time 
in which we are working, and the people with whom we 
labour. In this particular matter we are to look ahead and 
not behind. Confucius is said to be a saint who acted in 
accordance with his time. We are not going to convert the 
world into a world of Methodism or Anglicanism, or any other 
“isms,” but the Lord Jesus Christ is the one and only ideal 
for the world. Permit me to write a little fuller on the im¬ 
portance and necessity of such a union. 

All who are working for Christ in China are conscious of 
the mighty mass of heathendom around them. Indeed we can¬ 
not afford to engage ourselves in those really minor and in¬ 
significant differences. On the other hand we feel that if the 
church of Christ is to win the mass of men who are in dark¬ 
ness, for Him, it must be by no mere statement, even of the 
truest formulae; it must be by the life of Christ manifest in His 
disciples, and that that manifestation is impossible in the 
absence of love. The consciousness of goodness is in itself 
of unity, and of evil in itself of division ; and here antagonism 


158 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


is growing and will grow, and I believe that the forces which 
contribute to its growth lie a great deal in the surroundings. 

Speaking generally, the Chinese Christians take little or 
no interest in denomiuationalism. Very few of them know the 
historical origin of even their own particular denomination, 
still less do they feel the force of it. They belong to certain 
denominations just because they were so led to Christianity. 
This may be said to be one of the reasons why federation move¬ 
ments have found their way so readily and heartily in the 
hearts of the followers of Christ in China. 

Denomiuationalism has a peculiar, and often misleading, 
idea in this country. Three men are here; one says that he 
belongs to the P. M., the other to the C. I. M. and the third 
to the D. M. S. But as a matter of fact two of the three are 
really undenominational organizations ! 

Perhaps the most important problem in mission work in 
China to-day is the problem of the self-supporting and self- 
governing Chinese church. Protestant missions have been in 
China more than a century now, and it is time for the Chinese 
Christians to show their interest in, and activities for, the 
Christian cause in a practical way. So now is the time of the 
beginning of the Chinese church. I now ask along what line 
will the missions lead the Chinese Christians to the realization 
of their own responsibility as well as privilege? Are the 
missions going to form a kind of Chinese Congregationalism, 
Chinese Presbyterianism and all the rest ? Surely a union 
Chinese church, without regard to any denomination, is the 
right direction to aim at. 

As denominationalism has its deep root in the Christian 
countries in the West, humanly speaking, it is well-nigh to 
impossible to remove it and make it in those countries a united 
force of harmony after such a long period. In China the 
difficulty is lessened by the facts that, firstly, the church in 
China is comparatively young, and, secondly, denominational 
differences are not generally thought much of. Therefore now 
is the time to let the future Chinese church be well grounded 
and founded on a solid basis, viz., a union church. 

It means difficulty and perhaps sacrifice on the part of the 
various missions. But nevertheless it is worth while. The 
sacrifice, if one may use such a great word, is comparatively a 
small thing when we think of the welfare and gain of the 
Chinese church, for after all it is the Chinese church zee should 


1910] What Federation Can Accomplish for the Chinese Church 1 59 


be working for, and not our denominations or missions. So any¬ 
thing for the good of the church should be sought and worked 
through even with cost if need be. Sometimes we need to go 
up with our Divine Master to the Mount of Olives, where we 
can obtain a larger view of the world’s need. 

To show my narrowness of mind and ignorance I confess 
I used to hold very poor ideas about men of other denomina¬ 
tions, especially those of the Church of England. To-day some 
of my best friends are churchmen ! I owe this change to the 
fact that I was sent to an undenominational college to study, 
where Christian federation and unity was manifested in actual 
practice. I believe that some such like testimonies could be 
given by some of the students in our union colleges in North 
China, whose views have been widened by being mixed with 
men of all denominations. I wish, from the depth of my 
heart, to re-echo those words of the Psalmist of old, “ Behold, 
how pleasant and how good it is for brethren to dwell together 
in unity!” On the tombstone of the Bishop of St. Andrews 
there are these words : “ Remembering the prayer of his Divine 
Lord and Master for the unity of the church, lie prayed 
continually and laboured earnestly that a way may be found 
in God’s good time for the reunion of the Episcopalian and 
Presbyterian bodies, without the sacrifice of apostolic princi¬ 
ples or scriptural truth.” What a large heart the good 
bishop had ! 

Unity should always work from within and not from with¬ 
out—from the church to the world, 'l'he diversities of forms, 
of rites, of opinions, of the various denominations, real as they 
are, sink into insignificance when compared with the solid 
unity of Christian love. May that love manifest itself brighter 
and brighter as the days go by, so that ail the churches shall 
Ire bound up in oneness of harmony, and that unity will Ire the 
motto for all. Such majestic unity shall be a blessing here in 
its time and unspeakably precious for the world’s good, and it 
shall be transfigured at last into the unity and alliance of the 
Home above, where all the faces look one way, concentred 
upon the great white throne and the One who sits upon it. 

Then there is another matter not less in importance which 
I will merely mention in a few words at present; this is the need 
of a closer relationship and more united spirit in words and 
deeds between Christians of the blast and those of the West. 
Heart to heart, hand in hand, shall we work together for 


160 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


Christ and for men, and the racial distinction will he out of 
place in the Christian service. Have confidence in each 
other, trusting one another in a practical way and in the true 
sense of the words. There are things which our friends of the 
West can do infinitely better than we, and there are also things 
which would be well done if left in the hands of the friends in 
the East. One should not act independently, nor can one afford 
to do so. When this is once established and practised in the 
church of Christ, one can almost smile at many of the evil 
doings of the Evil One. But this can never be realized in its 
full measure until we all are, no matter whether East or West,. 
closely united with the Divine Lord Jesus Christ. 

Thus union with Christ, union of all denominations, and 
union of all nationalities forms “a three-fold cord which is not 
easily broken ! ” 


Federation and the Baptist Problem 


BY RF.V. JAMES V. LATIMER, HUCHOW 
OWEVER much the Baptist problem troubles some, 



it troubles Baptists none the less, and however live 


and real it may be to others, it is none the less to 
Baptists themselves. And since some have failed to grasp the 
full import of the Baptist position because of conclusions based 
upon slight knowledge, I am constrained to state briefly the 
various positions held by those within the denomination. 

First tliere are those who are practically ready for the free 
interchange of church members, regardless of creed or practise ; 
others are ready for the reception of non-immersed Christians 
into the fellowship and watchcare of the church with certain 
restrictions, such as voting upon matters of doctrine or dis¬ 
cipline ; while others, and possibly the majority of Baptist 
workers in China, hold that there is no Christian baptism 
but immersion, and that no one should partake of the 
Lord’s Supper until baptized. Yet, although this latter 
position has been reached only after long years of misunder¬ 
standing and division, the Baptist conscience is not peculiar, 
aud they are usually found to be open to conviction and 
amenable to reason. 

To some it lias seemed that if there were no Baptists in 
China the difficulties of union aud federation could soon be 




19to] Federation and the Baptist Problem 161 

cleared up, but to Baptists it lias seemed that there are other 
difficulties also. The Baptists will not be asked to give up 
everything for the sake of union, because they are not wholly 
wrong ; yet they stand ready to give up everything shown 
to be contrary to Scripture teaching, providing there be a 
few Baptists on that Committee of Interpretation. Baptists 
expect to stay in the movement, and any movement in which 
they cannot have a part is unworthy of the name. They 
are both ready to give and to give up for the sake of closer 
harmony in the Church of Christ, and those who look upon 
the denomination from the outside will never know the 
struggle within nor the longing for real fellowship and 
understanding. 

Four tilings have Baptists ever held as vital: 

1. Regenerate church membership, or conversion before 
church membership be granted. 

2. Separation of Church and State. 

3. Congregational church polity. 

4. Distinctive administration of the ordinances of baptism and 
the Lord’s Supper. 

Of these we shall not be asked to give up the first two for 
the sake of union or federation, and we are open to convic¬ 
tion on the third. Although we believe the local church can 
best govern its own affairs, and that democracy applied to 
Christianity leads to the congregational church polity ; yet this 
is not life , and other churches have lived and prospered under 
the rule of elders and bishops. And I am not sure that the 
Scriptures say more about deacons, advisory Boards, and local 
church organizations than they do about elders, overseers, and 
bishops. Of the fourth tenet I shall speak later. 

BAPTISTS CAN CONTRIBUTE SOMETHING 

to the movement for union and can add something of sober¬ 
ness and balance. From a worthy record of three hundred 
years of denominational life they are able to contribute not a 
little of theological thought, steadfastness, and real piety. 
They can contribute the influence of a church life remarkably 
free from heresy trials and divisive disputes. They can also 
contribute an open mind and a heart ready to believe. These 
things, to my mind, give promise of a place to Baptists in 
every sober movement for union or federation. 


162 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


There seems to be at present 

A CHANGING POSITION BOTH AT HOME AND ON THE 

MISSION PIELD 

with reference to the question in hand. Baptists are beginning 
to realize that there is a great future for the federated church 
both here and there, and are willing to enter into the move¬ 
ment so far as there be common advantage and no sacrifice of 
conscience. They see as never before that the kingdom of 
God is greater than the Baptist church. The migration of 
the Chinese within their own territory press these questions 
upon them more and more. Most churches are ready to enter 
into some plan whereby the Christians from the various parts of 
the empire may be cared for ; yet in many cases denominational 
loyalty hinders full cooperation and efficiency. But the leaven 
of federation is working even in Baptist circles, and is sure 
to bring forth results. May these be both good and lasting ! 

A home secretary was somewhat surprised, as were the 
missionaries also, to find to what extent some Baptists are 
willing to go, and the home Boards have asked that tney go 
carefully, lest there grow up in China a denomination without 
a Board, else a Board without a home constituency, that is, 
they do not kuow what the denomination at home is going to 
say about the movement. And we do not know either, for it 
is yet to be learned what the denomination will do with a 
church which chooses to receive into membership those who 
have not received baptism by immersion. And neither is it 
known what would be said were it fully known that within a 
year Baptists in China have taken over the work of two Presby¬ 
terian fields together with the Christians thereof. The Bap¬ 
tists have not given any great difficulty in the various provincial 
federation councils, and in one in particular, composed of at 
least fifty per cent. Baptist delegates (I refer to Chekiang), no 
objection was raised to the proposition for open communion. 
And the question of the free interchange of church members did 
not receive any marked opposition, although some may have 
silently consented to a measure which they could not advocate 
openly. Such reports as these have caused some to fear 

DENOMINATIONAL ANNIHILATION. 

There are those in Baptist ranks who fully believe that 
our Lord founded a Baptist church, and that the elders were 


1910] Federation and the Baptist Problem 1G3 

not Presbyterian nor the bishops Methodists. They believe 
that after centuries of error and departure from the truth an 
awakened Baptist conscience obtained which brought forth the 
denomination of the present day. These people fear that simi¬ 
lar error is creeping into the church to-day and will result in 
all loss of denominatiouality. What is the loss ? Who would 
not be willing to give up every bit of denominational life if 
thereby the kingdom of God might be brought to China in a 
generation ? The question is, Would it ? We believe that 
the teaching of the Scripture and the example of the early 
church justify us in holding to the practise of baptism by im¬ 
mersion only, and that baptism upon confession of Jesus Christ 
should precede participation in the Lord’s Supper. But bapt¬ 
ism is not salvation and participation in the ordinances is not 
spiritual life. Union and fellowship with Christ are more 
than these. Yet these are tenets of the church, a part of our 
denominational life and the very heart of many a follower of 
the Lord. But for the sake of closer fellowship with one an¬ 
other we might be persuaded to accept another form of church 
polity, to yield the question of the Lord’s Supper, or even to 
receive non-immersed Christians into the watchcare and fellow¬ 
ship of our churches. W 7 hat then is the real problem of the 
Baptists ? It is that they have made 

A REASONABLE REQUEST 

and have not obtained a fair hearing. In fact, their request 
has been ignored. We hold, without wavering, that only those 
who believe on the Lord Jesus should receive baptism and that 
the free interchange of church membership can be entertained 
only upon the relinquishing of infant baptism by all churches. 
So long as infant baptism is practised no organic union is 
possible. It seems quite reasonable for other denominations to 
ask that we receive into membership such members as have 
received baptism upon profession of faith, and since none 
question the baptism of the Baptists, they may be received freely 
into the fellowship of other churches. But infant baptism is 
wholly rejected by Baptists, questioned by many other denomi¬ 
nations and iusisted upon by only a few. Baptists cannot 
accept as Christian baptism that rite which was neither asked 
for, willingly accepted, consented to, nor aware of. It is a 
reasonable request of the Baptists that for the sake ot closer 
uniou and deeper harmony this practise be given up. 


164 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


Baptists can federate for work with any who love the Lord, 
but for organic union there must be a common basis of practise. 
They federate with Presbyterians for medical work in the 
Philippines or for educational work in Shantung, with Con- 
gregationalists for educational work in Hankow, with Method¬ 
ists for hospital work in Chekiang, and with various churches 
for university work in Szechuen, but they cannot receive 
into full membership those who were baptized before they had 
even heard the name of the Lord, and later were led to call it 
Christian baptism. So from the Baptist point of view the prob¬ 
lem of union and federation is solved, since it but remains to 
be seen what others will do with this their reasonable request. 


3n fl&emonam — Isabella Ball. 

B ORN in Scotland in 1816 , Isabella Robertson was brought 
up iti a religious atmosphere and one of intellectual ac¬ 
tivity. 

Not only was her life interesting from its twenty-one years 
passed on the mission field in the olden days of missionary enter¬ 
prise in China, but it was also an interesting link with a far-away 
past in our Western lauds. 

Her memory treasured up the incidents of her early life, which 
was begun iu what now is a historical period. The echoes of the 
field of Waterloo had scarcely died away when she first saw the 
light, a year and a day after the famous fight. She had lived in 
the reigus of five English sovereigns, and remembered when a little 
girl having black ribbons on her dress as mourning for George III. 

A pleasing reminiscence was that of her father lifting her up 
to see the first steamer which sailed from Leith to London. Her 
conversation revealed many incidents cf a bygone world of.cus¬ 
toms, such, for instance, as thieves being whipped through the 
streets at a cart-tail, the franking of letters by members of parlia¬ 
ment, as well as such land-marks in our literary history as the 
introduction of a cheap and wholesome literature by the Brothers 
Chambers of Edinburgh and the appearance of Sir Walter Scott’s 
novels, etc. The high character of these last opened the way for 
the admission of the hitherto prohibited novel into her father's 
family. 

Deeply interested in missions, an opportunity presented itself to 
engage in direct mission work, and she proceeded to the colony of 
Hongkong, then in its early days (A. D. 1845 ) to teach in a school 
for Chinese girls opened by Mrs. Shuck, the wife of an American 
missionary, the church of which she was a member in Edinburgh 
sending her out for that purpose. 





THE LATE MRS. ISABELLA BALL 








In Memoriam.—Isabella Ball 


165 


igto] 

After a long sea voyage round the Cape it was only to find 
that Mrs. Shuck was dead and the school disbanded. 

Shortly after this she was married to the Rev. Dyer Ball, M.A., 
M.D., of the A. B. C. F. M. 

Within a year from arrival in China she went to Canton, which 
was her home for many years. Frequent changes from house to 
house were necessary, Dr. Ball being the first in Canton to live 
among ' the natives and away from the old factories. 

Her study of Chinese at first seemed almost to link her to the 
time of Morrison, as her teacher was one who had assisted the 
first Protestant missionary to China in his labours. In his youth 
he appeared as the younger of the two Chinese in the famous and 
well-known painting of Morrison and his two teachers. The 
learning of Chinese was beset with almost insuperable difficulties 
then, and Mrs. Ball found, like many other lady missionaries, 
that she learned better how to speak the language from intercourse 
with the school girls. 

The school she began was a small boarding-school, the only 
kind that could be started then in those early days; in fact Mrs. 
Ball’s was the first school in Southern China, except for one in 
Hongkong. Not only had lodging and food to be provided for the 
children, but even their clothes as an inducement to the parents to 
permit them to come. Notwithstanding many discouragements, 
the results were most encouraging in the case of several of the 
girls, who were thus trained up to a Christian life. Mention here 
can only be made of one who, married to a Christian, had a large 
family of sous and daughters. She herself was a most exemplary 
Christian woman and brought up her children well. Several of 
the sons are foreign-trained doctors, others have been in the 
government service, and most of the daughters are married to 
Christian men, and thus a third generation is being brought up 
and influenced by the teaching of their grandmother in the little 
mission school in Canton. 

A furlough in the middle of Mrs. Ball’s missionary life was 
spent in the Uuited States and England with her husband and 
sou, after which she remained in China till the death of Dr. Ball 
in 1866, when she returned to England with her son, remaining 
there for ten years. She again returned to China and had her 
home in her son’s house till 1896, when she finally left China, 
taking up her residence in England again at the age of 80, when 
she had her home with her son’s family. 

The old lady, as her friends called her, in her old age was 
not one of those old women who are almost dead to the life around 
them, sitting dozing by the fire the livelong day with mental 
faculties dulled and beclouded with age. The old lady was 
miserable if she had not some work in hand besides a perusal of 
the daily paper, a missionary magazine and her books, devotional 
and others. These books she read over and over again, taking 
the keenest interest in them and delighting to tell others in the 
family circle what she read. Missionary biography she much 
enjoyed. 


166 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


Deafness, which began in middle age, increased to a great ex¬ 
tent as the years went on, so that for a quarter of a century or even 
longer she had not been able to attend any religious service. 
Added to this her eyesight became so poor, causing her so much 
difficulty in reading that she feared blindness would result, and to 
provide for this contingency she began the learning of hymns by 
heart, being able to repeat long ones and storing them up in her 
mind, delighting to repeat any new one learned. 

Notwithstanding all these serious drawbacks to the enjoyment 
of life she was always bright and cheerful, with a sweet smile 
ready for all her friends. 

Knitting occupied much of her time, and she was intensely 
pleased when her handiwork was of use to the poor and needy, 
especially was this the case when some socks she knitted were sent 
to a missionary hospital in Hankow. She made all her own caps 
most tastefully, and within a few days of her death she was 
engaged on this work. 

A saintly influence seemed to surround her and impressed 
those who saw her, and she desired the spiritual good of those 
she came in contact with. Religion did not make her incapable of 
entering with zest into the harmless pleasures of life ; she tho¬ 
roughly enjoyed a good joke and took the keenest interest in what 
was going on in the world. Even on her death-bed she began 
talking to the doctor on the controversy over the discovery of the 
North Pole and asked the news. 

During a serious illness in China, w’hen death seemed immi¬ 
nent, instead of the prospect being what she had expected, she 
mourned that the Valley of the Shadow of Death was dark to her 
gaze and she could not understand it; the good Lord was not ready 
yet to take her home, so dying grace was not needed, but long 
before the summons came to cross the river she was ready for it. 
During the physical pain of her last illness she longed to go home 
and had perfect confidence in her Saviour. 

She fell asleep quietly on the 25th September, 1909, at the ripe 
age of 93. Her last words to her son the night before were a soft 
whispered ‘ good night/ 

Good night, dear Soul, good night, thy last good night. 

And whisper’d soft and low. Good night, dear Soul. 

The day’s iong task is done and rest at last 
Comes to thy waiting heart; for so He gives 
To those He loves- to His beloved ones— 

Sweet rest at last. 

The light is fading fast 

From mortal eyes. Heaven’s dawn awaits thee now. 

And no more night shall gloom thy path again. 

The night has passed for thee, the day has come, 

Thine eyes have closed on earth to wake in Heaven, 

And there no night shall come, nor tears be shed. 


J. D. B. 


1910] In Memoriam.—Mrs. Martha Foster Crawford 


167 


3ll flDemonnm.— Mrs. Martha Foster Crawford 


BY MRS. JOSEPH V. DAWES, TAI-AN-FU. 

HE missionary veterans of the early days, who bravely 



“ blazed the way ” for those who would follow, are one 


J- by one passing away. We stand and wonder upon whom 
their mantles will fall. The sweet aroma of their lives, so 
fragrant with noble deeds of devotion to ‘‘this one thing,” still 
remains, and the great work accomplished by them is a perpetual 
memorial. To write a tribute worthy of such lives is impossible, 
only in “ the book” is a full and worthy record written. 

Martha Foster Crawford, after more than half a century (over 
fifty-seven years) of residence and service in China, passed away 
at her home in Tai-an-fu, Shantung, on August 9, 1909. 

Although nearing her eightieth milestone she prosecuted her 
labors, even in spite of great physical suffering, with marvelous 
patience and endurance until within a few months of her death. 
During these last mouths, although prevented by rapidly failing 
strength from active service, her keen interest in every phase of 
the work never waned, and her wise loving couusel and advice 
were invaluable to her fellow-workers. 

This peer among missionaries was born in Georgia on January 
28, 1830. At the age of fifteen she was converted; four years 
later, after graduation from the Mesopotamia Institute, Eutaw, 
Ala., she said to herself : ” Now I intend to stay at home. I am 
homesick!” For a time she was very happy in giving herself 
up to home pleasures. But soon becoming dissatisfied she began 
to seek some way by which her life might be more useful. School- 
teaching seemed the only avenue of service open to her, so she 
sought a position. Response was slow, and she became discouraged. 
On the evening of November 14, £§49, as she kneeled by her 
bedside she prayed thus: ”0 Lord, Thou hast apparently closed 
the door of usefulness in this teaching. Thou hast other work 
for me. I beseech Thee to show me, and whatever it may be I 
gladly obey.” (Even down to the evening of her life she prayed 
always with the earnestness that characterizes this prayer, and 
in fact characterizes her whole life and work. She ever humbly 
acknowledged her weaknesses and failures.) 

It may be interesting to all and helpful to some who may 
lightly esteem what is known as a ‘‘call” to the foreign field to 
know how this faithful servant of God looked upon it. 

“ Scarcely had she finished this prayer when a powerful con¬ 
viction, like a flash of lightning, darted across her mind that God’s 
will for her was to take the Gospel to the heathen. She had not 
sought this field, but the command seemed irresistible. In vain she 
tried to reason herself into the belief that it was a passing fancy 
which the light of morning and the sight of other faces would 
dissipate. All that the missionary life involved rose up before her, 
and her faith almost fainted. She dared not pray since she could 
uot say : ‘ Thy will be done,’ and it seemed unreasonable for her to 


168 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


pray God to send some one else and spare her ! At her stated 
seasons of prayer she could only kneel and say : ‘ O Lord, help !’ 
Ill about a week help came, sorrow was turned into joy. Every¬ 
thing was full of God : and therefore full of happiness. The 
missionary work became especially attractive as opening a field of 
sacrifice as well as labor for Jesus.” 

The assurance that she was thus definitely called, helped her 
over many doubts, difficulties and discouragements and brought 
her again to China, at the advanced age of seventy-two years, after 
the death of her husband. Nothing daunted by this sore bereave¬ 
ment, which eatne upon her just as they together were preparing 
to return to the land of their adoption, and in spite of many 
inducements by friends and relatives to retire from missionary 
work, she bravely and joyfully returned. 

Arriving in China in 1852 Dr. and Mrs. Crawford labored 
in Shanghai cotemporary with Dr, Yates and others until their 
removal to Teng-chow-fu in 1863, where they spent thirty years. 
Because of their attitude toward self-support it became necessary 
for them to sever their connection with that work. About this 
time Mrs. Crawford wrote as follows to her beloved co-worker 
and successor, Miss Lottie Moon : “ To learn that you ha\^e decided 
to come back here, greatly lessens my sorrow at leaving these 
dear women for whom I have, figuratively, shed my heart’s 
blood. You will love and care for them as no one else can after 
I go away, for they are yours as well asinine. Our hearts are 
sad at leaving, but we are able to give up all into His hands. 
We have fought a good fight, we have kept the faith, we have 
been true to our convictions of duty and to God. Many of these 
women cry, so bitterly, every time I see them. ‘Never mind,’ 
I tell them, ‘others will come and look after you just as well,” 
to which they reply : ‘ But others will not be our Mother.’ ” 

Fortunate are we who have been closely associated with her 
during the closing years of her life when ripening for her blest 
transition. During her long term of service in this empire she 
witnessed the devastations of war, famine and pestilence, but from 
out all this she came untouched. His promise to those that dwell 
“in the secret place” was beautifully fulfilled to her. One of her 
favorite hymns was, “All the way my Savior leads me.” 

She was engaged in school work during the first half of her 
missionary life, and those who came under her influence in that 
capacity speak well by their faithful Christian lives for the 
influence she exerted. 

The work which was dearest of all to her, and for which she 
was preeminently fitted, was purely evangelistic—the going daily 
from house to house, from village to village, with the glad 
evangel. To this, together with the instructing of Christians, 
she devoted the latter part of her life. 

As someone wrote of Dr. Mateer, so would I of this departed 
one. “She realized the truth of the Gospel in a very real way. 
She believed it with all the intensity of her strong, sincere nature; 
she lived on its truths, and was prepared to live and die for its 



THE LATE MRS. MARTHA FOSTER CRAWFORD. 


Illustration by courtesy of “ The New East.” 




1910] 


Correspondence 


169 


propagation and maintenance.” Her love for the lost, the poor 
and the aged was deep and true, as shown by her untiring efforts 
to give them the Gospel as also by her many charitable ministra¬ 
tions. 

Before their departure from Tengchow they were self-support¬ 
ing, and although of large means they lived always in a simplicity 
unknown to missionaries of the present day. They were faithful 
stewards of what God had given them. The church at Tai-an-fu, 
by the aid of a generous gift from Mrs. Crawford, will be enabled 
to purchase property for buildings. She annually paid out large 
sums for Gospels, books, tracts, etc., used in the work, aud at her 
death left a fund for that purpose. 

In the words of Phillips Brooks, she prayed not for tasks 
equal to her powers, but for powers equal to her tasks. 

Truly one of the mighty is fallen—fallen on the battlefield 
where she had wrought so long, so nobly and so well. 

How fitting such an end to a life so faithful, fruitful and full 
of good works! 


Correspondence. 


MISSIONARY VACATIONS. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : In your issue for 
December I note “E.’s” very 
interesting discussion on mis¬ 
sionary vacations. I have just 
returned from a furlough to the 
home land, where I have been 
called on to meet and refute 
many charges such as indol¬ 
ence, inefficiency, etc., brought 
against missionaries. If “ E.’s ” 
statement that “all in one mis¬ 
sion, perfectly well people, take 
eight weeks of clear holiday” 
each year is of general applica¬ 
tion I, for one, feel that the 
argument against the charge 
of indolence on the part of mis¬ 
sionaries is seriously interfered 
with. No one engaged in an 
important work can afford to 
be absent from his post so long 
each year unless something very 
unusual in local conditions makes 
this necessary. 


But I am convinced that 
“ E-’s” observations are restrict¬ 
ed iu scope aud not of general ap¬ 
plication. The missionary with 
whom I am best acquainted has 
had one term of eight years in 
China. During this time be had 
three vacations as follows, viz., 
one of two weeks for rest, one of 
two months when ordered away 
from his station for medical 
treatment, and once of six weeks, 
during winch he preached every 
day in Chinese and did five 
hours’ solid work with his teach¬ 
er six days in the week. This 
case is cited as evidence that 
not every “perfectly well” mis¬ 
sionary has “ eight weeks clear 
holiday” each year. The Mis¬ 
sion to which I belong has a 
sort of unwritten rule that each 
of its members may take a vaca¬ 
tion of one month each year if 
he chooses to do so. But as a 
matter of fact it is rarely done. 
I think it would be of interest 
to the mission body if Mr. E. 




I/O 

would collect the facts on the 
subject from each of the missions 
in China and give them to us 
through the Recorder. 

I am, 

Yours truly, 

0 , 


ARE STUDENT HOSTELS FOR 

WOMEN NEEDED IN CHINA? 

To the Editor of 
“ The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : It is not our pur¬ 
pose so much to answer this 
question as to record a few facts 
that may not be familiar to our 
readers, leaving the reply to 
their judgment. 

There is little need to point 
out that the conditions of edu¬ 
cation in Chinese government 
and gentry schools are fapidly 
assuming the form of Western 
education. Primary, superficial, 
insufficiently instructed they 
may be, but here and there from 
the number of institutions plant¬ 
ed is growing a school destined 
to live and become a power in 
China. Nor is this influence to 
be local. Visits to a half-score 
of institutions in Peking and 
Tientsin, cities whose influence 
exceeds that of any other centre 
in China, disclose the fact that 
the larger number of the teach¬ 
ing force of these schools is 
drawn from Central and South 
China. Through them these 
schools will be known through¬ 
out the empire. 

Here and there in our Chris¬ 
tian schools young women are 
not satisfied with the amount of 
Chinese included in our course 
of study, and they inquire where 
they may obtain greater profici¬ 
ency in Chinese. The govern¬ 
ment schools welcome them. 

In Peking we know of scores 
of young women in attendance 


[February 

on government schools of the 
capital, living not in the schools, 
nor yet in the home of friends, 
but in the provincial “ official re¬ 
sidence,” because there they hear 
their own dialect and can claim 
a hostel. The danger of such a 
life is obvious. Nor are the 
young women always those sent 
from non-Christian schools. In 
one week we heard of individual 
young women from Shanghai, 
from Soochow, and from Hang¬ 
chow gone north to study and 
to live,—where ? These young 
women have all attended Chris¬ 
tian schools and would not share 
the prejudice that may exist 
toward a Christian home with 
those who have had no ex¬ 
perience in one. 

In Peking and in Tientsin 
there are teachers, graduates of 
Christian schools, whose influ¬ 
ence in the government school 
is not inconsiderable. Other 
Christian young women are 
being invited to accept like posi¬ 
tions. A Christian hostel in 
these cities of the north would 
do away with much of the re¬ 
luctance to send young women 
to these posts of tremendous op¬ 
portunity and of imminent peril. 

With a nucleus of a few Chris¬ 
tian teachers and of former pu¬ 
pils of Christian schools, whose 
faith is so weak as to forbid a 
future, and the power to win 
souls, to the Christian hostel 
among non-Christian students? 
Chinese parents with great re¬ 
luctance allow their daughters to 
reside outside the home walls, 
and they will not be indifferent 
to a home that promises them 
protection. Conditions in Pe¬ 
king and Tientsin are but a be¬ 
ginning of educational growth 
that touches even now Canton, 
Foochow, Nanking, Hangchow 
and in fact all the great cities 
of the empire. It is a new situa- 


The Chinese Recorder 



1910] 


Correspondence 


171 


tion, demanding fresh thought, 
fresh prayer, fresh faith. May 
we claim your cooperation in 
trying to know God’s will for 
this form of work ? 

Such a hostel would of neces¬ 
sity begin in a small way. It 
would require the care of a wo¬ 
man who understands the Chinese 
language and customs, with the 
assistance of a Chinese matron ; 
it would require cooperation of 
every missionary who can influ¬ 
ence a young woman attending 
one of these schools, and it will 
require faith in tire God who 
already has His Bible classes in 
the gentry schools of Shanghai 
and who longs for us to believe 
that He is able to touch the very 
springs of the educational life of 
the empire. 

X. 


“on the translation of 
‘ THE AGES.’ ” 

To the Editor of 
“ The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : In the Chinese 
Recorder for last December an 
article appeared by Stanley 
Smith, M.A., on the translation 
of “The Ages.” As a plain 
man, and without pretension to 
classical knowledge, but as one 
who has for many years borne 
the responsibility of teaching 
the Chinese the Scriptures, and 
therefore continually using the 
Chinese translations of them, I 
beg permission to present some 
alternative views on this subject 
to those advanced by Mr. Smith. 
I know he will forgive and 
explain if I have misrepresented 
what he says. On page 676 
of his paper we read: “The 
subject of the ages has its root 
in the Hebrew word ‘olam.’ 
Gesenitis tells us in his elucida¬ 
tion of this most important 


word that * olam ’ means 1 that 
which is hidden.’ ” I have no 
means of verifying Mr. Smith’s 
reference to Gesenius, but it 
seems that either Gesenius or Mr. 
Smith is making a mistake. Dr. 
Robert Young in his invaluable 
Analytical Concordance of the 
Bible, gives every passage in the 
Bible where “olam” is used, 
and anyone can see in a very 
little time that ‘olam’ is uiii- 
f'>rmly used for such words as 
ever and everlasting ; not once 
is the word used for that which 
is hidden. Dr. Young, however, 
gives us another word, in form 
and sound very like “olam,” 
with only the difference of a 
letter. It is the word “alam,” 
and means “hidden and hid¬ 
den times.” Its use in the Bible 
seems limited to the Book of 
Daniel. Dr. Young in his lexi¬ 
con gives for “alam” that 
which is hidden but for “ olam,” 
that which is everlasting, eternal 
and never that which is hidden. 

Now this is very impor¬ 
tant, because the burden of Mr. 
Smith’s teaching is based on his 
statement that “ olam ” properly 
means “that which is hidden ! ” 

For instance, Mr. Smith ap¬ 
plies this meaning to the word 
everlasting in Psalm xe. 2. In¬ 
stead of anything being hidden 
in this Scripture, there is to faith 
really very much revealed be¬ 
cause from a passage like this 
we learn the eternity of God. 
And in Micah v. 2 from “ olam ” 
we learn that the second person 
of the Trinity is “from ever¬ 
lasting” also. The popular 
reader knows that the words 
ever and everlasting are limited 
sometimes in their use by the 
very nature of the things to 
which they are applied. As 
Cruden says : “The words eter¬ 
nal, everlasting, for ever, are 
sometimes taken for a long time 



172 

and are not always to be under¬ 
stood strictly,” But this is not 
quite the point. The question 
raised is, Can the word ‘olam’ 
in any instance mean endlessness 
in the infinite sense? Mr. Smith 
does not admit as much, for if it 
does not bear this interpretation 
in Psalm xc. 2 it is no use attri¬ 
buting that meaning to it else¬ 
where. Now in the case of 
Phineas (page 637): he was 
promised, and his seed after 
him, an everlasting priesthood. 
The succession, as Mr. Smith 
says, was ‘‘interrupted and then 
resumed.” 

The simple answer to this 
difficulty seems to be that the 
everuess was conditional on 
obedience which failed. The 
everuess of many of God’s pro¬ 
mises is lost in a similar way, 
though sometimes their con¬ 
ditional character is implied 
rather than expressed. 

Let us remember too that 
Scripture words must not be 
interpreted quite like ordinary 
ones. Scripture passages are 
related to one another so as to 
form a unique whole. Even the 
Holy Spirit uses the same words 
in different ways in different 
places. Scripture prophecy in 
particular has not its own Itiiag- 
en/Tvaewf, that is, it must not be 
interpreted by itself apart from 
its connexion elsewhere (II, 
Peter i. 20). Take, for example, 
the passages Mr. Smith gives: 
Deut. xv. 17 with Isaiah L. 
Christ being under the law, He 
became a servant. He is a 
servant still, and though He 
be God, He is truly man also, 
and will be a servant for ever. 

Again, Israel because of their 
sins, have been alienated from 
their laud, but that land is still 
theirs by an everlasting cove¬ 
nant. The words “ the house 
of Jacob shall possess their pos¬ 


[February 

sessions” show the possessions 
to be theirs in a real sense, 
though they are not at present 
in possession. The adoption, 
glory, convenants, etc., still per¬ 
tain to Israel (Rom ix. 3), and 
these gifts and callings of God 
are without repentance. But 
this is only to speak, and that 
very briefly, of literal Israel, 
and nothing is said of the bless¬ 
ings some Christians find in 
applying the Jewish promises to 
themselves in a spiritual way. 
The temporal circumstance, per¬ 
haps, about Israel, is used with 
undeniable right to mean truly 
everlasting blessing. 

It seems to Mr. Smith that 
Isaiah xxx. 10 has been fulfilled 
because one can “ take a Cook’s 
tourist ticket to Petraea,” but 
there are different views on the 
subject of fulfilled prophecy. 

For instance, “The Schofield 
Reference Bible ’ ’ heads Isaiah 
xxxiv. with these words :— 

* ‘ The Day of the Lord— 
Armageddon.” Mr. Smith has 
not shown that the judgment of 
God on the land of Edom has 
been fully accomplished. The 
Book of Obadiah would seem to 
show that it has not. 

(Page 678). “To some of the 
divine attributes of which olam 
is predicated, the idea of meta¬ 
physical (sic) eternity cannot 
be attached. For example, God’s 
mercy could not be(!) called into 
exercise before the existence of 
evil in the universe, nor His 
wrath.” 

I think Mr. Smith must have 
forgotten for a moment God's 
purpose of eternal mercy. Re¬ 
demption is not an afterthought. 
Mercy precedes evil. We who 
believe were chosen in Christ 
before the foundation of the 
world, long, long before evil 
existed. God’s works are ever 
but the manifestation of His 


The Chinese Recorder 


1910] 


173 


Correspondence 


attributes, never the occasion of 
their origin. “ God is love.” 
Now in coming to the New 
Testament, as Mr. Smith says, 
aia)v and are the New Tes¬ 

tament equivalents for ‘olam.’ 
But we have seen the meaning 
of ‘olam' to be everlasting. I 
am not sure that ‘olam’ is never 
to be explained by its Greek 
equivalents, because the Septua- 
giut is quoted in the New 
Testament, and the New Testa¬ 
ment quotation is accepted in 
places where Hebrew and Greek 
are not exactly the same. I 
mean to say that at least Greek 
stands on its own merits. The 
Greek writers could have known 
nothing of the Jewish Scriptures 
before the Jewish high priest, 
as an unheard of favour, gave 
Ptolemy Philadelphus access to 
them, so that the Septuagint 
translation could be made. Let 
us enquire what Greek writers, 
apart from the N. T. ones, have 
to say to us about this word 
everlasting. 

To borrow the words of a 
competent Greek scholar : ” The 
etymology given as early as the 
time of Aristotle, and by him, 
is cuev wv t always existing. The 
earliest use of the word is in the 
sense of a man’s life. It is fre¬ 
quently used by Homer of the 
death of his heroes and in other 
ways. . . . Very much later it 
came to mean one whole dis- 
pensational period or state of 
things, but when used by itself 
in its own meaning it had very 
clearly the sense of eternity. It 
is thus used by Pliilo in a pass¬ 
age.which can leave no doubt : 
iv cucovi Be ovt€ TrapeXrfKvdev 
ovSeu ovt€ /A^Wei aXka fxovov 
vcj)e<TT7)K€. In eternity (aim) 
nothing is either past or to come, 
but subsists. 

“ Nothing cau more fully show 
that this word, in its own simple 


full force to a Hellenistic Jew 
of that age, meant eternity in 
the strictest sense.” Pliilo was 
a Hellenistic Jew, who flourish¬ 
ed in the time of the apostles, 
and would therefore be a good 
authority for New Testament 
Greek. 

But most people get their 
meanings of words from their 
usage, not from their diction¬ 
aries, or from the words’ deriva¬ 
tion. In Chinese for example, 
if we insisted on the ^ ^ being 
always meant to mean firstborn, 
we should get far astray. Take 
then the usage of everlasting in 
the New Testament, where 
the equivalents of ‘olam’ are 
used. Christ has obtained eter¬ 
nal redemption for us. We are 
sure this means for au end¬ 
less future. In Heb. vii. 16-17 
the writer is writing of One 
who is made a priest after 
“ the power of an eudless life.” 
What is his proof text ? This 
very word “ Thou art a priest 
for ever tov iuiava, Jesus pro¬ 
mises His sheep that they shall 
never perish, and though the 
finite cannot grafp the infinite, 
the Holy Spirit, who is a divine 
person dwelling in the believer, 
can enlighten the mind in a way 
so as to make the eternal pro¬ 
spect very real and very bright. 
The reader can, if he chooses, 
multiply to something like sixty 
times in the New Testament 
this reference to the word ever¬ 
lasting. 

The word age is of course 
used in the sense of a limited 
period or of dispensations of 
time and has a beginning, but it 
is not only used in that way. 
But when we speak of an age as 
such, would it not be better to 
call it an age, and not an eterni¬ 
ty ? It would better help us to 
distinguish between things that 
differ. 


174 

(Page 679). '‘There are two 
great ‘ages/ etc.” Mr. Smith 
divides and subdivides these 
two great ages, bringing in gen¬ 
ealogies, and makes them cover 
the period from the fall of man 
to the time of the end, when 
the Father, he says, becomes 
41 all in all.” 

Now, to be scriptural, it is God 
(not the Father) who is said 
to become ‘‘all in all.” May 
not this mean the Triune God ? 
(I. Cor. xv. 28) and this notwith¬ 
standing v. 24, where Christ 
is evidently acting as a man. 

It seems that to Mr. Smith 
this phrase “ the ages of ages ” 
can have no infinite meaning; 
he is able, according to his 
theory, to state the beginning 
and see the end, no matter how 
long or uncertain the period 
divided and subdivided in be¬ 
tween. This theory is clearly 
and powerfully set forth. It 
does not lose a point in the 
hands of its exponent. He is in 
earnest and tells us plainly what 
he means. He says : “ Some of 
ns hold that the mediatorial 
kingdom of Christ, in which 
Pie reigns with His saints ‘ unto 
ages of the ages,’ is the very 
kingdom which will be delivered 
up to the Father, and is there¬ 
fore in a real sense terminable.” 
That is to say, the reign “for 
ever and ever” of Rev. xxii. 5 
is ‘‘in a real sense terminable.” 
There is no other Scripture but 
this as far as I can find, where 
God’s servants are said to reign 
for ever and ever. But here it is 
not said they reign with Christ . 
No ! Where they are said to 
reign with Christ the time men¬ 
tioned is a thousand years. Rev. 
xx. 4. And we are not going 
to allow, because it is not true, 
whatever savants in Europe or 
America may have to say to us 
about Greek or Hebrew, that 


[February 

the Son of God who loved us 
and gave Himself for us, can 
ever cease to reign. 

The end of the thousand years, 
Rev. xx, appears, roughly 
speaking, to coincide with the 
end mentioned in I. Cor. xv. 24, 
or perhaps a little to precede it. 
The same period which Mr. 
Smith understands to be the end 
of *‘ the ages of the ages.” 

The expression ei’v tou? aroma? 
7o>v cud)va>v does not mean the 
thousand years. It is a mistake 
to take it to mean anything 
which is terminable. It is Greek 
for eternity in the strongest 
sense, compounded for the sake 
of emphasis. The late Dr. 
Angus, of Regent’s Park, London, 
called it the strongest expression 
that exists for the meaning of 
eternity. This would seem to 
be so, from its use in Rev. i. 18, 
“ I am He that liveth, and was 
dead, and behold I am alive jor 
evermore (Amen) and have the 
keys of death and of hades.” 

After evermore some copyist 
must have wrongly inserted 
“Amen!” Can we not under¬ 
stand the copyist if he had a 
full heart making a mistake? 
The Amen is no doubt rightly 
removed, but we may retain it 
with thanksgiving in our hearts. 

‘‘For evermore!” is this 
terminable ? Are the revisers 
of the Union Version in Chinese 
mistaken in translating -ij< $£ 

Us f° r this strongest expres¬ 
sion for eternity ? 

In Mr. Smith’s suggested trans¬ 
lations, as he tells us, he has 
carefully excluded those expres¬ 
sions which mean ‘‘ infinite,” or 
“without end.” He has told 
us why. The Easy “ Wen-li ” 
revisers mostly exclude them, 
perhaps because of putting the 
book into a compact style. Wil¬ 
liams’ Dictionary gives it it as 
the equivalent of for ever and 


The Chinese Recorder 


Our Book Table 


175 


1910 ] 

ever, but of course for a true 
ever and ever. And this would 
be authority for the “ Weu-li ” 
revisers. 

But I thank God that the 
unionist translators have guard¬ 
ed the Greek phrase meaning 
“evermore” in all the nineteen 
passages where it occurs. 

It lias been suggested that it 
is not translation but exegesis 
to add fnf as the unionist 
translators have done, because 
the Greek phrase has no avev 
reXon? “ without end.” But for 
expressions which in themselves 
mean endlessness such an ex¬ 
pression would be redundant. 

(Page 682). Col. i. 20 calls 
for comment because being used 
in connection with Phil. ii. 1011 
it should be noted that in Col. i. 
20, where peace and reconcilia¬ 
tion are made through the blood 
of the cross, there is no mention 
of the “ things under the earth” 
or infernal regions, as in the ease 
where all are made to confess 
that Jesus is Lord by virtue of 
the name of Jesus in Phil. ii. 10. 


In conclusion one may express 
his gratitude to all translators 
of the Scriptures into Chinese, 
past and present; they knew 
and know their work is not 
perfect. Whose is? “ In many 
tilings we all offend.” But 
let us pray for those engaged 
in translation work at the 
present time, not that they may 
be fair to this party or that or 
to all alike. We should not 
think much of them if they tried 
to do this. But let us pray that 
the Holy Spirit who inspired the 
holy men of old to write God’s 
Word, may fill our brethren 
with divine light, that they may 
so give the true meaning in 
Chinese that Chinese Christians 
in days to come may be largely 
helped, and that if the Lord 
tarry we may all meet multitudes 
in heaven saved by God’s grace, 
as results of the foundation of 
things many are earnestly work¬ 
ing for in China to-day. 

Yours, etc., 

Thomas Hutton. 


Our Book Table. 


The object of these Reviews i 
books. Authors will help review 
price, original if any, or any oth< 
of prefixing an English preface to 

gg.ff. ® Jl- The Sabbath and the 
Ecclesiastical Year. 

This little book of fifteen 
leaves is the ecclesiastical calen¬ 
dar of the Lutheran Church. 

It is translated into good W£n-li 
by Rev. A. Fleischer, of Hunan. 
About half the book consists of 
an introduction, in which the 
reasons why we worship God at 
stated times, the difference 


> to give real information about 
>rs by seudiug with their books, 
r facts of interest. The custom 
Chinese books is excellent. 

between the Jewish Sabbath and 
the Lord’s day, etc., are set 
forth clearly and well. In the 
beginning of the second chapter, 
p. 4, the difference between out¬ 
ward form Jj? ^ and sincerity 
H ftji is set forth. This is often 
treated of in Chinese books, but 
we do not remember ever to 
have seen |j| jjitji used for “ truth 
in the inward parts' ’ and think 
a better term could be found. 




176 The Chinese Recorder [February 


4 A Selection of Hymns 

for the Lutheran Church. By Dr. 
J. A. Nilssen, lyang. 

Thirty-six hymns in all; some 
old friends and some new ac¬ 
quaintances. May they all help 
to call forth prayer and adoration 
from Chinese hearts to our com¬ 
mon Lord. 


Iff ~vL Private Letter to Boys. 
By Rev. A.. Tatchell, M.R.C.S., 
Wesleyan Mission Hospital, Han¬ 
kow. 

Dr. Tatchell has been moved 
to write this letter and to com¬ 
mence a purity league for Chi¬ 
nese boys by bis experience of 
the distressing need for such an 
organization. Will all those will¬ 
ing to help please communicate 
with Dr. Tatchell at the above 
address. 


@3 ft 0 if. Devotional Exercises for 
Every Day in the Month, prepared 
for school children. 

We are told in the preface 
that these exercises were origi¬ 
nally written by a Norwegian 
pastor whose life work is to 
teach the dumb. The book has 
in its twenty leaves thirty-one 
short addresses to children on 
well-known texts. It has been 
translated into Mandarin by Rev. 
J. A. 0 . Gotteberg. 


Hi tc ft IS ft m f£2 M Ok- The Ritual 
of the Norwegian Church. By the 
Rev. J. A. 0. Gotteberg, Changsha. 

This is a book of eighty-four 
leaves, printed in good clear type 
on white maopien paper. It is 
translated, printed and published 
by the Lutheran Church in 
Changsha. In every church 
there is a recognized order of 
service. Some churches em¬ 
body this order in a printed 
form, and it is then called a 
ritual. As this book is prepared 
by a Lutherau Church pastor 


for the Lutheran Church it is 
to be presumed that it meets the 
need of, and will be welcomed 
by, that body of Christians. The 
prelace suggests that the book 
has yet to be submitted to an 
assembly of the church for its 
acceptance. If that is so, it may 
not be out of place to call 
attention to some infelicities of 
style that might be amended. 
One does so with great deference, 
for nothing is more difficult than 
to write a book of this kind, 
clothing aspirations of prayer 
and praise in appropriate lan¬ 
guage, and nothing is easier than 
to criticise such a book when it 
has been written. The preface, 
page i, has the sentence ^ 

6-1 Ilf ^ EL fc T> which says : 
“The present time has already 
come.” The writer means *to 
say : “ Now the time has come, 
etc.” On page 2 we read 

ft .t * JE fi'j 

&>} 9 b, “ Why should we wish 
to have one fixed rule?” It 
would be much better and 
shorter if it was put M $ 

m ® r £ ft ue- 3 # 

3^ *T H Hm “ The Universal 
Lutheran Church ” would be 
better ij| fg -fT. On page 
1 of the book we read in the 
first prayer 5t # $ J® (|jf) 

$J |p ]f|j, “Thus we will be 
able by the use of thy word to 
be conscious of repentance of 
our sins.” Surely it is meant 
that we pray for repentance, not 
for the consciousness of repent¬ 
ance. On page 8 we have 
H - $ fa if, “Leave all 
that is not fitting.” The sen¬ 
tence seems unfinished. Would it 
not be better to say : (ft p|j — % 
^ if Hr @ but the is 

scarcely good any way. On 
page 9 we read & fg fi'j $ ^ 
M if II; here fg is the 





1910] 


Our Book Table 


177 


object of the verb so what is 
said is, “ Give us extraordinary 
(or unexpected) prayers.” Of 
course this is not what is meant, 
and while it is admittedly diffi¬ 
cult to make the words fit the 
meaning in a book of this kind 
no effort should be spared to 
attain this end. 


Report of the 43rd Year of St. Luke’s 

Hospital for Chinese. 

This is an interesting report 
of a good work. The statistics 
for the year show that 1,455 
patients were treated in the 
medical and surgical wards, 
41,243 patients were treated in 
the dispensary, 2,665 private 
calls were made, 2,190 accident 
cases were received, 436 cases of 
»pium poisoning demanded at¬ 
tention, and there were 502 
vaccinations. Early next year 
the new hospital will be open, 
and then the present overcrowd¬ 
ing will be relieved. 


BOOK REVIEWS. 

Buddhism as a Rkugion: its his¬ 
torical development- and its pre¬ 
sent conditions, by II. Hackmanti, 
Lie. Tlieol. (Published by Probst- 
hain & Co,, 14 Great Russel str., 
London, W. C. pp. 320. 6s. nett). 
May be ordered from Presbyterian 
Mission Press. 

This book is the ripe fruit of 
over twenty years of study 
and will prove to be a valuable 
guide to all missionaries in the 
study of Buddhism. The 
author, who from 1894 to 1901 
was pastor of the German con¬ 
gregation in Shanghai, made 
extensive journeys in the whole 
Far East and lived in many 
Buddhist monasteries, in order 
to investigate the actual present- 
day life of the monks. He 
went also to the west of China 
(Mount Omi), and from there 


to Burma. Afterwards, as 
pastor of a German church in 
London, he continued his 
studies, having the books and 
collections of the British 
Museum at his disposal. The 
book under review gives us the 
result of all these investigations. 
It was first published in German 
and is now enlarged and trans¬ 
lated into English. It is writ¬ 
ten in an easy style, so that the 
reader need not fear too ab¬ 
struse speculations. Book I. gives 
a very concise but excellent 
rhumb of the life of the Buddha 
and of his doctrine, confining 
itself to that which can, with 
confidence, be pronounced to 
be historically true. “Buddha 
denied both the individual soul 
and the All-Soul” (p. 12). 
“ Asceticism has no intrinsic 
value for the Buddha'’ (p. 17). 
“ He (the monk according to or¬ 
iginal Buddhism) eats what is 
given him ; meat is not forbidden. 
A widespread error among Eu¬ 
ropeans is that Buddha forbade 
the eating of meat, but he em¬ 
phatically rejected this limita¬ 
tion, though it is manifest that 
he prohibited the killing of ani¬ 
mals for food ” (p. 23). “It is 
another common error for those 
at a distance to imagine that 
Buddhism ascribes a special 
merit to the monastic way of life 
in itself because of ascetic prin¬ 
ciples. On the contrary, even 
the rules of monkhood in them¬ 
selves possess no saving value. 
Saving value is only to be 
obtained by spiritual labour , 
which should begin under the 
protection of the monastic life” 
(p. 24). “ The candidate who 

had been admitted (into the 
monkhood) was at liberty to 
leave at any time subsequently, 
should he change his mind” 
(p. 29). These few quotations 
show the value of the book and 



m 

may stimulate tlie appetite for 
more. Book II. gives a sketch of 
the History of Buddhism (in 
India, Ceylon, Farther India, 
Tibet, China, Korea, Japan). 
Book III. describes modern Bud¬ 
dhism as a present-day religion, 
comprising all the countries 
under its sway (pp. 93-295). It 
contains (1) general remarks 
on southern and northern Bud¬ 
dhism, (2) the Buddhism of 
Ceylon, (3) of Burma, (4) of 
Siam, (5) Eamaism, (6) Chi¬ 
nese Buddhism, (7) Buddhism 
in Korea, (8) Japanese Bud¬ 
dhism. His criticism of tire 
Chinese monks is severe, but 
just (p. 227, 247). “The 

laity (of the Chinese) cannot 
rightly be considered a Bud¬ 
dhist people. In the statistics 
of Chinese religions only the 
monks should be reckoned as 
Buddhists’’ (p. 257). About 
Japan he says: “Buddhism is 
more or less a traditional and 
external cult, and in this form it 
is superciliously ignored by the 
educated or treated with a smile 
of contempt” (p. 271). Prayer- 
wheels are also to be found in 
Japanese temples (p. 274). 

The shin- sect (Hougwanji sect) 
allows their priests to marry 
(p. 290). He meutions (p. 295) 
the International Buddhist 
Young Men’s Association of 
Japan (founded in 192). Very 
valuable is the concluding chap¬ 
ter. “The basis of the true 
doctrine of Gautama is every¬ 
where too narrow to become a 
foundation of national religion.’’ 
“These changes (substituting 
paradise for Nirvana, a doctrine 
of God and the soul) are an 
absolute contradiction to the 
most important points in the 
Buddha’s teaching ’’ (p. 296). 
“ Mouasticism is everywhere 
seen to be a bar to the progress 
of religion, of society aud of 


[February 

culture’’ (p.297). “All those 
stereotyped defects, manifesting 
themselves in the history of 
Buddhism, spring from the na¬ 
ture of its original character ” (p. 

298) . “Asa religion Buddhism 
is entirely inadequate, and the 
defect is so closely allied to its 
deepest principle that it appears 
very questionable whether it 
could ever be remedied except 
at the price of giving up its 
own fundamental ideas” (p. 

299) , A valuable list of the 
best books on Buddhism is 
added and a useful index. 

The book is really excellent 
and besides very cheap. We 
heartily recommend it to all 
our missionary brethren and 
sisters. It can teach us how 
to observe aud how to study 
foreign religions. For a second' 
edition I have only the one 
desideratum, that the influence 
of Christianity on the genesis 
and development of the Maha- 
yaua school should be. more 
clearly elucidated. 

P. Kranz. 


Men and Missions. By W. T. Ellis. 

Sunday School Times Company, 

Philadelphia, Pp. 315. PriceG.|i.oo. 

The author of this book is 
well known to many missionaries 
in China as the Christian journal¬ 
ist who acted as the represent¬ 
ative of the Christian Herald of 
New 1 York during the famine in 
Kiang-peh and Anhui in 1907. 
For many years deeply interest¬ 
ed in the work of Christian mis¬ 
sions his travels have turned the 
gifts aud activities of Mr. Ellis 
into a definite missionary chan¬ 
nel. In this excellent book the 
author deals with the main prob¬ 
lems of the Christian mission¬ 
ary enterprise as they present 
themselves to an interested 
Christian layman. The book is 


The Chinese Recorder 



1910] 


Our Book Table 


179 


written altogether from the point 
of view of the American layman, 
but apart from some mild spread- 
eagleism in the opening chap¬ 
ters, it is good reading for any 
one who wants to get into close 
touch with the modern mission¬ 
ary problem. In view of the 
fact that this book might cir¬ 
culate with profit over the whole 
English-speaking world we could 
wish that chapter 3 had been 
written from a wider point of 
view. We are told on page 34 
that “ a traveller from the West 
is amazed and chastened to learn 
the far-rauiifying power of the 
American genius.” Query, What 
is it that chastens him? Any¬ 
how the chastening appears not 
to be very serious, for later we 
read: “The land of the Morn¬ 
ing Calm knows America as the 
country whence come the mis¬ 
sionaries who have brought 
thither all of hope and emancipa¬ 
tion that she possesses.” This 
is rather hard upon the Angli¬ 
can Church. Once more: “As 
for China herself, America is 
undoubtedly the most popular 
nation there.” Still again: 
“Without exaggeration it may 
be said that because of the pre¬ 
ponderance of Americau mission¬ 
aries, America wields an unique 
and remarkable power in the 
leadership of India.” And yet 
again: “Largely out of the 
American mission schools have 
developed the new spirit which 
is reshaping Egypt, which has 
given Persia a constitutional 
government, and forever over¬ 
turned the murderous reign of 
tyranuy and bigotry in Turkey.” 
What more can we say? Those 
of us whose nativity was cast in 
less favoured lands may well 
wonder what is left for us to do. 
All this may be very good read¬ 
ing for the Imperialists of the 
United States, but we doubt 


whether it will impress very 
much the leading laymen of 
Canada, to whom many cf the 
arguments afterwards brought 
forward are addressed. 

Now we have done with critic¬ 
ism. 

The outlook that this book 
presents upon the non-Christian 
world is wide and uplifting. 
While the depressing details of 
missionary failure and shortcom¬ 
ing are not ignored, the work 
of missions is set in a heroic 
light. “Missions,” says Mr. 
KHis, “are a man's job,” 
and he protests forcibly and 
rightly against the small ideas 
and ideals which have cramped, 
warped and crippled the advance 
of Christianity on the heathen 
world. The biggest work in the 
world, he says, should be done 
in the biggest manner in the 
world by the world’s biggest 
men. When Christian men who 
have wealth are brought to an 
understanding of what the mis¬ 
sionary problem involves, the 
author contends that they will 
find it far greater fuu, as well 
as more satisfying, to ruu a mis¬ 
sion station than the latest auto¬ 
mobile. 

Mr. Ellis has had a sufficient 
first-hand knowledge of what 
missionaries stand for and what 
are their weaknesses to deal 
some trenchant blows in a friend¬ 
ly but critical spirit at both the 
mistakes of missionaries and the 
bad policy of mission Boards. 
He analyzes the criticism of 
missions and missionaries which 
may be heard on the lips of 
travellers and residents abroad 
with great skill, and says 
it is little less than absurd 
to judge Hinduism by what an 
Orientalist thinks of a selected 
few of its sacred writings. “ A 
man does not have to know 
Sanscrit in order to form an 


ISO 

opinion of Hinduism. Let him 
go to Benares and use his own 
eyes and ears —and nose.” Then 
he argues that it should be 
the business of some missionary 
agency to represent to travellers 
and others the real position of 
missionary work in such centres 
as Shanghai. A great mistake 
has been made in the past, ac¬ 
cording to the writer, by the 
assumption on the part of mission¬ 
ary supporters, as expressed in 
some shallow missionary hymns, 
that the heathen are clamouring 
for admission to the kingdom 
of God. There is no “ cry from 
our Macedonia” other than the 
unspoken call of need. In the 
same connection also, the fact 
that missionaries have been ex¬ 
pected to drop a kindly veil 
over their repeated failures and 
to refrain from talking of the 
difficulties of their work rightly 
meets with stricture. Mr. Ellis 
moreover suggests that there is 
too great a possibility of incom¬ 
petent missionaries continuing a 
useless career on the mission field 
without let or hindrance. He 
urges a policy of thorough , and 
says that if, alter a few years of 
work, any man js not competent 
as a missionary, he should be 
sent home. Incompetent and 
slack individuals in missionary 
societies form the real basis of 
many of the absurd charges 
which are levelled against mis¬ 
sionaries as a whole. He also 
thinks that it should be the 
business of the Christian laymen 
of the world to stand squarely 
tip to the criticism of missionary 
men and methods and force the 
critic to an examination and a 
judgment. 

In one chapter this book dis¬ 
cusses the watchword of the 
Student Volunteer Movement, 
aud concludes that the work is 
not limited by that watchword. 


[February 

“ The uew conception of foreign 
missions has no room for clocks 
or calendars.” Missionary devo¬ 
tion is no mere campaign excite¬ 
ment. “It is a definite deep 
life-purpose that strikes down to 
the very roots of manhood aud 
religion.” 

One of the closing chapters 
on “ The Returning Gospel,” 
which points out that missionary 
Christianity may, and is likely 
to, become the great revivifying 
influence in the Western world, 
is very suggestive. A very valu¬ 
able appendix, giving informa¬ 
tion for the conduct of meetings 
and outlining plaus of campaign 
among the churches and com- 
muuities in the home lands, con¬ 
cludes this most interesting and 
useful piece of missionary litera¬ 
ture. 

The book is published at $i 
gold, net. We can recommend 
all missionaries who wish to 
give lukewarm friends some¬ 
thing which will increase their 
understanding and whet their 
appetite for missionary prob¬ 
lems to purchase a copy of this 
book for such presentation. 

W. N. B. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

One Pretty Calendar from Soochow 
University. 

Macmillan & Co., London. 

A New Algebra. By S. Bernard and 
J. M. Child. Parts I to IV. With 
answers. 534 pages. The aim of 
this work is to provide a school 
algebra which contains the logical 
development of the subject iu 
accordance with modern views. 
Price, 4/- 

Part IV of the same in separate volume. 
Price 1/9. 

Murche’s Science Readers. Book II. 
With Anglo-Chinese Notes by Prof. 
N. Gist Gee. Translated by Sung 
Pah-foo. Both of Soochow Uni- 


The Chinese Recorder 


Our Book Table 


181 


1910] 

versity. Illustrated. Pages 160. 
Paper covers. Price 60 cents. 

The Tale of Troy, retold in English, 
by Abrey Stewart, M.A. Edited for 
schools, with introduction, etc. 
With Anglo-Chinese Notes by M. E. 
Tsur. 2S4 pages. Paper covers. 
Price $1.00. 


Edward Arnold , London. 

Arnold School Series. Object Read¬ 
ers. Books I, II, III. Pages 140, 
156, and 190. Prices, iod., 1/- and 
1/3. Illustrated; a number of the 
illustrations being beautifully color¬ 
ed. 


New Announcements. 


The Traveller’s Guide. Religious 
1 'ract Society, London. 

An Elementary Study of Chemistry, 
by Macplierson and Henderson. 

A First Course in Physics, by Mil¬ 
likan and Gale. 

These 2 books by Rev. Chang 
Yung-hsun. 

Directory of Worship of Presbyte¬ 
rian Church, by C. D. Harriott. 

The Fact of Christ. D. MacGillivray. 
(P. Carnegie Simpson’s.) C. T. S. 

“Wiiat a Young Boy ought to 
know” (Stall). Li Yuug-chwen, 
Chinkiang. 

Rev. J. Leighton Stuart, of Nan¬ 
king, has 15 lessons on “Greek for 
Chinese students,” and hopes to go 
on with the work. 

Life of Lord Shaftesbury. E. Mor¬ 
gan. 

Torrey’s How to Pray (in press). 

Finney’s Revival Tract (out). D. 
MacGillivray. 

Methods of Bible Study. D. Mac¬ 
Gillivray. 

Supplement to Catalogue. D. Mac¬ 
Gillivray, 

Com. 011 Amos. C. Campbell Brown. 

Homiletics. W. M. Hayes. 

Life of Mrs. Kuram. J. Vale. 

Newell's O. T. Studies. J. Vale. 

Rev. Thos. C. Fulton. Expository 
and Houiiletical Commentary on the 
Gospels. 

Life of Alfred the Great. C. L. S. 

Practice of Presence of God. C. L. S. 

Law’s Serious Call. C. L. S. 

Preparation for the Messiah in the 
East. C. L. S. 


Patterson’s Pauliue Theology. D, 
MacGillivray, 

Will the person doing “Stalker’s 
Paul ” please give particulars to Dr. 
MacGillivray ? 


BOOKS IN PREPARATION IN WEST 
CHINA. 

From the West China Traci 
Society's List. 

Safety, Certainty, and Enjoyment. 

Abridged Pilgrim’s Progress; in verse, 

Christianity and Confucianism. By 
a Chinese student. 

Great Events of Old and New Testa¬ 
ment ; in verse. 

The Holy Spirit. How to obtain and 
how to retain. 

Our Bible Readings. 

Korea and its People. 

Griffith Thomas on the Acts. 

14 Prize Essays on the Duty of Men 
to instruct the Women aud Chil¬ 
dren of their Households. 

Sheet Tract on Payment of Taxes. 

From Guilt through Grace to Glory. 

By Y. M. C. A. 

Temptations of Students, by John R. Mott. 

Power of Jesus Christ in the Life of Stir- 
dents. John R. Moti. 

Achievement—O. S. Marden (abridgment.) 

Constructive Studies iu the Gospel of Mark. 
Burton. 


Bismarck: His Life and Work (W6n-li). by 
Rev. P. W. Leusehner. 

Westcott’s Commentary on St. John’s Gos¬ 
pel, by Rev. G. Miles,’ Wesleyan Mission. 

Onward, Christian Soldiers. Talks on Prac¬ 
tical Religion (S. P. C. K.), by Rev. Win P. 
Chalfant, Ichowfu. 

Expository Commentary on John’s Gospel, 
George Hudson. 

Mongol Catechism. Robert Stephen, Jehol, 
via Peking, from whom copies may be had. 





182 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


Missionary News. 


Brief Items. 

A Bible institute will be held 
in Wuhu from February 23 to 
March 9. A strong programme 
is being prepared. 

The Educational Association 
of China recommended that local 
associations should be formed, 
and now Shanghai has formed 
such an association with Chi¬ 
nese and foreigners closely co¬ 
operating. 

The first Chinese National 
Exposition, to last eight months, 
will be opened in Nanking next 
spring. The missionaries are 
planning large things, so that 
Christianity may be worthily 
represented at the exposition. 
Details will be given in due time. 

Rev. J. Mowatt, of Hwai- 
ehhngfu, Honan, reports a most 
interesting case whom he met on 
his last tour. The young man 
read an article which was a 
translation of a chapter of Drum¬ 
mond’s “ Natural Law in the 
Spiritual World,” and which bad 
appeared in the Wan Kuo Knng 
Pao. He seemed to have the 
article off by heart, and is now 
zealously enquiring about Chris¬ 
tianity. 

Mr. W. E. Blackstone is now 
in this country with a vast 
scheme of Bible distribution, the 
'•details of which are now being 
worked out. The Bible Com¬ 
mittee of Korea recently met, 
and, with a guarantee from the 
missionaries, they are going to 
print 1,000,000 Gospels. The 
distribution of these will be 
made through Korean Christians 
buying copies and giving them 
away carefully and expeditious¬ 


ly. No English or American 
money is to be raised. All will 
be raised by the Koreans them¬ 
selves. 

Canadian Anglicans having 
for a long time worked in con¬ 
nection with the Church Mis¬ 
sionary Society in Fukien, have 
at last decided to establish an 
independent work. They have 
chosen Kaifengfu, the capital of 
Honan, as their field, where it is 
proposed to build up a Christian 
university. The other missions 
in Honan have hitherto failed 
to establish such an institution. 
The Rev. W. C. White, M.A., 
who came to China in 1897, was 
consecrated Bishop of Honan in 
St. Janies Cathedral, Toronto, 
on November 30, 1909, and will 
shortly reach China. 

A friend in Yunnan, to which 
Mr. S. Pollard recently returned 
as labourer among the Hua 
Miao, writes an interesting let¬ 
ter under date of December 6, 
pointing out how Christianity is 
affecting the Miao women. Pre¬ 
viously these were worse off by 
far than their Chinese sisters. 
They had no social law, no 
social ties. No such thing as 
legalized marriage existed. Mur¬ 
der and direst disorder, disease 
and pestilence were rife, but 
Christianity came and the girls 
closed their dens of shame and 
misery. Betrothal and marriage 
laws of an enlightened character 
have been made. Besides this, 
the Miao soon had their own 
literature. Some books in a 
strange character were discover¬ 
ed and deciphered. Now books 
in Miao are being printed in 
West China and in Japan. 


183 


Missionary News 


1910] 

Union in Educational Work. 

The following account of the 
union of educational work in 
Nanking appeared in The Shang¬ 
hai Times :— 

A plan for the union of mis¬ 
sion schools in Nanking, which 
has been under consideration for 
nearly two years, has at last been 
worked through and brought to 
a successful conclusion. Some 
three or four years ago the 
boys’ school belonging to the 
Presbyterian Mission and the 
Christian college belonging to 
the Disciples of Christ Mission, 
were united, and though under 
one name, have been running 
very much as they formerly were 
in different parts of the city. 
Neither of the schools had dor¬ 
mitory space for all the students, 
and none lias been added since 
the union. Two years ago the 
question of a union of this union 
school with Nanking University 
was brought up. Committees 
were appointed to consider the 
feasibility of such a plan, and 
the result was that a preliminary 
constitution as a basis of union 
was written. 

There were many difficult and 
delicate questions which had to 
be faced by both parties to the 
union, and there were times 
when it was felt that these ques¬ 
tions could not be uiet and an¬ 
swered satisfactorily. But after 
much discussion during the 
summer of 1909 at Killing cer¬ 
tain changes were made in the 
old constitution, which made it 
acceptable to all. The result is 
that the constitution has been 
accepted by the three Missions 
and the three Mission Boards in 
America, and it has therefore 
become the basis of* union for 
the two schools. 

The following quotation from 
the Constitution will show the 


“Basis of Representation” of 
the Board of Managers of the 
Union University:— 

Section i.—Basis of Repre¬ 
sentation. 

A. Each mission entering the 
union shall be entitled to full 
representation (/<?., by four 
members) on the Board of Mana¬ 
gers upon meeting the follow¬ 
ing conditions: 

(1) . Fluids or property shall 
be provided of a minimum value 
of $40,000 gold. 

(2) . Three regularly appoint¬ 
ed missionaries who may become 
members of the faculty upon 
appointment by the Board of 
Managers. 

(3) . An annual cash gua¬ 
rantee toward current expenses 
of not less than $2,400 gold 
until such time as these ex¬ 
penses, together with those 
arising from development, etc., 
are so amply covered by endow¬ 
ment that those funds are no 
longer required for the main¬ 
tenance and proper development 
of the university. 

B. Any mission which cannot 
meet all of the conditions for 
full representation as stated in 
Clause A of this section may 
secure partial representation as 
follows: By providing $10,000 
gold in money or available prop¬ 
erty, one instructor and $600 
gold for current expenses, a mis¬ 
sion may secure one representa¬ 
tive on the Board of Managers. 
For $20,000 gold, two instruct¬ 
ors and $1,200 gold for current 
expenses, a mission may have 
two representatives. For $30,000 
gold, three instructors, and 
$i,8oo gold for current expenses, 
a mission may have three repre¬ 
sentatives. 

At recent meetings of the 
different missions each one chose 


184 The Chinese Recorder [February 


four representatives who, when 
organized, were to constitute 
the Board of Managers of the 
new university. For the Pres¬ 
byterian Mission those chosen 
were: Messrs. J. C. Garritt, W. 
J. Drummond, A. V. Gray, and 
Samuel Cochran. But as Dr. 
Cochran was unable to be pres¬ 
ent, Mr. J. E. Williams was 
allowed to act for him. For the 
Disciples Mission those chosen 
were : Messrs. Settlemeyer, Cory, 
Garrett, and Osgood ; and for the 
Methodist Episcopal Mission: 
Messrs. Ferguson, Stuart, Beebe, 
and Bowen. 

These twelve men met in the 
office of the president of Nan¬ 
king University, on December 
2ist, and organized according to 
the terms of the Constitution 
accepted by the missions and the 
home Boards. The result is an 
actual union of the schools which 
is to take practical effect after 
the Chinese New Year. The 
name of the Union University 
has been changed to “ The Uni¬ 
versity of Nanking,” and the 
Chinese name from f 3 § 3 C ^ 
to 

The president of Nanking 
University, Rev. A. J. Bowen, 
was chosen as the president of 
the University of Nanking, and 
all the present teaching staff of 
the two schools was retained, 
which will provide for the new 
year a staff of twelve (12) for¬ 
eign teachers and eighteen (18) 
Chinese teachers. 

The present site of Nanking 
University is to be the centre of 
the new union school, although 
there are to be additions made 
to the old union school so as to 
accommodate 175 primary and 
intermediate pupils. 

The present dormitory of the 
Nanking University is to be 
more than doubled in size so as 
to accommodate between 500 


and 600 pupils. A new home is 
to be built for the unmarried 
men on the foreign teaching 
staff, also six new residences for 
their regularly appointed mis¬ 
sionaries who are on the staff. 

Plans are also on foot for a 
new science building and for a 
library building. 

It is believed that through 
this union of forces a greater 
and more thorough work can be 
done thau has been possible up 
to this time. 


Kindiow Seminary and Normal 

School. (See frontispiece .) 

AH friends of educational 
work will rejoice to hear of the 
dedication of a theological 
seminary and normal school in 
the large city of Kinchow, located 
on the Yangtse river several 
days’ journey above Wuchang. 
The new spacious building, con¬ 
taining twenty rooms, all told, 
is the common property of the 
Swedish Missionary Society and 
the Swedish American Mission¬ 
ary Covenant. The Chinese 
name of the school is jp$ Jp 

At a conference in the early 
part of 1907 the plan of co¬ 
operation was outlined. It met 
with the enthusiastic approval 
of the respective Boards in 
Sweden and the United States. 
Money was quickly subscribed 
and the erection of a building 
was begun and finished within 
two years. Two residences were 
also built, each containing 
apartmeuts for two families, to 
be used by the teaching staff 
and their families. The grounds 
are spacious and highly elevated, 
bordering upon the Manchu- 
Chinese wall on the east. 

The course covers three years. 
The requirements for entrance 
are age nineteen and an educa¬ 
tion covering at least the cur- 



185 


Missionary News 


1910] 

riculmn of a “ Kao-teng-siao- 
hsioh-tang.” The studies are 
arranged so as to give them a 
practical preparation for work 
as teachers and preachers. The 
curriculum can, of course, be 
augmented to meet later de¬ 
mands arising in the progress 
of the work. 

In connection with the de¬ 
dication meetings, was held an 
evangelist conference, which the 
great majority of native workers 
attended. These services for 
discussion and prayer served to 
deepen the spiritual life and 
broadened our conception of the 
mission problem. The dedica¬ 
tion service took place on Satur¬ 
day, December 4th. Addresses 
of welcome were given in 
Swedish, English and Chinese. 
A short historical sketch was 
given by Rev. S. M. Fredeu. 
Rev. J. Skold delivered the 
dedication sermon, dwelling 
upon what God had wrought 
during the last two decades and 
suggesting future possibilities. 
The two missions were well 
represented by missionaries and 
Chinese evangelists. Rev. God¬ 
dard and Dr. Sowerby, of the 
American Church Mission, and 
Mr. R. Suzuki, Japanese post¬ 
master at Shasi, also attended 
this meeting. The Tartar Gene¬ 
ral, located at Kin-chou-fu, gave 
evidence of his interest in the 
enterprise by giving a large 
wall motto and by visiting in 
persou and viewing the edifice. 

The two mission societies re¬ 
present missionary work along 
the Yangtse river from Hwaug- 
chow, below Hankow, to 
Ichang, below the gorges of the 
river. From Shasi, Kinchow 
and Ichang they cover the 
country northward to the Han 
river, including Siangyang and 
Fancheng. They are known by 
one name in Chinese ft jH fif, 


and the erection of a union 
seminary and normal school 
will, no doubt, prove a step to 
the final organic union of tbe 
Chinese churches on the entire 
field represented by the two 
societies. 


Evangelistic Campaign in 
Tientsin. 

Perhaps the greatest special 
effort ever made among the 
Chinese churches of Tientsin 
has just closed with many signs 
of divine approval. 

The representatives of the 
various missions met in Novem¬ 
ber to consider the advisability 
of securing the help of well- 
known evangelists for a united 
mission in December. As a 
result Dr. J. H. Pyke, of Chang- 
li ; Dr. J. W. Lowrie, of Paoting- 
fu, and Dr. W. T. Hobart, of 
Peking, were invited to hold two 
weeks’ special services to cover 
all the churches of the city. 

Each Chinese-speaking mis¬ 
sionary promised to place him¬ 
self at the disposal of the evangel¬ 
ists for work as they might 
suggest, while ail the Chinese 
ministers were free to do the 
same. The result was that each 
day services were held in seven 
churches, and the city was great¬ 
ly moved. The special feature 
of the mission was that open 
doors were the rule and besides 
the members being revived many 
outsiders who were attracted by 
the large congregations were led 
to give iu their names as en¬ 
quirers. It is estimated that 
some thousands of people heard 
the Gospel, and the churches 
will all be helped in some mea¬ 
sure. It looks as though this 
movement will be held yearly, 
and iu this way an impetus is 
given to the regular daily preach¬ 
ing. The three evangelists 



186 

commended themselves to all by 
their helpful addresses, and 
great and lasting good must be 
the result in this great city. It 
now rests with the resident mis¬ 
sionaries to carry on the work 
with increased energy. Alas, 
there are so few working among 
this million people. Educational 
missionaries are numerous, and 
they are all needed, but to 
think of four foreign missionaries 
working within a radius of ioo 
li of Tientsin, shows that the 
church lias has not yet realized 
its responsibility towards the 
city of Tientsin. p p 


Presbyterian Church of England. 

Statistics of thb Formosa Mis¬ 
sion for. thr Yr ar 1908-1909. 

Communicants on the Roll at 

3tst October, 1908 . 3>354 

Additions - 
Adults baptised ... 211 
Baptised in infancy, 
received to com¬ 
munion . 34 

Restored from suspen¬ 
sion . 18 

Total Additions .. 263 

Deductions :— 

Deaths.116 

Suspensions ... ... 49 

Gone elsewhere ... 7 

Total Deductions, 172 

Net increase in unmber 

of Communicants ... 91 

Communicants on the Roll at 
31st October, 1909 . 3,445 

Members under Suspension ... 153 

Children on Roll at 31st 

October, 1908. 2,744 

Net increase during year 157 

Total Baptized children ... 2,901 

Total Church Membership at 

31st October, 1909 . 6,539 

Native church givings during, 1908, 
$9,698. 

Native Ministers, 4; Elders, 114; 
Deacons 176. 

Foreign Missionaries: Men, 9; 
Women, 4. 


[February 

Work Among the Chinese 
Students in Japan. 

Mr. J. M. Clinton reports that 
some 4,000 students are still 
studying in Japan. These, al¬ 
though fewer in number than 
before, are of better quality, and 
since the new r'egime in Peking 
came in, more optimistic as to 
their country’s future and less 
revolutionary in their hopes. 
The urgency of the work is 
illustrated by the following facts: 

(1) . In the first place, owing 
to the great demand in China for 
men trained in all professions, 
many students are constantly 
returning to take up various 
positions. 

(2) . Not a few are studying 
here preparatory to entering 
some college in America or 
Europe. Now is the psychol¬ 
ogical momeut iu their lives 
for influencing them for Chris¬ 
tianity. 

The most important adr-auce 
during the year is along the line 
of Bible Study. Twenty men 
have declared their purpose to 
make Christianity known to the 
people of China. The group 
system of Bible study has been 
largely used. 

Land has been secured for the 
Arthington building, which is 
nearing completion and will be 
opened this fall. 

Over 700 Korean students live 
in Tokio, of whom about 30 
are ready for baptism. Rev. 
Han, a Korean pastor from Seoul, 
came oyer for a month’s work 
among them. 

A few friends have established 
a scholarship fund for assisting 
in the education of worthy and 
needy Chinese and Korean stu¬ 
dents. The amount is now more 
than 10,000 Yen. 


The Chinese Recorder 





1910] 


The Month 


18 7 


The Month. 


OPIUM. 

In accordance witli the instructions 
of the Kiangsn Opium Suppression 
Bureau, the Shanghai Taotai has 
ordered the Mixed Court Magistrate 
to ascertain the number of dealers in 
prepared opium in the Settlement, 
where and under what firm names 
they each carry on their business, 
tlieir full names and the average 
amount of opium they each sell a 
day. 

PROPOSED CABINET. 

It is reported that as the Prince 
Regent has been alive to the necessity 
of creating, in China, a Cabinet, on 
the plan of a Cabinet in foreign coun¬ 
tries, to serve as a responsible organ 
at the head of the government, he 
has commanded the Grand Council to 
prepare for his perusal a memorandum 
on the Cabinet constitutions in va¬ 
rious foreign countries. The council, 
after due deliberations, has deemed it 
best to collect separate translations 
on the subject and from them to 
compile a comparative epitome of 
foreign Cabinets. The task will be 
entrusted to Vice President Li Chia- 
chii, who has studied the subject of 
constitutions in Japan, with ample 
assistance, so as to secure its early 
completion. It has been reported lhat 
Prince Clung will be appointed the 
Chief Cabinet Minister, but the Prince 
Regent is said to favour the appoint¬ 
ment being conferred on some en¬ 
lightened high official outside the 
Imperial aristocracy. The likely can¬ 
didates are believed to be Grand 
Councillors Shill Hsii, Na Tung and 
Tai Hung-tze and Viceroy Chao Krh- 
lis#n. 

THE NATIONAL DEBT ASSOCIATION. 

A notable feature of the past month 
has been the manner in which the 
idea of this association has taken root 
in many quarters. P'rom native reports 
we learn that the officials, gentry and 
people in Peking are alike enthusiast¬ 
ically subscribing for the National 
Debt Association. Officials subscribe 
according to their ranks, but the peo¬ 
ple do so at their pleasure. The 
government intends to advise officials 
in all the provinces to make contribu¬ 
tions to the association. It is stated 
that the Grand Council intended to 
ask that a decree should be issued, 


eulogizing the movement as an en¬ 
couragement, but a Grand Secretary 
prevented this step, on the ground 
that success is still a matter of un¬ 
certainty and that the Throne should 
therefore withhold its recognition for 
the time being. 

Another report says that His Im¬ 
perial Highness the Prince Regent has 
promised to band over half his annual 
salary to this association. He also 
intends to take half of the salaries of 
the hereditary nobles as a contribu 
tion towards the fund. The Chinese 
Consul in Singapore has cabled to 
the Waiwnpu that the Chinese re¬ 
sidents there are very anxious about 
the matter and will be pleased to 
establish an association for raising 
funds for the purpose in hand. The 
workers on the native press in Peking 
have also established an association 
for raising funds for paying off the 
national debt, 

RAILWAY LOANS. 

The representatives of the Hupeh 
Railway Association left Hankow for 
Peking a few' days ago to oppose the 
railway loans. The station was 
decorated for the occasion, and there 
were one thousand persons to see the 
representatives off. 

On the ibtli of the last Chinese 
Moon the Hu Kwang Guild in Peking 
called a special meeting to welcome 
the Hupeh representatives. The 
meeting was very largely attended, 
and during the proceedings a Mr. Liu 
said that the railway loan was a 
matter of life and death to the people 
of Hupeh. If the Board of Posts and 
Communications acceded to the re¬ 
quest to have the railway loan 
agreement cancelled, well and good ; 
if not they would raise $25,000,000 
and at once set to work to construct 
another railway themselves. Mr. Liu 
was followed by Mr. Pih, who said 
that he had been living in retirement 
for over ten years and had only come 
to Peking under pressure from his 
fellow-countrymen. If they could 
not attain the object of their visit he 
would not return to Wuchang, hut 
would commit suicide and have liis 
body left exposed on Tortoise Hill at 
Hanyang until the completion of a 
railway constructed by themselves. 
Over 9,000 shares of the Hupeh Rail¬ 
way Company were subscribed on 
that day. 


188 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February, 1910 


Missionary Journal. 


MARRIAQE8. 

AT Shanghai, 30th December, Rev. 

R. T. Bryan, D.D., and Miss 
Mamie Saij.ee, both S. Bapt. M. 

AT Hangchow. 27th January, Mr. A. 
V. March and Miss ELIZABETH 
Herrioxt, both A. P. M. 

BIRTHS. 

AT Fengchen, 4th December, to Mr. 
and Mrs. K. R. J. Hill, C. I. M., 
a daughter (Olia Elvira). 

AT Tsincliow, Kansuh, 9th December, 
to Rev. and Mrs. D. A. Gordon 
Harding. C. I. M-, a daughter 
(Marguerite de Berenger). 

AT Chinkiang. 12th December, to Mr. 
and Mrs. E. Maag, C. I. M., a 
daughter (Olga). 

At Sianfu, Shensi, 30th December, to 
Mr. and Mrs. Ernest F. Borst- 
Smith, E. Bapt. M., a son (Ernest 
Clifford). 

AT Hwangpei, 3rd January, to Rev. 
and Mrs. L. C. F. Tomkins, L. M. 

S. , a daughter (Mary Sibyl Katie). 

AT Wusih, nth January, to Dr. and 
Mrs. C. M. Ree, A. C. M., a 
daughter. 

AT Canton, 13th January, to Rev. T. 
H. and Mrs. Caren, L. M. S., a 
son. 

DEATHS. 

AT Luchenghsien, 18th December, 
Miss M. E. Barraclough, C. I. 
M., of typhus fever. 

AT Weiliweifu, Honan, 8th January, 
William Percy younger son of 
Rev. W. II. and Mrs. Grant, C. P. 
M,, aged one year and three months. 

AT Canton. 13th January, EdiTh 
Mayr, beloved wife of Rev. T. H. 
Caren, L. M. S, 

ARRIVALS. 

13th December. Mr. and Mrs. L. PI. 
E. Linder and child, C. I. M., re¬ 
turned from Sweden. 

25th December. Mr. W. E. Hamp- 
son, C. I, M., returned from England. 

1st January, Rev. and Mrs. A. L. 
Warnshuis, Ref. C. M. 

1st January, Misses Leila Lybar- 
gkr and Gertrude Tyler, both M. 
E. M., from U. S. A. 


3rd January, Miss B. BaumEr (ret.) 
and Miss K. Skibkl, from Germany, 
both C. I. M. 

5th January, Misses SI. A. Pykk 
and M. McDonald, both C. P. M., 
and both returned. 

16th January, Misses E R. Ellis 
and M. T. Logan. E. Bapt. M,; Mrs. 
G. Blakie (ret.); Misses E M Axel- 
son, L White, E Von Gunten 
(ret ), N Bowen, all C and M A M.; 
Rev and Mrs O R Wold and chil¬ 
dren. Hauge’s Syn M ; Mrs. F. R 
Graves, A. C. M , and Dr. and Mrs. 
Venable, A. P. M (South), all re¬ 
turned. 

19th January, Rev and Mrs, J. 
Jackson, D D., A. C. M. 

2ist January, Miss M. E. Vander- 
slice, A. B. C. F. M.; Misses E. 
SeiiEMPP and A. M. Roloff, Evan. 
Assn. M., and Miss R. E LYNCH, A. 
P. M (South;. 

22nd January, Dr. and Mrs. J. 
Crockett, Ch. of Scot. M.; Miss E. A. 
Burke, Holiness Movement Cli. of 
Canada; Mr. M. D Morris, Apostolic 
Faith M., and Rev. F, A, Fi ij>, 
A. P, M. (ret.) 

departures. 

3rd January, Miss C. F. Tippei, C. 
I. M., to England; Miss S. H. Hig¬ 
gins, A. C. M., to U. S. A. 

4th January, Miss M. H. Foster, 
C. M. M., to Canada. 

7th January, Dr, and Mrs. W. MAR¬ 
SHALL and children, to England. 

8th January, Mr. and Mrs D. 
Toknvall and seven children, Misses 
O. Olsen and A. Olson, all C. I. M. 
and all to North America ; Rev. and 
Mrs. G. Miles and children, Wes. M., 
to England. 

nth January, Miss A. E. Paddock, 
Y. W. C. A., to U. S. A. and Europe, 

17th January, Rev. and Mrs. D. L. 
Anderson, M. E. M. (South) ; Rev. 
and Mrs. W. L. Beard, Y. M. C. A., 
and children ; Mrs. J. A. WALLACE 
and child, all to U. S. A., Mr. and 
Mrs. W. J. Hanna, C. I. M., to 
Canada. 

22nd January, Miss Elizabeth M, 
Strok, M. E. M, 



UNION MEDICAL, COUUEGE, PEKING 
View from Hatamen. 





















THE CHINESE RECORDER 

AND MISSIONARY JOURNAL 


Published Monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 

Editor-in-chief: Rev. G. F. Fitch, D.D. 

Associate Editors: Rev. W. N. Bitton and Rev. D. W. Lyon. 

Bishop J. W. Bashrord. Rev. A. Foster. Rev.D.MAcGii,LiVRAY,b.D. 

Rev. K. W. Burt, m.a. Rev.J.C. Garritt,d.d, Mr. G. McIntosh. 

Rt.Rev.Bishop Cassels. Rev. J. C. Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. F. Mosher. 

Dr. J. Darkoch. Rev. D. E. Hoste. Rev. A. H. Smith, d.d. 


VOL. XLI 


MARCH, 1910 


NO. 3 


Editorial 

The article by Mr. A. R. Saunders, which we publish in 
this issue, is bound to furnish considerable material for thought 
upon a most important topic. The writer 
CttB an6 Houn* f ran kly states his belief that the policy ofChris- 

tian missions in laying its greatest emphasis 
on the work in the large centres in China has been wrong j 
that the crux of the problem of evangelism is to be found in 
the country districts of the Empire. Because the great majority 
of the population of China live iu the country, therefore 
mission work must be carried on where they are, and they 
must be preached to in the country towns and in the hamlets 
if they are to be reached at all. In support of this, Mr. 
Saunders quotes the work of our Lord, saying the common 
people heard Him gladly, and implies that this meant the people 
from the countrysides. But did it? The ‘ common people ’ 
were as likely to be found in the cities as in country of Judgea, 
and, indeed, would be most likely to congregate there. After 
all the testimony of Our Lord to His divine mission was made 
chiefly and finally in Jerusalem. '‘'•Beginning at Jerusalem 
* * * 

WE nota still further in this connection that no refer¬ 
ence is made to the example of the apostles 
and no mention whatever is made of the chief 
missionary apostle, St. Paul. As a foreign 
missionary, it is acknowledged by all authorities that St. 


Zbc 2lpo0tolic 
flbetbob. 










190 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


Paul concentrated liis greatest efforts upon the big cities of the 
Empire. If it is true, as Mr. Saunders says, that the country 
people must be reached by us where they reside, or not at all, 
then we might proceed to ask by what process the conversion of 
the Roman Empire was effected ? That it is wrong as well as 
impolitic on the part of the foreign missionary to neglect the 
evangelization of the country people is altogether certain, 
and it is well worth while to call definite attention to this fact. 
His problem is rather concerned with the right point of applica¬ 
tion. He is a foreign missionary and not the final agent of 
the evangelization of this Empire. He must evangelize and 
show himself entirely at one with all efforts made to reach the 
people, but it is not to be assumed that the responsibility for 
the whole process rests upon him. The evangelization of this 
Empire is a campaign, not a skirmish, and must be under¬ 
taken by the whole church of Christ. Ours should not be the 
labour of occupation. If the parallel of the New Testament 
and the early church is of any service in this connection, 
it surely shows us that the foreign missionary has as his first 
concern the establishing and the edifying of the Christiau 
community, upon whom the responsibility of obedience to our 
Lord’s command must in turn rest. 

sji Jfc !({ 

The sociological study of the Nou Su people from the pen 
of Mr. Hicks, one of the missionaries among them, which we 
are able to present to our readers will, we trust, 
have not only the result of deepening interest in 
the work among the tribesmen of Yunnan and Kwei¬ 
chow but also serve to turn the thoughts of some of our 
readers to the possibilities of research of a similar kind in the 
districts around them. Very much work of this nature remains 
to be done in all parts of China. Young missionaries would 
be well advised to make the pursuit of some special line of 
enquiry such as this a part of their study. Every region of 
China has its peculiarities in such matters as folklore, and 
much intimate knowledge of the mental attitude of the 
common people is to be gained by a study of local traditions 
as they bear upon worship and superstition. It is a good 
and great thing to add to the general sum of knowledge by 
such study, but better still is it to get into intimate touch with 
the people to whom we are commissioned with the Word of 


1910] 


Editorial 


191 


Life and to learn liow to touch the springs of their thought. 
Every discovery of the root principles which underlie the 
debased religious practices of the people adds to the power of 
the preacher to reach the soul he strives to uplift with the 
life-giving message of eternal love. One of the purposes for 
which the Recorder exists is to help forward all such knowl¬ 
edge as makes for greater efficiency in mission work, and a 
knowledge of the problem we are set to solve here in China is 
half our conquest. 

* * * 


We observe in the last issue of the East and the West a 
very spirited protest against a practice, which is said to be 
somewhat common among the missionaries of one 

patience ^ ea< ^ u & missionary societies in India, of 

baptising converts on simple profession of faith 
without either instruction or due enquiry. It is asserted that 
much danger arises to the Church of Christ from this method ; 
that enquirers pass from other societies which make greater 
demands on the converts in order to receive speedier admission 
into the fold. Moreover, our contemporary asserts that this 
course of action in itself constitutes a considerable hindrance to 
projects of union. 

China has not been without its sad experience along these 
same lines. No one mission can be said to be guilty of this 
above all others, but many missionaries, iti an undoubted zeal 
for the salvation of men, have unduly pressed men and women 
into the membership of the church to the detriment of the fair 
fame of the Body of Christ. Very much wisdom needs to be 
exercised in the baptism and reception of converts, and while 
it is often a trial of both faith and patience to keep apparently 
sincere enquirers waiting for many months under trial and 
instruction, yet the dangers of unwise haste have been proven so 
great that prudence, as well as care for the purity of the church, 
calls for much care and deliberate enquiry. In a land such as 
China the purity of the church and the character of the 
converts must be one of the first considerations of the mission¬ 
ary worker. 

* * * 


There is always the temptation affecting the Christian 
missionary enterprise that it shall fall a prey to the statistician. 
The problem of the kingdom of God can never be set down in 


192 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


21ritbmetical 

JProgre00. 


terms of arithmetic. Believing thoroughly, as we do, in the 
necessity for a deep and abiding faith in the power of the Holy 
Spirit to convert men, and welcoming as we must 
the eagerness to attempt great things as shown 
by the missionaries of Korea in their recently 
announced campaign for a million converts in this year 1910, 
we should regret to see the method generally accepted. If 
one million why not ten ? When missionaries become very 
keen on numbers, it is too often the fact that the character of 
the convert is neglected. There have been times in recent 
history when, if numbers were the only consideration, Christian 
missionaries in China might have baptised their millions. 
The result, by common consent, would have been disastrous. 
The same warning may be uttered in regard to the statement 
concerning the number of days’ work needed to give the testi¬ 
mony of the Gospel to every thousand of the people. There 
are classes of the population, as there are nations in the world, 
which need close and constant study before the word of testi¬ 
mony can be made effective. Why is it that a method of 
testimony is supposed to suffice for the non-Christian world 
which it has never been dreamed of applying to the so-called 
Christian populations of our home lands ? Missions to the 
populace of Christian lands should have ceased ages ago if 
they had been conducted on the principles which some would 
apply to work among non-Christian peoples. 


* 


* 


In the most interesting account of the year’s work 
published by the Y. M. C. A. in China and Korea reference 
is made to a canvas which has been conducted 
^ one ^ ie sta ^ workers, concerning the 
difficulties which stand in the way of the accept¬ 
ance of Christianity on the part of many Chinese young men. 
Opposition in the home, filial devotion (the wrougfulness of 
disobedience), devotion to Confucianism as against a Western 
system, the foreign connections of the missionary,—these are 
reasons advanced along the line of personal difficulty. Another 
class of hindrances arises from the wave of materialism, 
scepticism, rationalism and even atheism, which is sweeping 
over the thought and education of the land. The Bible is not 
believed by many, and the statement is current that religion 
has no longer a hold over the nations of the West. One 


1910] 


Editorial 


193 


correspondent thinks the teaching of Christianity is made too 
abstract, and that the doctrines of the Trinity, the Incarnation 
and so on, are also sometimes a hindrance. The social bar 
which must follow the thorough adoption of Christian faith 
is an objection on the part of some. It is to be hoped that 
more of detail in regard to these hindrances will be given for 
the help and guidance of missionary workers than there is 
room for in the pages of an annual report. It is very needful 
to have a full knowledge of the difficulties that confront the 
progress of the Gospel amongst such a class as is touched by 
the Y. M. C. A. The summary here reproduced would seem 
to show that in the realm of apologetic literature we are sadly 
lacking a method of apology written with a definite view to 
the psychological condition of the Chinese mind and with a 
sufficient knowledge of the Chinese environment. 


Many of our readers are aware of the fact that a Chinese 
national industrial exhibition, planned on a great scale and 
thoroughly representative of all sides of Chinese 
art an d commerce, is to be opened in Nanking 
from the first of May next. The missionaries in 
Nanking, rightly convinced that this exhibition presents a 
field of opportunity for Christian labour too good to be lost, 
are appealing for assistance to undertake the carrying on of a 
Christian campaign in connection with the exhibition and have 
secured sufficient land for this purpose. Funds are required for 
the building. It is their desire that the Christian church of 
China shall share in the work of the exhibition by giving 
concrete evidence of tbe activities of the Christian church 
in educational, literary, philanthropic and evangelistic work. 
The committee of the exhibition will be glad to receive from 
all parts of China photographs and models of school and 
hospital buildings and their work, aud will appreciate any 
material which could be used to illustrate the practical 
accomplishments of missionary work. The Secretary is Dr. 
F. B. Whitmore, and he will be glad to hear from any who 
may have it in their power to assist this cause. Will mission¬ 
aries all over China remember the claims and needs of this 
exhibition enterprise and make its successful accomplishment 
over the eight months of its working a matter of constant 
prayer ? 


194 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


A striking advance is to be chronicled in the figures 
which are now available concerning the work of Sunday 
Schools in China. At the World’s Sunday 

Suntae Schools. Scl, ° o1 Co " ve,,lion IleW iu Rome >■> * 9°7 tlie 
total number of schools was reported as 105 : 

teachers, 1,053; scholars, 5,264. Figures which have been 
gleaned from last year’s mission reports show 1,987 schools, 
4,125 teachers and 71,598 scholars, and these figures are 
obviously incomplete. It would be quite safe to assert that 
the total number of scholars in connection with the Mission 
Sunday Schools of China exceeds a hundred thousand. This 
progress is extremely gratifying and is significant of the 
tremendous field which lies before the Sunday School move¬ 
ment. There are several large missions in China, of long 
standing in the Empire, whose Sunday Schools are altogether 
inadequate to the figures they report for church membership. 
This reveals an element of special weakness in policy and 
administration, and we trust that one result of the increased 
attention which is being given to Sunday School matters 
will be a Sunday School organization in connection with 
every missionary society and the establishment of a school in 
connection with every mission church. The secret of the 
conversion of the nation in this generation lies more with the 
youth than with the adult. Press onward with the Sunday 
School. 

* * * 


We have so often had occasion to comment upon the 
slackness which has followed the promulgation of schemes of 
reform in China and the failure of those who are 
responsible for their administraton, from high 
officials downward, to treat them seriously, that it 
is with unusual satisfaction attention is now drawn to the 
increasingly successful nature of the opium reform. China 
has done more than her own programme of suppression 
called for at this stage of the reform and has given unmistake- 
ble evidence of the sincerity with which she asked the co¬ 
operation of the civilized Powers in an attempt to shorten 
the period of total abolition. In this connection also we are 
thankful for the action of Bishop Price, of the C. M. S., in 
calling, through the Archbishop of Canterbury, the considera¬ 
tion of the British Secretary for Foreign Affairs and the 
British public to the hindrances placed in the way of hastening 


1910] 


Editorial 


195 


forward measures for the entire suppression of opium sales by 
the action of a leading firm of merchants in Foochow. In her 
endeavour to force the pace China should receive all possible 
support and no suspicion of hindrance from those who are her 
well-wishers. Any attempt to bolster up the dying opium 
trade against the public opinion of China is poor business policy, 
not to speak of the moral aspects of the case. It will not pay 
reputable foreign firms to have it known that their business 
methods are soiled by participation in a universally condemned 
trade. The insistence upon the ‘ pound of flesh ’ which the 
treaties allow may be legally just enough but “ morally in¬ 
defensible” and, moreover, extremely unwise. 

The great question of constitutional reform is certainly 
moving. Local government, both for prefectures and districts, 
is now being pressed forward, and a certain 
Bnotber Step. 0 f p 0wer j s bound to fall into the hands 

of these local bodies. A great change cannot fail to come over 
the public life of China as opportunity is thus provided for the 
expression of public opinion. The Chinese government will 
ere long be facing the problem which lay before Britain after 
the passing of the Reform Bill, namely, how to educate its 
masters. The proposed Parliament of China is to have its 
representatives from every province, on a basis of population. 
Provision is also made for the presence of Mongols, Tibetans, 
Hakkas, Ikas, Lolos, and Yaos. The sympathy and prayers 
of the Christian population of the Empire will follow all these 
developments. 

Attention is also being given at the present time, and not 
an instant too soon, to the reform of the judicial system of 
China. Methods of procedure in foreign countries have been 
examined and a system based on these, as they are consistent 
with the circumstances of China, has been presented to 
the Throne and adopted. The functions of justice and civil 
administration are to be clearly differentiated and courts 
instituted. This development, which might mean much to 
the welfare of the people of China, will be watched with deep 
interest. No land is truly civilized where justice is bought 
and sold, and the trust of the people in the righteous adminis¬ 
tration of the law is one of the surest tests of pure and worthy 
government. 


196 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March, 1910 


ftbe Sanctuary 

“ The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availelh much." —St. Jttuei v, 16. 

■< p or where two or three are gathered, together in my Name , there am / in the midst of 
them."— St. Matthew xviii, 20. 


An Evening HyMN. 

Before the ending of the day, 

Creator of the world, we pray 
That with Thy wonted favour, Thou 
Wouldst be our Guard and Keeper 

now. 

From all ill dreams defend our eyes, 
From nightly fears and fantasies; 
Tread under foot our ghostly foe, 

That no pollution we may know. 

O Father, that we ask be done, 
Through Jesus Christ, Thine only Son, 
Who with the Holy Ghost and Thee, 
Shall live and reign eternally. 

Amen. 

Pray 

That you may never forget the 
importance of evangelizing the mil¬ 
lions who live outside the city walls 
in China. (P. 199)* 

For such a measure of adaptability 
to new conditions that you may not 
be one of these to become discouraged 
and give up this work to which God 
has called you. (P. 199)- 

For more itineration and more 
carrying of the Gospel to the people 
in the country. (P. 201). 

For any correction of present meth¬ 
ods that may be needed in -order to a 
real forward movement. (P. 202). 

For more itinerant preachers to 
balance and extend the work being 
done by mission schools. (P. 202). 

For more itinerant preachers to sup¬ 
plement the work being done by the 
medical missionaries. (.!’• 203). 

For more itinerant preachers to 
carry on more widely by the human 
voice what is being done by Christian 
literature. (P. 203'. 

That every Station may be suf¬ 
ficiently manned for some to be set 
apart from all details of administration 
for the direct preaching and teaching 
of the Gospel. (P. 203 ). 

For an increase of efficient leaders 
in the evangelistic work, IP. 204), 


For leaders really competent for the 
training of the Chinese evangelists. 
(P. 204.'. 

That you may always be prepared to 
do yourself anything and everything 
you ask of your Chinese colleague. 
(P. 205), 

For a ready insight such as will 
make clear the ways in which China 
is particularly adapted for ready 
approach on the part of a Christian 
evangelist. (P. 205). 

That all missions may come to 
realize more and more the present 
neglect of country work. (P. 207). 

For the evangelization of the Nou 
Su, (P. 210 ff.). 

For the Union Normal College, 
Wuchang. (P. 220). 

That all missions may push forward 
towards the independent, self-sup¬ 
porting church. (P. 224'. 

That you may “ Beware when all 
men speak well of you.” (P. 225). 

That the editors of Chinese papers 
may be a force of upbuilding in the 
years to come. (P. 228.) 

A Prayer for The World. 

O Lord, make bare Thy holy arm 
in the eyes of all the nations, that all 
the ends of the world may see Thy 
salvation; show forth Thy right¬ 
eousness openly in the sight of the 
heathen, that the kingdom of Thy 
Christ may be established over all 
mankind; hasten the coming of the 
end when He shall deliver up the 
kingdom unto Thee, aud haying put 
down all rule, and authority, and 
power, and put all things under his 
feet, He Himself shall be subject 
unto Thee, and with Thee in the unity 
of the Holy Ghost, Three Persons in 
One God, shall be our All in All. 

Amen. 

Give Thanks 

F'or the deserved popularity of the 
medical missionary work. (P. 224), 

For the harmonious cooperation in 
mission colleges and for its reaction 
in the home churches, (F. 224). 


Contributed Articles 


The Problem of Reaching the Masses in China* 


REV. ALEX. R. SAUNDERS, CHINA INLAND MISSION, 

YANGCHOW. 


HE question of reaching the masses, even in a country of 



such limited area and population as Britain, has per¬ 


plexed leading Christian men for many years, and all 
kinds of agencies have been brought into operation to effect 
this end. Specially qualified workers have organized open-air 
meetings at the race courses, public parks, and other places 
where the common people are wont to assemble in large num¬ 
bers. Sunday night services in theatres have been introduced 
and much useful work has been done in this way to reach the 
non-church-going masses, and what shall we say of the almost 
countless number of voluntary workers in every city and town 
who have been engaged for many years in house-to-house dis¬ 
tribution of Christian literature ? I have but mentioned a few 
of the many means that have been used to reach the masses in 
Britain, and I suppose the same could be said of America, but 
there was still a wide field left for the Salvation Army to make 
their unique efforts to reach classes that were still untouched. 
After so many years of constant and zealous work who 
would venture even to suggest that the masses in Britain, or 
America, have been anything like reached ? What, then, can 
we say in regard to this much greater problem of reaching the 
masses in China with its population of 400,000,000 ? 

To discuss a question of such magnitude, in a manner at 
all satisfactory, the time at our disposal is far too short, and I 
must be concise and practical in what I have to bring forward. 
I shall consider the subject under the following six divisions :— 

I. What class of the population of China mainly constitute 
the masses ? 

II. Where shall we chiefly concentrate our efforts for their 
evangelization ? 

* A paper read before the Shanghai Missionary Association on Tuesday, 
7th December, 1909. 


Note —Readers of the Recorder are reminded that the Editorial Board 
assumes no responsibility for the views expressed by the writers of articles 
published in these pages. 







198 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


III. What do we mean by "reaching the masses?" 

IV. How far do present methods solve the problem ? 

V. A plan for the evangelization of the common people. 

VI. Difficulties and hindrances. The remedy. 

I. What Classes of the Population of China mainly 
constitute the Masses? 

Before we can make up our minds as to what classes of 
the people make up what we understand by “the masses,” 
or the common people, we need to know the general conditions 
of the country concerned, for ignorance of these will lead us 
to very wrong conclusions on the subject we are now consider¬ 
ing. We could not possibly make a greater mistake than to 
suppose that the masses in China are necessarily composed of 
the same classes of the population as Britain or America, and 
though some may think that this is a point hardly worth the 
while it has a most important bearing upon what I have to say 
to-night. It is said of John Wesley, the man who reached the 
masses as no one else has done, that he always went straight 
for where the tall chimneys were thickest. John Wesley was 
familiar with the country he laboured in, and he knew that 
England, being a country of huge manufacturing interests, the 
great crowds of the common people would be found among the 
artizan and labouring classes in the large towns and cities. 
So it becomes our duty to know China and the people we 
have come to labour amongst if we would effectively reach 
them with the Gospel. 

The manufacturing industries of China, though in recent 
years increasing, cannot even now be said to amount to very 
much, and the artizan and labouring classes of the cities form 
but a very small proportion of the population, so in this 
respect there is a very great difference from our own lands. 
It is not necessary to live long in China to discover that, above 
all else, it is an agricultural land, and that the great mass of 
its people are, in some way or other, connected with tillage of 
the soil. The scholars come first in China’s social scale, 
because from their ranks the officials are selected, but how 
often have we found in inland China that the literati are 
themselves farmers 1 It often happens, too, that the shop¬ 
keepers and their assistants in inland cities are owners of land, 
and they are required each year to help in the harvest field. 
While the scholar ranks first in the social scale the farmer 


1910] The Problem of Reaching the Masses in China 


199 


comes second, because he is the man on whom the country 
depends for its revenue. If we could take a census of the 
various classes that comprise China’s population we would 
find that the country people far outnumber any other class, 
and if our aim is to reach the masses, our first concern must 
be for the millions who live outside the city walls. Has it not 
been among the simple country folk that the Gospel has first 
and most deeply taken root ? Are we not reminded by this, 
also, that it was the common people, flocking from all the 
country sides, that heard gladly during the earthly ministry of 
our Lord Jesus Christ ? 

Brethren, you will have perceived already that my plea is 
to be for the country districts of China, but in the next point 
of my paper I wish to take you a step further in the considera¬ 
tion of this side of the question. 

II. Where shall we chiefly concentrate our Efforts 
for their Evangelization ? 

Having already come to the conclusion that the agricul¬ 
tural classes very largely make up what we call the masses in 
China, it is very easy to locate their whereabouts, but the 
question we are now to consider is not so much where they live 
as where we can best reach them with the Gospel. Can we 
devise any means by which we may gather those scattered 
millions into the large towns and cities, so as to simplify the 
work of their evangelization ? Or, shall we go to where they 
are ? Looked at from this point of view the question now 
before us is a most pertinent one and deserves our most careful 
consideration. 

We who have come from the West most naturally think 
of the great mass-meetings we have either witnessed or taken 
partin in our own great cities, to which great crowds of country 
people have also flocked, and the question at once arises 
whether the same methods will not have like results in China. 
Before we came to China we had heard much of its great 
walled cities, and we had pictured to ourselves immensely 
populous centres. Some of us who were already engaged in 
evangelistic work in the home lands may have had day dreams 
of a similar work in China. Have these been realized? I 
fear not, and a few, indeed, who came to China full of hope, 
returned home again sadly disappointed and discouraged after 
only a few months in the country. 


200 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


Very many of China’s cities are not the great populous 
centres we had thought they were ; for, as a matter of fact, 
some are but small tumble-down villages surrounded by a wall. 
It is perfectly true that near the coast, and for some distance 
up the great waterways, there are large and populous cities, 
made so by the immense export and import trade demanded by 
the millions toiling in the fields beyond. There are also large 
and populous cities, such as the provincial capitals, that owe 
even their very existence to their official status rather than to 
any amount of trade carried, but these are not fair samples of 
the average cities in China. Take Nanking, or Soochow, as 
an example ! I have no hesitation in saying that if the 
privileged classes were removed from either of these cities there 
would be a surprisingly small number of people left. Even 
the shop-keepers, being largely dependent on the officials and 
their retainers for their trade, would find their means of liveli¬ 
hood gone and would betake themselves to other parts. If 
this is true of provincial capitals it is equally true of most 
prefectural cities, and many of the county seats would have no 
existence at all but for the official and his retainers. To go no 
further afield than Kiangsu, for example, I know of one city 
where the only buildings within its walls are the premises of the 
Yamun, and yet another where all you can see are heaps of 
brickbats and a few scattered houses. I could describe city 
after city in the same desolate condition. A missionary, who 
had lived all his years in China near the coast, paid a visit to 
an inland mission station, and he was so struck by the deserted 
appearance of the city that he asked the resident missionary, 
“Where are the people ? ” The country people only visit such 
cities to pay their taxes, or when they have a lawsuit on, and 
their regular business is done at the surrounding market towns. 

I have gone into this matter rather fully, for I have been 
led to believe, rightly or wrongly, that there is an opinion 
among many missionaries that to reach the masses in China it 
is in the cities where we must concentrate our efforts. If not 
in the cities where, then, are we to reach the people ? Where 
are we to find the multitudes of common people ? About 
Easter time, when the beautiful spring weather is coming on, 
take a trip into the country, anywhere you like to go, and lift 
up your eyes and look on the fields. They are white already 
to harvest. Look on all sides of you! The people literally 
swarm on the face of the earth ! Where do they live ? Try, 


1910] The Problem of Reaching the Masses in China 201 

as I have done many times, to count the villages and hamlets 
that dot the land, all within range of your vision. It is 
impossible ! They are so many, and we can but offer a prayer to 
God, who not only knows the number of hamlets and of 
individuals, but has also counted the very hairs of their heads, 
that He will raise up many to care for the uncared-for 
multitudes. 

Not only are the masses in China mostly composed of the 
people living in the country, but if we would reach them with 
the message of salvation we must go to where they live, and 
this work can only be done by itineration. 

Some may raise the objection that I am advocating 
country evangelization to the exclusion of much needed work 
in the cities. Not so, for by the plan which I purpose laying 
before you ample time is allowed for that. The point I wish 
to emphasize is that as the vast majority of the common people 
are to be found in the country, and can only be reached by the 
messenger going to them, our efforts must be mainly concen¬ 
trated on the villages and hamlets of this great empire. 

III. What do we mean by “ Reaching the Masses /” 

The command of our risen Tord is very clear : to preach 
the Gospel to every creature. But as to all that is actually 
implied in the commission there is considerable difference of 
opinion among missionaries. Some hold that the work we are 
called to do, will not be completed till every individual has 
been won to Christ; while others go to the other extreme and 
maintain that it is to preach the Gospel throughout the world 
for a witness only, even if the greater number should hear it 
but once. I prefer to-night to take a view lying midway 
between those two extremes and give in the words of oue of 
the resolutions of the Centenary Conference my basis for the 
evangelization of this great people. The resolution referred to 
has the following words: “To reach every individual in the 
empire with such a knowledge of the world-saving mission, 
the redeeming death and resurrection, and the heart-transform¬ 
ing power of Jesus Christ, as will suffice for the acceptance of 
Him as a personal Saviour. M There is room, perhaps, for 
some difference of opinion as to what will suffice, but for our 
purpose this evening we will take the following for a basis : 
To give an average of fifty days preaching to every thousand 
of population. 


202 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


There is one other point in the consideration of this 
subject that is of the utmost importance and must not be lost 
sight of. The present generation is the only one we can reach, 
and there is absolutely no ground whatever for anyone to think 
that what is left undone by us will be done by the generation 
following. What we owe to this generation can never be paid 
by those who succeed us. They will have their own genera¬ 
tion to serve as we have ours now, and it becomes our bounden 
duty to see to it that no time is lost to give to every creature 
in China a saving knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. This 
adds urgency to our commission. 

IV. How far do Present Methods solve the Problem ? 

At the time of the Centenary Conference there were in 
China 3,746 foreign missionaries (including wives) and 9,904 
Chinese workers, and all of them are, no doubt, doing most 
useful work in connection with the various departments of 
missionary service. The question for us to consider now is, 
Are the masses in China being reached by the methods now 
employed by that large number of missionaries and Chinese 
workers ? I sincerely hope that our brethren engaged in the 
various forms of institutional work will not think that, in any¬ 
thing I say, I am finding fault with the excellent work they 
are doing. Nothing could be farther from my own thoughts, 
and my only desire is to face this problem fairly. Let me say 
at once that my firm conviction is that the work of evangelis¬ 
ing the masses is not being done by present-day methods, and 
there is a very great need for a forward movement in China. 

Missionaries have told me that they did not believe in 
itinerating work ; there were very few results from it, and it 
was their opinion that the conversion of China’s millions to 
Christ would be brought about by educational work. We 
all appreciate the valuable work done by our brethren in the 
Christian schools, but I feel perfectly sure that they them¬ 
selves would agree with me in this, that they are touching 
a very small and select class of the Chinese only. This 
problem is not being, and cannot be, solved by the Christian 
educational work. 

The medical missionary comes a good deal nearer it, for 
his noble self-denying work is certainly among the common 
people, and poor suffering creatures will come many miles to 
receive treatment from the far-famed foreign physician. Still 


203 


1910] The Problem of Reaching the Masses in China 

medical work is limited. There are vast regions, teeming with 
people, where the fame of the foreign doctor has never spread, 
and if we were dependent upon medical work to bring these 
people within the sound of the Gospel our generation would 
be gone long before the work could be anything like done. 
Itinerant preachers in much larger numbers than we have ever 
known, are needed to supplement the work done by the medical 
missionary. 

Our brethren engaged in the work of producing Christian 
literature form an indispensable auxiliary to the great body of 
preachers, and we are most grateful for the splendid work they 
are doing. We need to remind ourselves, however, that the 
illiterate in China far outnumber those who can read, and not 
all who read can understand what they read. The only medium 
by which the vast majority of China’s common people can be 
reached is by the human voioe, and the number of itinerating 
preachers must be multiplied many times over. 

What is being done by the evangelistic wing of the mis¬ 
sionary army ? Are they, by present-day methods, reaching 
the masses in any way that assures us that this generation will 
hear the Gospel before our time of service is done ? Many of 
them have their hands so full of mission station details that it 
would surprise you to know how very few of our evangelistic 
missionaries are free to give much time to the more aggressive 
part of the work known as itineration. A whole generation 
has passed since China was declared open to the itinerant 
preacher, and we should humble ourselves before God, who 
has entrusted us with so great a commission, as we think of 
the vast regions where the feet of the bringer of good tidings 
have never trod. 

Right here in this province of Kiangsu there is a district, 
with which I am somewhat familiar by occasional itinerant 
work, with an area of 5,000 square miles and a population of 
nearly five millions, and I know that very little itinerant work 
has been done in any part of it by either foreign missionary or 
Chinese evangelist. There are other districts in Kiangsu 
almost equally needy, but what of the more inland and less 
favoured provinces of this empire ? If the masses that are yet 
in gross darkness are to have even one offer of salvation the 
Work must be done by the itinerant evangelist, and there is as 
much need for such work to be done in Kiangsu as in any 
other province of China. 


204 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


V. A Plan for the Evangelisation of the Common People. 

That the masses in China must be evangelized by the 
Chinese themselves is a truism that needs no discussion in this 
paper. Whilst giving full recognition to this fact I wish to 
bring before you the great need there will be for efficient 
leadership in this work. In doing so I would emphasize the 
fact that leadership in a great evangelistic movement need not, 
and will not, be restricted to the missionaries, for God is raising 
up among the Chinese themselves men well able to take a fore¬ 
most place in connection with this branch of missionary service. 

Leaders will be needed not only for the actual work of 
evangelism but also for the training of the Chinese evangelists. 
Our educational institutions do not, and cannot, furnish the 
men and women needed for this work, but what plan could 
be better than the combination of work and training after the 
manner of the training of the Twelve ? 

The time has come in China when all the missions should 
unite in a great effort for the thorough evangelization of the 
masses in China, and in no branch of missionary enterprise 
is there a grander opportunity for union than in this. Those 
of us who attended the meetings of the Federation Council, 
recently held at Nanking, had ample opportunity of proving 
how possible this is, and I have no hesitation in suggesting 
this as being perfectly feasible. If we, the missionaries, set 
ourselves with united front and zeal to the accomplishment of 
this stupendous work, not only will the Chinese Christians 
respond nobly to our appeal for evangelists but we shall see 
our Lord’s words fulfilled when He said, “That the world 
may believe that Thou hast sent me.” 

I want to lay special emphasis upon the need for real, and 
not mere nominal, leadership in a movement such as this 
would be, for upon that its success greatly depends. This 
work will never be done by missionaries who think they can 
direct from central stations the operations of evangelists in the 
field ; they must themselves be leaders in the work. I do not 
see any reason why one missionary should not be able to 
personally lead a band of twenty-five evangelists and at the 
same time give the training needed to equip them for the 
work. Perhaps some one will sigh and say: “Would that I 
had twenty-five Chinese evangelists to lead in such a work, 
how gladly would I do it! ” Well, cheer up brother, and go 
to work with the one or two you have got, and I am persuaded 


205 


1910] The Problem of Reaching the Masses in China 

that if some such plan of thorough evangelization, as I am 
about to suggest, is followed, recruits will not be wanting, and 
before very long you will have the number aimed at. I give 
the number twenty-five, not in any way as a suggestion that we 
should secure that number of evangelists before we begin to 
work out the plan, but as the probable limit of one man’s 
ability to work effectively with. 

In the very truest sense a missionary must be a leader of 
men, and in no department of work is this more necessary than 
in that of evangelization. A man called to be a leader will 
always treat his Chinese co-evangelist as a fellow-worker and 
will avoid giving him anything to do that he would expect his 
servant to do. Never expect more from your Chinese brother 
than you are prepared to do yourself. Are there books and 
tracts to be carried ? Take a share of them yourself. Do you 
expect the Chinese evangelist to walk out to the villages? 
Be prepared to do so yourself, unless there is some real 
physical reason for not doing so. Ever remember that we 
are to be leaders in God’s work and not lords over God’s 
heritage. 

How shall we go about this huge work of evangelizing, in 
a thorough way, the masses in China ? Let the missionary, 
with his band of twenty-five Chinese evangelists or as many as he 
may have, make his headquarters at one of the large market 
towns; and it may be well to note right here that China is 
wonderfully adapted for carrying out some such plan for reach¬ 
ing the masses as the one I suggest to-night. Wherever I 
have been I have found, and I think it is so in all other parts, 
that all the villages and hamlets cluster round their own 
market town within a very few miles of it. God has thus 
set before us an open door and easy to enter. Taking up 
quarters in the inns, or better still renting an empty house for 
the time of your stay at that centre, the work of evangelizing 
the surrounding villages and hamlets can be proceeded with. 
Sufficient time should be given at each centre to carry out the 
work according to some such basis as the one I have already 
suggested—an average of fifty days preaching to every thousand 
of population—and the results will well repay you for the 
time spent. 

While a cast-iron rule cannot be laid down it is possible 
to offer helpful suggestions as to how the work may be 
done, and this only is my desire to-night. The leader 


206 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


and his staff of evangelists having established themselves in 
suitable quarters must get to work at once. Let there be 
no delays, for nothing will be more hurtful to the young 
Chinese worker than a waste of time. Let the morning hour 
be set apart for systematic Bible study, for the work of 
evangelization must go hand in hand with teaching, and the 
thorough training of the evangelists must ever be considered 
by the leader as a most important part of this work. The 
morning Bible study should be followed by at least a half 
hour for united, definite, and believing prayer for the work of 
the day. They should now go forth in couples ; the leader 
making one of a set, but in this he must exercise the utmost 
care not to give any appearance of partiality to any one 
evangelist. What could be more hurtful to the whole band of 
workers than the partiality manifested by the leader for any 
one of them? and nothing could more surely ruin his own 
influence among them. By far the best plan would be for the 
leader to take a different colleague each day, and taking all 
of them in turn. Let the leader himself be an example in 
all tilings to the Chinese evangelists, ever keeping in mind 
that eternal issues depend on the work they are doing. 

All the villages and hamlets that belong to that market 
town should be thoroughly worked and all possible means- 
used to induce to come into the open air to hear the Gospel. 
Singing may at times prove a good attraction, at other times 
house to house tract distribution may be done to invite the 
inhabitants to come to the preaching ; the beating of a gong 
might also be used to arouse the villagers if other means failed. 
By all means get the people within the sound of the Gospel; 
the command of Jesus Christ compels us. If the baud of 
workers numbers twenty-six, no less than thirteen villages will 
be visited each day, but many of them will require more than 
one day’s preaching. The foreign worker will find many ham¬ 
lets which he will be unable to enter, but these can be left for 
his Chinese colleagues while he confines his work to the more 
accessible places. On market days one set of two evangelists 
should be appointed to preach to the crowds on the market 
place. 

Returning at nearly the close of the day, the whole company, 
coming from thirteen different villages, will meet at the centre. 
A careful record of the day’s work should be made, the villages 
visited should be mapped, and a special note made of any 


1910] The Problem of Reaching the Masses in China 207 

interesting cases met with. The evening will give an 
excellent opportunity for an evangelistic meeting, and I would 
venture to predict that, if notice was given of it in each village 
visited, not a few of those who had heard during the day would 
attend. It is of no use to go fishing if you do not draw the 
net, and these evening meetings would just furnish the desired 
opportunity for gathering together enquirers. Classes for 
instruction and regular services for worship would surely follow. 
After such a full and happy day of service who would not be 
ready for another hour of Bible study and a half hour to 
unitedly praise God for all the work done ? 

Should anyone think that I am unduly pressing to the 
front the importance of country evangelization, even to almost 
excluding work in the cities, let me remind you that country 
work is being sadly neglected, and there is real need to em¬ 
phasize it in the discussion of reaching the masses. But there 
is no need for alarm that the city work will be neglected. 
From a considerable experience in country evangelization I 
am inclined to think that not more than six months in each 
year can be spent at it to real advantage, chiefly because of the 
farmer’s busy seasons. The missionary will have to be guided 
by circumstances. The remaining six months in each year 
could be devoted to city evangelistic work, special Bible classes 
for the evangelists, and a much needed rest for the Chinese 
worker as well as for the missionary. 

I have dealt entirely with country work for the following 
two reasons: First, I am convinced that the great mass of 
China’s common people are in the country, and must be reach¬ 
ed where they are. Second, it is only too evident that country 
work is much neglected, and the importance of it must be 
emphasized. It is not a question of reaching the country 
people through the cities, or of moving the cities through the 
country, but in China the people must be reached where they 
are, or they will not be reached at all. In the remaining six 
'months of the year there is ample time for all the city work 
that can possibly be done. 

It is for the missionary societies to act unitedly for the 
occupation of the whole field and to put into the field as 
quickly as possible as many men and women as they can. If 
the right kind of missionaries are put to this work they will 
soou draw to themselves like-minded fellow-workers from 
among the Chinese, 


208 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


VI. Difficulties and Hindrances. The Remedy. 

That difficulties and hindrances will confront the worker 
for God in every land is perfectly certain, and China is no 
exception. We need to remember, however, that these are 
allowed to come, not to deter us but that we may overcome 
through faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Perhaps the one difficulty met with more than any other 
is the unpopularity of itinerant preaching among both mission¬ 
aries and our Chinese brethren. If missionaries are not keen 
on this kind of work is it to be wondered at that the Chinese 
take to it slowly ? We very much need a revival of zeal in the 
desire F reach the masses, and, being leaders, we expect that 
revival should begin with the missionary. 

I have on many occasions conversed with Chinese workers 
in the charge of city street chapels on the subject of going out 
to the people, but they have usually showed utter lack of in¬ 
terest in itinerant preaching and have sought to excuse them¬ 
selves by saying that they had been appointed to chapel work. 
Wasting time day after day in an empty chapel is a matter of 
indifference to many, and it seems as if it mattered little 
whether the people came in or not, so long as the worker 
remains at his post. Surely we need men who will go out 
after the people, but let us take heed lest we may be found to 
be responsible for the coldness of our Chinese brethren. 

Is it not true that very often the post of itinerant preacher, 
or colporteur, is held only as a stepping stone to what is re¬ 
garded by the average Chinese as something better—in charge 
of an out-station ? From experience I can affirm that there is 
very little desire among many of the Chinese Christians to 
engage in the more arduous work of itineration ; they much 
prefer the indoor w T ork. Do not many missionaries also shrink 
from it ? Some will probably tell you they do not believe in 
it. Let the missionaries get filled with enthusiasm for this 
work, and the fire will spread very quickly among the Chinese. 
Let such missionaries visit the Christian schools and colleges 
to tell of the glorious work they are doing among the masses, 
and I venture to say that the fire with which they tell the story 
will spread through the schools and colleges, and we shall 
have no reason to mourn as we do now that so few are offering 
for the evangelistic field. A zealous missionary is the cure for 
a cold and indifferent church in China as elsewhere. Oh for 
missionaries full of the fire of the Holy Ghost for the work of 


209 


19 i 0 ] The Problem of Reaching the Masses in China 

reaching the untouched millions of China! We shall then 
have many Spirit-filled Chinese evangelists. 

A very serious hindrance to this work is the unworthy 
character of many of the Chinese now engaged in it. It is 
most natural for missionaries to desire all the Chinese help 
they can get, but this has too often led to the employment 
of very questionable men. Men have been employed to preach 
the Gospel far too soon after they had professed faith in Christ ; 
they were yet carnal, and Christ was not formed in them. 
They were put up as teachers of others while they themselves 
sorely needed to be taught. The result has been, as is man¬ 
ifest at the revivals that are now taking place, that they have 
remained carnal. I heard a dear Chinese brother say not long 
ago that of the more than 200,000 professing Christians in 
China a very large number were still unregenerate, and of the 
already large army of Chinese workers very many knew noth¬ 
ing of the new birth. 

I was once asked by a missionary brother going 011 fur¬ 
lough to take the oversight of his four colporteurs. I did not 
continue-these men in work for more than a month, for in¬ 
stead of going the trip I had mapped out for them they threw 
their books into the river and spent their days in a neigh¬ 
bouring city in idleness and gambling. Their sales had 
averaged so very little that it paid them to do this. 

A missionary travelling on a passenger boat overheard a 
conversation between two Chinese on the subject of the price 
of a church membership certificate, and it was all too con¬ 
clusive that in a certain city (the name of which was given) a 
regular trade in membership certificates was carried on by the 
Chinese evangelist in charge. 

One day a man called to see me in Yangchow, and wished 
my assistance in the recovery of certain articles of clothing, 
which he said had been stolen from him in the lodging house 
where he had spent the night. The mail was a colporteur 
employed by a missionary in another city, and I afterwards 
found out that the place he had lost bis clothes in was a brothel. 

Such things exist to-day, my brethren, among some of the 
men whom we employ to preach the Gospel, and such men 
stand as barriers to the spread of the Gospel among the masses. 
We do well not to blind ourselves to the fact, but rather let us 
seek the remedy. None of us can ferret out these evils, but 
we have recently had abundant proof that God can make them 


210 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


bare by His Spirit. Do we dread the revelations that revival 
will bring ? Dread them not. These men must either be 
converted or driven from the field. God can do it in revival. 
Let us seek revival at all costs. Are we willing to pay the 
cost? Let us face it like men and travail in prayer till God 
shall graciously revive us all. Only a revival of Pentecostal 
power can enable us to reach the masses in China, and this can 
only come through a cleansed church. We, the missionaries, 
need revival also. May God help us to seek it as if we meant 
it. Amen. 


The Nou Su People of the Neighbourhood of 
Chao-tong in Yunnan 

(The people are commonly called Lolo) 

BY THE REV. C. E. HICKS, CHAO-TONG-FU, YUNNAN. 

W HEN the Chinese first entered the district now known 
as Chao-tong (flg jj|) they found the plain already 
occupied by Nou Su. According to tradition these 
people were easily overcome, for they generally preferred migra¬ 
tion to fighting, and many trekked across the Kin-sha river 
into the country now known as the Man-tsz territory. Secure 
in these mountain fastnesses they have never ceased to harass 
the Chinese, who now dwell on the land which they themselves 
once tilled or at least inhabited. Others remained on the plain, 
but gradually the pressure of the •§? jfc, as the Chinese are 
called, has driven them into the remoter districts, and these 
interesting people are now mostly to be found among the 
mountains and away from the highroads of Chinese travel. 
This pressure is still being exerted, and districts which a 
few years ago were almost entirely occupied by Nou Su 
are now peopled by the Chinese, so that the extinction of 
the race, in this district at least, seems likely to take place 
in a very short time. The Nou Su themselves reckon that 
their numbers have decreased by one-half during the last 
thirty years. 

The following notes concerning the manners and customs 
of these people, the writer thinks may prove of some interest 
to the readers of the Chinese Recorder, and may perhaps be 
of some assistance to those persons who are endeavouring to 




1910] 


The Nou Su People 


211 


determine what place in the history of the peoples of the world 
must be assigned to these tribesmen of Yunnan and Kueicheo. 

Many of the notes were gathered by Mr. John Li, a Chinese 
literary graduate, who has been working amongst the Nou Su 
with much diligence and devotion during the last three years. 
Others were gathered by the writer during six or seven years’ 
intercourse with the people. 

The Nou Su are not the aboriginal inhabitants of the 
Chao-tong district. They came, according to their own tradi¬ 
tion, from H ; their ancestors being named Wu-sa or Wu- 
meng, two twin brothers who, like Esau and Jacob of Jewish 
story, struggled together within the womb of their mother. 
Hence, say the present-day descendants, the wildness of our 
hearts and our fondness for fighting. 

Coming to the Chao-tong plain they found a people 
already in possession, whom they call the P‘uh, and who are 
to-day spoken of by the Chinese as Iao Ren. It seems almost 
impossible to discover who these Iao Ren or P‘uh really were. 
Chinese tradition in this district says that they inhabited the 
plain many centuries ago when it was forest-covered, and that 
their houses were like huge burrows in the hill sides. The 
Nou Su account is that they, by their advance on to the Chao- 
tong plain, exterminated the P'uh. The only vestiges of these 
P'ub now remaining are the mounds of earth conspicuous on 
the plain. Some of these have been opened, and in them 
have been found rough unhewn stones, apparently placed as 
door-frames, and burnt bricks of an unusually large size and 
marked with a peculiar pattern. 

The first Non Su chieftain to come to the .Chao-tong 
district was Ien Tsang-fu. He was a very cruel tyrant, punish¬ 
ing offences in the most rigorous manner. No matter how 
closely related to him the offender might be there was no 
amelioration of the punishment. It was a common practice 
.with this stern leader to gouge out the eyes of those who 
disobeyed his commands. The Tumuli (_£ g)of the present 
day are in many cases descendants of this man, and if reports 
are to be trusted they have inherited a good share of his tyran¬ 
nical temper. 

These Tumuh (this of course is the Chinese designation; 
the Nou Su word is equivalent to f|) are the great land- 
owners among the Nou Su, and in very many cases they have 
enriched themselves by appropriating lauds of families which 


212 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


have become extinct. Perhaps the saddest fact about the Non 
Su at the present day is the ease and rapidity with which 
families die out. The unsanitary conditions in which the 
people live—the water they drink is frequently found in stag¬ 
nant pools fouled by sheep and cattle,—and their riotous indul¬ 
gence in wine, opium and other evils, sufficiently account for 
this. Such decadence of the race has given the strong the 
opportunity of enriching themselves at the expense of their 
weaker tribesmen, and quarrelling and fighting about the divi¬ 
sion of laud is always going on. This laud-grabbing propen¬ 
sity of the strong Non Su seems also to admirably serve the 
purpose of the Chinese government, for a common method of 
punishing the lawless Tumuli is to confiscate their property. 
Thus land which originally belonged to the Nou Su is brought 
under the immediate control of the Chinese authorities. 

The Nou Su are, of course, entirely dependent upon the 
land for their living. They till the soil and rear cattle, and 
the greatest calamity that can come upon any family is that 
their land shall be taken from them. To be landless involves 
degradation as well as poverty, and very severe hardship is 
the lot of men who have been deprived of this means of 
subsistence. For those who own no land, but who are merely 
tenants of the Tnmiih, there seetns to be no security of tenure ; 
but still, if the wishes and demands of the landlords are complied 
with, one family may till the same farm for many successive 
generations. The terms on which land is held are peculiar. 
The rental agreed upon is nominal. Targe tracts of country are 
rented for a pig or a sheep or a fowl with a litle corn per year. 
Beside this nominal rent the landlord has the right to make 
levies on his tenants on all special occasions, such as funerals, 
weddings, or for any other extraordinary expenses. He can 
also require his tenants with their cattle to render services. 
This system necessarily leads to much oppression and injustice. 
It is also said that if a family is hard pressed by a Tumuli and 
reduced to extreme poverty they will make themselves over to 
him on condition that a portion of his land be given them 
to cultivate. Such people are called caught slaves, as dis¬ 
tinguished from hereditary, and the eldest children become the 
absolute property of the landlord and are generally given as 
attendants upon his wife and daughters. 

The Nou Su do not live in towns, nor even in villages, but 
their homesteads are found among the ancestral trees scattered 


1910] 


The Nou Su People 


213 


over the country. The two great divisions of the people are 
the Black (Na Su) and the White (Tu Su). There are several 
other classes, e. g., the Lakes or Red Nou Su, who are mostly 
blacksmiths; the A-u-tsi, who are felt-makers, providing the 
Nou Su with their cloaks and hats and rugs, and who claim to 
be related to the Chinese ; and another class who are basket 
makers. Few representatives of these districts, however, are 
found in the district of which this paper treats. 

The Na Su (Black ) are the farmers and landowners ; the Tu 
Su (White) are generally slaves. The Black class indeed claim 
that all the White were originally slaves and that those who are 
now free have escaped at some previous time from servitude. 

Every farmer owns a large number of slaves, who live in 
the same compound as himself. These people do all the work 
of the farm, while the master employs himself as his fancy 
leads him. Over these unfortunate people the owner has 
absolute control. All their affairs are managed by him. His 
girl slaves he marries off to other men’s slave boys, and 
similarly obtains wives for his male slaves. The lot of these 
unfortunate people is hard beyond description. Being con¬ 
sidered but little more valuable than the cattle they tend, the 
food given to them is often inferior to the corn with which the 
master’s horse is fed. The cruel beatings and torturings they 
have been subject to have completely broken their spirit, and 
now they seem unable to exist apart from their masters. Very 
seldom do any of them try to escape, for no one will give them 
shelter, and the punishment awarded a recaptured slave is so 
severe as to intimidate the most daring. These poor folk are 
born in slavery, married in slavery, and they die in slavery. 
It is not uncommon to meet with Chinese slaves, both boys 
and girls, in Nou Su families. These have either been kid¬ 
napped and sold, or their parents, unable to nourish them, have 
bartered them in exchange for food. Their purchasers marry 
them to Tu Su, and their lot is thrown in with the slave class. 
One’s heart is wrung with anguish sometimes as he thinks of 
what cruelty and wretchedness exist among the hills of this 
benighted district. Even here, however, light is beginning to 
shine, for some adherents of the Christian religion have changed 
their slaves into tenants, thus showing the way to the ultimate 
solution of this difficult problem. 

The life in a Nou Su household is not very complex. 
The cattle are driven out early in the morning, as soon as the 


214 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


sun has risen. They remain out until the breakfast hour and 
then return to the stables and rest during the heat of the day, 
going out again in the cool hours. 

The food of the household is prepared by the slaves, under 
the direction of the lady of the house. There is no refined 
cooking, for the Nou Su despises well-cooked food and com¬ 
plains that it never satisfies him. He has a couplet which 
runs : “If you eat raw food, you become a warrior ; if you eat 
it cooked, you suffer hunger.” No chairs or tables are found 
in a genuine Nou Su house. The food is served up in a large 
bowl placed on the floor. The family sit around, and each 
one helps himself with a large wooden spoon. At the present 
time the refinements of Chinese civilization have been adopted 
by a large number of Nou Su, and the homes of the wealthier 
people are as well furnished as those of the middle class Chi¬ 
nese of the district. 

The women of the households also spend much time 
making their own and their children’s clothes. The men 
have adopted Chinese dress, but the women, in most cases, retain 
their tribal costume with its large turban-like headdress, its 
plaited skirt and intricately embroidered coat. All this is 
made by hand, and the choicest years of maidenhood are oc¬ 
cupied in preparing the clothes for the w’edding day. 

The Non Su, it would seem, used not to beg a wife, but 
rather obtained her by main force. At the present day, while 
the milder method generally prevails, there are still survivals 
of the ancient custom. The betrothal truly takes place very 
early, even in infancy, and at the ceremony a fowl is killed, 
and each contracting party takes a rib ; but as the young folk 
grow to marriageable age, the filial negotiations have to be 
made. These are purposely prolonged until the bridegroom, 
growing angry, gathers his friends and makes an attack on the 
maiden’s home. Arming themselves with cudgels they approach 
secretly, and protecting their heads and shoulders with their 
felt cloaks, they rush toward the house. Strenuous efforts are 
made by the occupants to prevent their entering and severe 
blows are exchanged. When the attacking party has succeeded 
in gaining an entrance, peace is proclaimed and wine and huge 
chunks of flesh are provided for their entertainment. Occasion¬ 
ally during these fights the maiden’s home is quite dismantled. 
The negotiations beiug ended, preparations are made to escort 
the bride to her future home. Heavily veiled she is supported 


The Nou Su People 


215 


1910] 


on horseback by her brothers, while her near relatives, all fully 
armed, attend her. On arriving at the house a scuffle ensues. 
The veil is snatched from the bride’s face by her relatives, who 
do their utmost to throw it on to the root, thus signifying that 
she will rule over the occupants when she enters. The bride¬ 
groom’s people on the contrary try to trample it upon the door¬ 
step as an indication of the rigour with which the newcomer 
will be subjected to the ruling of the head of the house. Much 
blood is shed, and people are often seriously injured in these 
skirmishes. 

The new bride remains for three days in a temporary 
shelter before she is admitted to the home. 

A girl having once left her parent’s home to become a 
wife, waits many years before she pays a return visit. Ancient¬ 
ly the minimum time was three years, but some allow ten or 
more years to elapse before the first visit home is paid. Two 
or three years are then often spent with the parents. Many 
friends and relatives attend any visitor, for with the Nou Su a 
large following is considered a sign of dignity and importance. 

When a child is born a tree is planted, with the hope that 
as the tree grows so also will the child develop. 

The fear of disease lies heavily upon the Nou Su people, 
and their disregard of the most elementary sanitary laws makes 
them very liable to attacks of sickness. They understand 
almost nothing about medicine, and consequently resort to 
superstitious practices in order to ward off the evil influences. 
When it is known that disease has visited a neighbour’s house 
a pole, seven feet long, is erected in a conspicuous place in a 
thicket some distance from the house to be guarded. On the 
pole an old ploughshare is fixed, and it is supposed that when 
the spirit who controls the disease sees the ploughshare he will 
retire to a distance of three homesteads. 

A fever called No-ma-dzi works great havoc among the 
Nou Su every year, and the people are very much afraid of it. 
No person will stay by the sick bed to nurse the unfortunate 
victim. Instead, food and water are placed by bis bedside and, 
covered with his quilt, he is left at the mercy of the disease. 
Since as the fever progresses the patient will perspire, heavy 
stones are placed on the quilt that it may not be thrown off and 
the sick person take cold. Many an unfortunate sufferer has 
through this strange practice died from suffocation. After a 
time the relatives will return to see what course the disease has 


216 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


taken. This fever seems to yield to quinine, for Mr. John Li 
has seen several persons recover to whom he had administered 
this drug. 

When a man dies, his relatives, as soon as they receive 
the news, hold in their several homes a feast of mourning called 
by them the Za. A pig or sheep is sacrificed at the doorway, 
and it is supposed that intercourse is thus maintained betweeu 
the living persons and the late departed spirit. 

The nearer kindred, on hearing of the death of a relative, 
take a fowl and strangle it ; the shedding of its blood is 
not permissible. This fowl is cleaned and skewered, and the 
mourner then proceeds to the house where the deceased person 
is lying and sticks this fowl at the head of the corpse as an 
offering. The more distant relatives do not perform this rite, 
but each leads a sheep to the house of mourning, and the 
son of the deceased man strikes each animal three times 
with a white wand, while the Pelnno (priest or magician) 
stands by and announcing the sacrifice by calling “so and 
so”, giving of course the name, presents the soft woolly 
offering. 

Formerly the Nou Su burned their dead. Said a Nou 
Su youth to me years ago, “ the thought of our friends’ bodies 
either turning to corruption or being eaten by wild beasts, is 
distasteful to us, and therefore we.burn our dead.” The corpse 
is burnt with wood, and during the cremation the mourners 
arrange themselves around the fire and chant and dance. 
The ashes are buried and the ground levelled. This custom 
is still adhered to among the Nou Su of the independent 
Lolo territory or more correctly Papu country of Western 
Sichuan. The tribesmen who dwelt in the neighbourhood of 
Wei-ning and Chao-tong have adopted burial as the means of 
disposing of their dead, but adding some customs peculiar to 
themselves. 

On the day of the funeral the horse which the deceased 
inan was in the habit of riding, is brought to the door and 
saddled by the Pelnno. The command is then given to lead 
the horse to the grave. All the mourners follow, and marching 
or dancing in intertwining circles, cross and recross the path of 
the led horse until the poor creature, grown frantic with fear, 
rushes and kicks in wild endeavour to escape from the 
confusion. The whole company then raise a great shout and 
call, “The soul has come to ride the horse, the soul has 


1910] 


The Nou Su People 


217 


come to ride the horse.” A contest then follows among 
the women of the deceased man’s household for the posses¬ 
sion of this horse, which is henceforth regarded as of extreme 
value. 

It is- difficult to discover much about the religion of the 
Nou Su because so many of their ancient customs have fallen 
into disuse during the intercourse of the people with the 
Chinese. 

At the ingathering of the buckwheat, when the crop is 
stacked on the threshing floor and the work of threshing is about 
to begin, the simple formula, “ Thank you, Ilsoino,” is used. 
Ilsomo seems to be a spirit who has control over the crops ; 
whether good or evil, it is not easy to determine. Ilsomo is not 
God, for at present, when the Nou Su wish to speak of God, 
they use the word See, which means Master. In the independ¬ 
ent territory of the Nou Su, to the west of Sichuan, the term 
used for God is Eh-nia, and a Nou Su who has much intercourse 
with the independent people contends that there are three 
names indicative of God and each representing different func¬ 
tions if not persons of the Godhead. These names are : Eh-nia, 
Keh-neh, Um-p'a-ma. The Nou Su believe in ancestor worship, 
and perhaps the most interesting feature ot their religion is the 
peculiar form this worship takes. Instead of an ancestral 
tablet, such as the Chinese use, the Nou Su worship a small 
basket (lolo) about as large as a duck’s egg and made of split 
bamboo. This “lolo” contains small bamboo tubes an inch 
or two long and as thick as an ordinary Chinese pen handle. 
In these tubes are fastened a piece of grass and a piece of 
sheep’s wool. A man and his wife would be represented by 
two tubes, and if he had two wives, an extra tube would be 
placed in the lolo. At the ceremony of consecration the Pehmo 
attends, and a slave is set apart for the purpose of attending to 
all the rites connected with the worship of the deceased person. 
The lolo is sometimes placed in the house, but more often on a 
tree in the neighbourhood or it may be hidden in a rock. For 
persons who are short-lived the ancestral lolo is placed in a 
crevice in the wail of some forsaken and ruined building. 
Every three years the “lolo” is changed and the old one 
burnt. The term “ lolo,” by which the Nou Su are generally 
known, is a contemptuous nickname given them by the Chi¬ 
nese in reference to this peculiar method of venerating their 
ancestors. 


218 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


Hill worship is another important feature of Nou Su 
religious life. Most important houses are built at the foot of a 
hill and sacrifice is regularly offered on the hill-side in the 
fourth month of each year. The Pehmo determines which is 
the most propitious day and the Tumuli and his people proceed 
to the appointed spot. A limestone rock with an old tree trunk 
near is chosen as an altar and a sheep and pig are brought for¬ 
ward by the Tumuli. The Pehmo, having adjusted his clothes, 
sits cross-legged before the altar and begins intoning his incanta¬ 
tions in a low muttering voice. The sacrifice is then slain 
and the blood poured beneath the altar and a handful of rice 
and a lump of salt are placed beneath the stone. Some person 
then gathers a bundle of green grass, and the Pehmo, having 
finished intoning, the altar is covered and all return to the house. 
The Pehmo then twists the grass into a length of rope, which 
he hangs over the doorway of the house. Out of a piece of 
willow a small arrow is made, and a bow similar in size is cut 
out of a peach tree. These are placed on the doorposts. On a 
piece of soft white wood a figure of a man is roughly carved, 
and this, with two sticks of any soft wood placed cross¬ 
wise, is fastened to the rope hanging over the doorway, 
on each side of which two small sticks are placed. The 
Pehmo then proceeds with his incantation, muttering : “ From 
now, henceforth and for ever will the evil spirits keep away 
from this house.” 

Most Nou Su at the present time observe the New Year 
festival on the same date and with the same customs as the 
Chinese. Formerly this was not so and even now in the 
remoter district New Year’s day is observed on the first 
day of the ioth month of the Chinese year. A pig and sheep 
are killed and cleaned and hung in the house for three days. 
They are then taken down, cut up and cooked. The family 
sit on buckwheat straw in the middle of the chief room of the 
house. The head of the house invites the others to drink 
wine and the feasting begins. Presently one will start singing 
and all join in this song : “How firm is this house of mine, 
Throughout the year its hearth fire has not ceased to burn, 
My food com is abundant, I have silver and also cash, My 
cattle have increased to herds, My horses and mules have all 
white foreheads K‘o K‘o Ha Ha Ha Ha K‘o K l o, My sons are 
filial, My wife is virtuous, In the midst of flesh and wine we 
sleep, Our happiness reaches unto heaven, Truly glorious 


1910] 


The Nou S« People 


219 


is this glad New Year.” A scene of wild indulgence then 
frequently follows. 

The Nou Su possess a written language. Their books were 
originally made of sheepskin, but paper is now used. The art 
of printing was unknown, and many books are said to have 
been lost. The books are illustrated, but the drawings are 
extremely crude. At the present time few beside the Pehmo, 
who have practically monopolized the books, study the Nou Su 
character. 

The educated lads take the usual course of study in Chi¬ 
nese literature, and at the competitive examinations a certain 
number of degrees are allotted to the Nou Su. The gradual 
spread of the Chinese language among the people makes the 
propagation of Christianity much easier than it would have 
been. There is no need to translate any books into the Nou 
Su language since Chinese is so widely understood. It is stated 
that a greater proportion of Nou Su can read and write the 
Chinese character than of the Chinese themselves. Even some 
women can read, and at the present time all are very anxious 
to learn at least enough to read the New Testament. Doctor 
Price’s & $1 A have been readily bought and are proving 
of great use. The people are willing to listen to the Gospel 
story, and in some respects there is a most gratifying response 
to the higher teaching of the Christian religion. Some Nou 
Su lads have been for several years in the Training Institute 
of the United Methodist Church at Cliao-tong, and have made 
excellent progress in Scripture knowledge as well as in such 
studies as ethics, general and Chinese history and mathematics, 
and are in no way inferior to the Chinese lads. 

With wise guidance a strong self-supporting church might 
be established among this people, but perhaps it is too much 
to expect that in these days of special bequests and grants the 
Nou Su will be allowed to depend upon their own resources 
in developing their work. Of this, however, we may be sure 
that if the Gospel is preached in its purity and simplicity, 
a by no means easy task under the circumstances, it wall 
prove to these benighted and downtrodden people the comfort 
and stimulus for which they have long sought. Light shall 
arise upon the people and this moral wilderness shall blossom 
as the rose and become as one of the pleasant places of the 
earth. 


220 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


The Union Normal School, Wuchang 

BY REV. G. A. CLAYTON, W. M. S., HANKOW. 

I N the Chinese New Year holiday of 1907-8 a meeting of 
missionaries resident in the Wu-lian cities interested in, 
and engaged upon, the work of primary education, was 
called to consider the possibility and feasibility of union in 
normal training. As is too often the case differences in 
educational ideals and aims were too great to facilitate the 
complete union desired. Work on independent lines had 
already been started in one or two cases, which it was 
felt impossible, at that time at least, to give up for a wider 
scheme. The meeting, however, was not without its results ; 
the upshot being that the Wesleyan Mission high school at 
Wuchang, expressing its willingness, and having at that time 
ample accommodation within its new buildings for the housing 
of such a school, the authorities of the American Church 
Mission and American Baptist Missionary Union gladly availed 
themselves of this opportunity of union in educational work. 
As a branch of educational work this was not an entirely new 
venture. The beginnings of normal training in the A. C. M. 
were made several years previously, whilst the W. M. S. high 
school had not been without its two or three normal students 
at any time within the previous five or six years. The new 
thing about the scheme was that it was definitely taken up in 
the interests of greater economy in men and means, greater 
efficiency than previously, and in a genuine spirit of union and 
mutual helpfulness. 

Our Aim. —At what we all realise to be a definite finan¬ 
cial loss, English has been excluded from the curriculum. 
The school is established to equip men as teachers in primary 
schools only, and we have not yet been persuaded that English 
takes either a true or a necessary place in the curriculum of the 
ordinary country primary school. If English is to be taught 
in these or any other schools it had better be entrusted to the 
graduates of our high schools and colleges who have had a 
long and thorough course in the subject. 

Our aim is rather to equip men to train lads, the majority 
of whom are never destined to obtain more than the rudiments 
of education, with (a) an intelligent and usable acquaintance 
with their own language, (b) arithmetic, (e) geography, (d) 


1910] The Union Normal School, Wuchang 221 

general science, i.e., to provide an education as nearly as 
possible equivalent to that obtainable in the government ele¬ 
mentary school in England, 

At the same time we hope that our teachers will be able to 
prepare the minority, who will be able and wishful to go 
further, to pass the examinations and satisfy the tests required 
for entrance into middle and high schools. 

Our Material.—S ince the opening of the school as a 
union normal school the students who have come may be 
divided into three well-marked classes. 

(1) . Elderly men of real Chinese scholarship. It is prob¬ 
ably needless to say that in spite of great labour, both in 
teacher and taught, only the exceptional man of this type is 
likely to prove more than a stop-gap till some of his younger 
brethren are trained to replace him. 

(2) . Younger men, say from 20 to 30 years of age, inno¬ 
cent of all knowledge that is not written in the classics, but 
with minds still comparatively plastic. Some of these men do 
exceedingly well, and will, we feel sure, at the end of their 
course prove the value of their training here. 

(3) . Youths from 17 upwards, trained in mission schools, 
who come to us with a pretty thorough knowledge of arithme¬ 
tic and geography and some general acquaintance with science. 
It is these men that we welcome. They are more or less the 
equivalent of the average normal student in England, and by 
their means we see the hope by and bye not only of imparting 
some little Western knowledge but of getting Chinese taught 
to little children on a really rational plan. 

In pre-union days we have had very good results indeed 
from men of types 2 and 3. We doubt if type 1 will ever 
do more than fill a gap in a time of transition from old to new. 

Our hope is that type 3 may increase and come to feel 
that the training of little country lads is a vocation worthy of a 
man of scholarship. 

Our Training. —At present, especially as we have a 
number of men who are finished Chinese scholars, training in 
Chinese is left to a Chinese teacher of repute. This is merely 
for the present. We feel that a big problem in Chinese educa¬ 
tion lies here, and changes will follow as the way opens. 

For the rest we have at present in residence some eight¬ 
een students of very various ability and attainments. As to 
teaching we first have to take them as we find them. For 


222 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 

instance, one man this year will finish his two years 1 residence 
at decimal fractions in arithmetic (needless to say he is elderly 
and no mathematician), whilst other men, not at the end of their 
first year with us, have practically covered all the ground in 
Mateer’s three volumes of arithmetic and are making good 
progress in algebra. This is a matter that is righting and will 
right itself as our work is better understood. 

Naturally in a normal school we feel that our business is 
the method of teaching as well as the matter taught. 

In the early days general hints and helps in teaching were 
given rather than definite instruction. We are now past that 
stage, and two periods a week are given up not so much to 
lectures as to definite example and instruction as to the method 
of teaching geography and arithmetic by a fully—normally— 
qualified and certificated English teacher. 

The men are shown how to teach the various rules, addi¬ 
tion, substraction and so on, and are then made to give lessons 
before and to their fellow-students. For this purpose they are 
split up into two classes according to age, so that * face 1 may 
be preserved and the work done as easily as possible. In this 
way not only the rules of arithmetic but rational methods of 
teaching geography, beginning with a map of the school, the 
playground, the neighbourhood, the province and so on, have 
been inculcated. We hope it will be possible within the near 
future to add to this the perhaps greater advantages of training 
in a practising school. 

Our Results. —We have not attained unto perfection, but 
going back over a period of six years (which of course includes 
pre-union days) we can honestly say that there are many 
proofs that the work has been and is worth while. The old 
students are well spoken of by the pastors under whom they 
work, and an annual written examination of the boys they teach 
gives us all the evidence we need that, if not perfect teachers, 
they are vastly superior for our needs to any other type of 
whom we know. It is a Christian school. All the students are 
baptised Christians or catechumens. We do not seek to draft 
them on to any theological school. If after a little experience 
in teaching any of them feel that way inclined we shall be 
very glad. We do not exist for that purpose, however, but to 
raise up a set of men who will be the guides, philosophers 
and friends of the great majority who can never go far up the 
educational ladder, and we trust we are turning out a type 



Students’ Dormitories. 



Histology Class at Work. 


UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE, PEKING 











1910 ] Home Notes by a Missionary on Furlough 223 


of man of whom educationally as well as otherwise we need 
not be ashamed. 

One word more. The coordination of Christian element¬ 
ary education is tied up with this matter of normal schools. 
Given a good strong union normal school in any centre and 
the problem of union in elementary school work is solved and 
that is the foundation of union in all other school work. Tiie 
school here definitely aims at beginning at the bottom. 


Home Notes by a Missionary on Furlough 


BY REV. E. W. BURT, M. A. 



FTER seventeen years on the China mission field I 


now find myself for the second time in England, and 


a few notes on my experiences during the past six 
months may not be without interest to my fellow-missionaries. 

My impression of the meetings as a whole is that they 
indicate less interest in missions than was manifested on the 
occasion of my former visit in 1900. But it is perhaps only 
fair to remember that a thrill of horror then went through the 
land by reason of the Boxer atrocities, and this had roused 
abnormal interest in China. How well I recall the pain of 
speaking in 1900 at the very time when the fate of beloved 
colleagues hung in the balance and when anxious parents and 
friends were tortured by terrible suspense about loved ones in 
China ! Now—in 1909—though to the few who closely follow 
events in the Far East, the situation is full of interest, there is 
nothing of a striking nature to arrest the attention of the 
average Christian. 

The missionary meetings are, as a rule, poorly attended, 
unless special attractions of a sensational sort are provided. The 
E. M. S. is face to face with a big deficit, and contemplates 
withdrawing from some of its fields. Yet when all the facts 
are known, this is not so bad as it seems. Arnold Thomas tells 
me that when a few years ago the E. M. S. decided on a great 
forward movement, they asked for an additional ^25,000 a 
year, and they have got in response to that appeal ^75,000 a 
year more than formerly. His own church gave ^1,300 this 
year, as against ^1,500 last, but the difference is due to the 
death of two warm supporters, so that the grave crisis in the 



224 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


affairs of the oldest Protestant mission in China is not due to 
falling income at home so much as to rising expenditure abroad, 

What is true of this great society is more or less true of 
all. The moral for missionaries is to push forward in the 
direction of an independent, self-supporting church , and to 
cease to look so largely to the home church, which has 
immense problems and crushing burdens of its own. The 
Chinese Christian must be educated to support his own pastor 
and school teacher and pay for the board and education of his 
own sons and daughters, which is still largely a free gift of the 
foreign society, though it leads to the direct advancement of 
the worldly prospects of the children of the Chinese Christians. 

Of all branches of missionary work none is so popular as 
the medical. Many fine young men are preparing to become 
medical missionaries, and the day should not be far distant 
when every mission station will have its properly-equipped 
hospital, physician, surgeon and nurse. 

I have also found that any mention of the recent remark¬ 
able movement towards the unity of the Christian church in 
China meets with instant appreciation and warm approval. 
Whether the official boards are all quite as ready to keep pace 
with the trend of the best opinion of the Chinese church 
and her leaders, is another question which I cannot answer 
with equal confidence. The traditional shackles of a baneful 
sectarianism press harder at home than on the mission field, 
and the good people hear with incredulous surprise of the 
harmonious cooperation in mission colleges of Presbyterians, 
Anglicans and Baptists, whereas in England there is real peril 
of secular education being established through the failure of the 
different sections of the church to come to a working agree¬ 
ment. In this matter of union, I have always maintained, we 
missionaries have a mission to the divided church at home. If, 
as seems likely, we on new fields and breathing a freer air, 
unhampered by the ancient shibboleths and jealousies, can 
unite, we shall build better than we knew and contribute much 
to the solution of this vexed problem at home. 

At the recent autumn assembly of the Baptist Union of 
Great Britain and Ireland the thing that stands out most 
clearly in my memory is the excellent speech of the chairman, 
a high Anglo-Indian official of ripe experience, who gave a 
most emphatic and convincing testimony to the worth of 
missionary work. And I understand that at the spring as* 


1910 ] Home Notes by a Missionary on Furlough 225 

setnbly equally outspoken words were uttered by another great 
Indian ruler, Sir Andrew Fraser. After the witness of such 
men, it is only wilful malice that can go on repeating the old 
ignorant statements that missions are a failure and missionaries 
a pack of fanatics. Instead of the customary vituperation 
missions now receive a chorus of praise from all who are quali¬ 
fied to judge. Let us missionaries be thankful, and also 
mindful of the caution, “Beware when all men speak well of 
you.” We must seek a fuller consecration if we are to truly 
deserve the kind things said of us. 

In some churches a new feature, pregnant with promise, 
is the formation of mission study circles among the young. 
Last winter the text-book was Arthur Smith’s “Uplift of 
China,” and this year it is a book called “The Reproach of 
Islam.” This movement should do much to remove the dense 
ignorance which, alas ! still prevails about the races that sit 
in darkness and the mighty things that God is doing in their 
midst. One’s fear is that these “study circles” may be 
swamped in the multitudinous activities of the church. 
Speaking generally the church appears to me to be suffering 
from extreme sectionalising rather than from sectarianism. Each 
church is a humming hive of activity. Cliques and sets of all 
sorts jostle one another—Christian Endeavour societies, brother¬ 
hoods, adult schools, young peoples’ own, social institutes, boys’ 
brigades, etc., etc. Is it any wonder that the quiet mid-week 
prayer-meeting is crowded out ? There is such a thing in the 
church as not being able to see the wood for the trees. This 
does not strike the missionary home on furlough as a healthy 
sign. The message To-day requires is, “Show piety at home,” 
“Study to be quiet.” 

At Bristol recently it was my privilege to hear two in¬ 
spiring addresses on China. The first was by Dr. Campbell 
Gibson, of Swatow, moderator this year of the Presbyterian 
Church in England. He gave—as all who know him would 
expect—a fine, sane and optimistic review of the situatiou in 
China, and one’s only regret was that he had such a meagre 
audience. 

The second address was by Rev. Lord William Gascoigne 
Cecil, wdio has twice visited China on behalf of the 
China Emergency Committee. He gave a reasoned state¬ 
ment of the present opportunity, which showed masterly 
grasp and intimate knowledge, and he was heard with 


226 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


keen attention. The meeting was held at the Mansion 
House by invitation of those generous friends of missions— 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Robinson—who are this year Lord 
Mayor and Lady Mayoress of Bristol, and forward in every 
good work. Rev. Gilbert Walshe expounded the aims of the 
Christian Literature Society and paid a tribute to its far-seeing 
founders—Williamson, Edkins, Faber, etc. The Lord Bishop 
of Bristol and Dr. Richard Glover (who visited N. China 
nineteen years ago) also spoke, and altogether it was one of 
the most interesting meetings I have attended. 

Elaborate preparations are being made for the World Con¬ 
ference at Edinburgh next June. Let us hope and pray that 
this conference may concentrate the interest of all Chris¬ 
tendom in the evangelisation of the world and pave the way 
for the unification of the many agencies now at work. 


Notes on Recent Native Journalism 

BY REV. W. ARTHUR CORNABY. 

I T has been part of the writer’s task during the past thirteen 
years of Chinese editorship to keep in touch with cur¬ 
rent articles iii the native papers ; at first with those of 
just one leading daily (when residing inland) and latterly with 
those of several Shanghai papers and occasionally those of 
other ports. There may be said to be at the present time 
five leading dailies in Shanghai and about fifty other dailies 
of note in the rest of the empire, and (what strikes Westerners 
as remarkable) with slight exceptions the whole are in stiff 
documentary Chinese, and the leading articles in still more 
difficult Wfoi-li, harder to read than, say, the national History 
of China from the Han dynasty onwards. This fact has an 
important bearing on their sphere of influence, for while we 
see around us many a shop assistant scanning the morning 
paper, hardly one of that class would be sufficiently educated 
to read more than the translated telegrams, the news from 
the provinces, and the various entertaining etceteras supplied ; 
some few would be able to read the Imperial edicts under- 
standingly, but the leading articles—those trumpet notes of 
journalism—would have, to ninety-nine hundredths of them, 
a yery <l uncertain sound.” Doubtless among the merchant 



1910] 


Notes on Recent Native Journalism 


227 


class there are to be found those who can read through these 
articles with intelligence, but speaking generally the leading 
articles of Chinese journalism gain their full force of appeal 
only in the minds of the literary and scholarly classes. This 
means that were any native paper or papers to adopt the 
attitude to the world in general that a certain half-penny 
English daily was wont to adopt toward Germany, its suspicion¬ 
spreading articles (to call them by the mildest possible name) 
would be utterly unintelligible to the Chinese Tom, Dick, 
and Harry and could only influence the “man in the street ” 
in an indirect way from whatever the scholarly readers chose 
to interpret and explain. And anyone acquainted with the 
attitude of many of these Chinese articles during the latter half 
of 1909, has cause to be devoutly thankful for this delimitation 
of inflammatory influence. 

In the form of a drama one of the monthlies of England 
has recently, under the thinnest of disguises, given an expose 
of the policy and methods of the half-penny newspaper refer¬ 
red to ; that policy being represented as simply to give the 
public what they want—good, bad, and indifferent, reliable 
or fictitious intelligence according to popular demand. And 
of course every journalist, with or without a conscience, if 
he would make his paper pay, especially in the midst of 
journalistic competition, must ever keep before him “ what the 
public wants.” Only those journals connected with literature 
societies, and in receipt of subsidies, can afford to give what 
the readers ought to want, if the readers’ standard of desires 
is much lower than it ought to be. Native papers have to 
pay their way, and to gain popularity they must contain (1) 
a variety of interesting matter, as news, etc., and (a) criticisms 
011 those whom their readers, and young China particularly, 
love to criticise or hear criticised, namely, the government in 
Peking, the mandarinate in all provinces, and foreign nations 
everywhere. These then are the three lines on which a native 
editor is ever tempted to distinguish himself and “scratch 
the itching places” (as the semi-classical phrase goes) of his 
readers. And of these three objectives the last has been 
considered as by far the safest, under the impression among 
native editors that no foreigner is able to read their articles of 
himself, or ardent enough to get them interpreted by a pundit 
into colloquial. So that, going well up to the limit of pungent 
criticism of the first two classes—unless the paper is quite 


228 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


under the official thumb—the majority of the dailies went far 
beyond the limits of either truth or sanity as regards “our 
violent enemies ” of the West, whose whole mercantile 
policy was “ poisonous intrigue,” whose whole diplomacy was 
“shameless insult,” who were represented as having already 
“sliced China as a melon ”, and whose Hague Convention had 
mapped out the portions which each were to seize. Foreign 
loans were opposed tooth and nail in the most perfervid 
manner, and even a full-blown “Boxer” scheme—a horde 
of 10,000,000—was boldly advocated by the most popular 
of all the papers. No wonder that the country was stirred 
up to accept and enlarge upon these wild rumours and 
that the situation looked “perilously like that of the end 
of 1899.” 

But now one has to report with pleasure that, yielding 
to various influences and appeals, the Shanghai press for the 
whole of January onwards, and the provincial press in many 
parts from the middle of January, has been wonderfully mild 
and moderate as regards foreign policy, and even the Chiu- 
chou-Aigun railway loan 
scheme (January 23) evok¬ 
ed no word of criticism, 
though set forth in the 
teeth of numerous articles 
of the previous year, writ¬ 
ten at white heat. Very 
friendly references to the 
Christian Literature So¬ 
ciety have appeared in¬ 
stead, the comet tract has 
been reprinted by two 
most prominent papers. 

And a new era of jour¬ 
nalistic sanity seems to 
have dawned. “God 
bless our friends, the na¬ 
tive editors,” should be 
our daily prayer. May 
they be a force of upbuild¬ 
ing instead of disintegra- 





tiou in the months 
years to come. 


and 


REJECTION OR THE PETITION FOR THE 
IMMEDIATE OPENING OF A NA¬ 
TIONAL parliament. 

(Several of the local native papers give a daily 
cartoon on current events, of which 
the above is a reduced specimen.) 













1910 ] 


Correspondence 


229 


Correspondence. 


LIFE OF DR. Y. J. ALLEN. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : There are many calls 
for the Life of Dr. Young J. 
Allen to be written. Will friends 
in China who may have letters 
written by Dr. Allen or know 
of interesting facts suitable for 
insertion in the Life to be writ¬ 
ten kindly send the same to 
Mrs. Y. J. Allen, 90 Chapoo 
Road, Shanghai ? It will be 
greatly appreciated. 


PURITY LEAGUE FOR CHINA. 
To the Editor of 
“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : I am sending (many 
already posted) to every doctor 
and male missionary in China, 
whose address I can secure, a 
copy of “Private Letter to 
Boys,” forms of application in 
Chinese and English, also a cov¬ 
ering letter in connection with 
the Purity League for China. 
Should any one fail to receive 
them, I should be obliged if they 
would communicate with me. 

The urgent need for such 
an effort as we are making is 
increasingly obvious by the 
number and character of letters 
which we receive from both 
natives and foreigners. May we 
again ask for the hearty co¬ 
operation of all who have the 
welfare at heart of the youth of 
China. 

I am, 

Faithfully yours, 

W. Arthur Tatchell. 

Wesleyan Mission Hospital, 

Hankow. 


QUESTIONABLE ADVERTISING. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : I desire to ask 
your opinion and advice on a 
question that has arisen in my 
mind through the operations in 
this district of a foreign tobacco 
company. At frequent intervals 
recently foreigners, sometimes 
two in a party, sometimes but 
one, have been advertising 
cigarettes through this district 
by free distributions and by 
brilliantly-colored bills posted 
in conspicuous places. To-day 
a new means of advertisement 
came to my notice, a represen¬ 
tative (foreign) arriving here 
and beginning a distribution of 
small hand-bills. 

I desire to ask, first, does the 
missionary body have any re¬ 
sponsibility in this matter ? Is 
it our duty to take steps to 
oppose the introduction of 
cigarettes throughout China ? 
Personally I am of opinion that, 
whatever may be said for or 
against the smoking of native 
tobacco, there is no doubt re¬ 
garding the injurious character 
of foreign cigarettes. The enter¬ 
prise of this particular tobacco 
company is worthy of a better 
cause, and if there is no coun¬ 
teracting influence, will certain¬ 
ly result in establishing a large 
trade in cigarettes. The mission¬ 
ary body is the only source from 
which any counteracting in¬ 
fluence is likely to come. 

Then, secondly, have these 
foreign representatives a right to 
travel in inland China for this 
purpose? They are not selling 
their goods, as far as I know. 



230 


The Chinese Recorder 


but only advertise. Yet, even 
so, do the treaties admit of 
their travelling in inland China 
for this purpose? 

Sincerely yours, 

Andrew Thomson. 
Tax) Koa, N. Houan. 


BIBEE TRANSLATION COM¬ 
MITTEES versus individuals. 

To the Editor of 

"The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : It is generally sup¬ 
posed that there is more likeli¬ 
hood of accuracy being attained 
when several competent men 
pool their work than when an 
individual does the work alone. 
Early versions were the work 
of individual translators, and 
some were excellent, e.g., 
Tindall. 

Dr. Goddard at Ningpo, Dr. 
John at Hankow, Bishop Sche- 
reschewsky in Japan, each tran¬ 
slated the New Testament into 
Chinese.. ' In i Cor. xv. 53 all 
three used the word pj K‘o 
(liable to) when translating the 
words meaning corruptible and 
mortal; yet when the three 
separate committees subsequent¬ 
ly issued their versions it is 
found that they agree in reject¬ 
ing pj K‘o (possibility) and use 
& pi (certainty), not giving a 
place even its the margin to the 
reading of their predecessors. 
Verse 51, "We shall not all 
sleep,” is a contextual vindica¬ 
tion of the sagacity of the 
individual translators. [On re¬ 
ferring to the old Delegates’ 
version I find it correct. The 
individuals above mentioned 
probably followed it.] 

I abstained from sending 
suggestions when I found that 
correct renderings already in 
print liad been ignored [and it 
appears that the High W61 


[March 

revisers have altered for the 
worse in this case.] 

Mr. Bondfield allows that 
proper names need adjusting (see 
the name Hebrew' and Hebrews.) 
Technical terms also need to be 
rendered consistently and not 
as in the English A. V. pur¬ 
posely varied in the same con¬ 
text (see Boast in Psalm xliv. 8 
and Romans ii. 17, v. 11 ; and 
Trouble in Psalm xliv. 24 and 
Romans v. 3-5 and viii. 35-39.) 
Of course the wording of the 
cited verse in the two Scriptures 
should be identical. 

Surveyor. 


BIBLE TRANSLATION. PROPER 
NAMES. 

To the Editor of 
" The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : Reading Mr. Bond- 
field’s article in the December 
number, one was glad to see 
that it is evident to some at 
least that "something more 
than revision is required” in 
the matter of giving Chinese 
names for proper names in the 
Bible. 

I would like to make a sug¬ 
gestion for any committee that 
may be appointed to deal with 
this subject. 

And first, as the names appear 
so difficult to the Chinese, mak¬ 
ing it almost impossible for 
them to remember chapters of 
scripture, is it necessary to trans¬ 
literate so exactly the names of 
people and places? 

Second, if it be necessary to 
do so, then would it not be well 
to add the meaning of the name 
in places where the meaning is 
know'll ? 

And third, as Chinese char¬ 
acters of any given sound are 
so abundant, would it not be pos¬ 
sible often to get sounds that 




Our Book Table 


231 


1910] 

have a meaning approximate to 
the meaning of the words and 
at the same time not far removed 
in sound ? This would help the 
Chinese greatly. 

It might also be possible to 
drop the * A ’ at the beginning 
and end of words and so give a 
shortened name that Chinese 
could grasp and use, e.g., in 
Ananias (Acts 5.) 


If such a work could be done 
(I know how difficult the task 
would be), it would be a great 
boon to the Chinese, and it 
might be expected that they 
would be encouraged to read 
their Bibles more if such diffi¬ 
culties were, to some extent, 
removed. 

Yours faithfully, 

W. 




Our Book Table. 

The object of these Reviews is to give real information about 
books. Authors will help reviewers by sending with their books, 
price, original if any, or any other facts of interest. The custom 
of prefixing an English preface to Chinese books is excellent. 


81 fiS fit I£. Outline Studies in 
Biblical Facts and History. By I. 
N. I)e Pay, I. R. Travis. Translated 
by T. H Kaung. Edited by P. S. 
Yie, Y. M. C. A. 25 cents per sin¬ 
gle copy ; in quantities of 10 or 
more, 20 cents each. 

The book, from which this 
translation is made, is packed 
full of just such facts as teach¬ 
ers would wish to impart to 
Bible classes of Chinese evan¬ 
gelists and pastors. The transla¬ 
tion reads well; though not ac¬ 
quainted with the original I 
would judge that this translation 
is carefully done. When speaking 
of the Bible as the “cation ” the 
translator has used the charact¬ 
ers f;g ifl and referred to Gala¬ 
tians vi. 16 as the source from 
whence the name has been deriv¬ 
ed. Turning to this in the Union 
Version of the N. T. we get $3 
xg I® g! “ according to this 
rule.” Here the translator lias 
chosen a more accurate term 
than the one used in the N. T. 
It would have been easier for 
foreign missionaries to use this 
text-book if words like “ canon” 
aud names such as “ Coverdale,” 
“Robert Stephen,” etc., had 


been printed in English either in 
the text or at the top of the page, 
but it would be well for the 
foreign teacher to procure the 
original when using this as a 
text-book. 

$ 1 ™ £ 5 :, Alone in London. Tran¬ 
slated by Mrs. H. C. DuBose. 
Chinese Tract Society. $4,20 per 
ioo copies. 

This is a touching little story 
of a kind that should be much 
appreciated by Chinese school 
girls. Good healthy stories are 
ceitainfy much needed and are 
calculated to do much good. 
Mrs. DuBose has translated this 
story into Easy Wen-li : but for 
the pronouns it might be Manda¬ 
rin. The style may be describ¬ 
ed as Mandarin with Wen-li pro¬ 
nouns. Some of the sentences 
seem to defy the laws of gram¬ 
mar as (page 20) & £ A 
EL iHr 11 But the sick people 
were already full.” What is 
meant is that the hospital was 
full of sick people. One must 
not hastily assume that such a 
sentence is wroug though. We 
used to see numbers of shops in 




232 


The Chinese Recorder 


Shanghai with a notice which 
said : “Inside there 

are lamps to eat.” Everyone 
understood that the lamps were 
not to be eaten, but to be used for 
burning opium to eat. So what 
the Chinese language says and 
what it means are sometimes 
different things. 


m m & tfl £ $ H If. Western Con¬ 
stitutional Governments in their 
application to China, by Dr. Gilbert 
Reid. Published by Macmillan & 
Co. 60 cents, 

Messrs. Macmillan & Co. have, 
from time to time, issued books 
specially prepared to meet the 
needs of Chinese schools and 
colleges, and judging from the 
announcement of their forthcom¬ 
ing publications, which is issued 
with this volume, they intend to 
push this branch of their busi¬ 
ness. The present volume by 
Dr. Gilbert Reid is on the sub¬ 
ject which he has made pecu¬ 
liarly his own. It need not be 
said that the work is carefully 
and accurately done. Dr, 
Reid’s writer uses many of the 
phrases affected by scholars of 
the new learning. These may 
be taken as examples : 

U $ Jfif ft “ In the embryonic 
stage;” g P] &l ® M ~ + 

«S a £ 3c m “Equal in 
the race with the powers in this 
evolutionary 20th century;” ^ 

“This was 
the childhood of democracy.” 
There are complimentary pre¬ 
faces by three of the highest offi¬ 
cials and foremost scholars in 
the Chinese Empire. That by 
Sun Chia-nai is lithographed in 
what we take to be his own 
handwritting. It is pathetic to 
read in it: “I am old ; it is not 
likely I shall see the day when 
the world will accept a common 
bond, but I am fortunate in that 
I have seen the preparation for 


[March 

giving China a constitutional 
government,” aud to reflect that 
the foreboding has been fulfilled 
and the old statesman has pass¬ 
ed to his reward. 

The book is printed on “ tnao- 
pien” paper with a cover of stiff 
red paper stitched to it some¬ 
what precariously. It is a book 
that will be valued by Cbiuese 
scholars. 


Faith and Facts as illustrated in the 

History of the China Inland Mis¬ 
sion, by Marshall Broomhall, B. A. 

Published by the China Inland 

Mission. Price i/- net. 

This book is, like all the pu¬ 
blications of the China Inland 
Mission, got up in first class 
style. The cover has a fine pic¬ 
ture of Mont Blanc and a strik¬ 
ing text at the foot of it. The pa¬ 
per is good, the printing clear and 
the illustrations artistic. Above 
all the story told to illustrate 
the text that God’s faithfulness 
is more abiding than the ever¬ 
lasting hills, is of absorbing in* 
terest. From cover to cover the 
book is packed with eloquent 
testimony that it is worth while 
trusting God. There are in¬ 
stances of those who glorified 
God, giving cheerfully out of 
deep poverty and of those who 
gave generously of their wealth. 

* ‘ This record is published solely 
as a testimony to God’s good¬ 
ness and not from any thought 
of exalting a mission or a meth¬ 
od. Our ground of rejoicing is 
not our faith, but God’s faithful¬ 
ness.” 

The frontispiece, “ The First 
Cash Book,” is a photograph of 
the pocket-book in which Hud¬ 
son Taylor kept a record of the 
first donations given to the China 
Inland Mission. On page 23 is 
reproduced a photograph of the 
page containing the first entry 
in this cash book. The neatness 




Our Book Table 


233 


1910] 

and business-like method of this 
page must impress all who look 
on it. The writing and figures 
are copperplate. Those who 
suppose that a "faith mission’' 
may be run on hap-hazard prin¬ 
ciples will be enlightened by a 
study of this page. On page 
70 is a picture of the 15 large 
volumes which record the trans¬ 
actions of the financial depart¬ 
ment of the Mission in Shanghai 
from 1889 to 1907. During these 
years more than half a million 
sterling was paid to the mission¬ 
aries for their personal use and 
work. “To the glory of God 
may it be said that not one far¬ 
thing of that large sum was 
spent before it was received, and 
there is no instance of a deficit 
balance on any page of these 
volumes.” Praise God. 

J. D. 


Handbook of Military Hygiene. 

ift £ IS ???■ By Dr- Chao Sze-fab, 

Nanking. 

This is a handy little volume, 
published by the Medical Mis¬ 
sionary Association. Dr. Chao, 
the author, is a graduate of the 
medical department of Nanking 
University, and has been for 
several years examiner to, and 
lecturer on, hygiene in the 
Army Recruiting Bureau at 
Nanking. The work is design¬ 
ed as a text-book for army re¬ 
cruits, who are all now required 
to know something in regard to 
military hygiene before they 
are advanced to rank in the 
army. The book is illustrated 
quite sufficiently for the purpose 
for which it is designed, and the 
press work is clear. The term¬ 
inology used is that adopted by 
the Publication Committee of 
the Medical Missionary Associa¬ 
tion, and English equivalents of 
the Chinese terms are frequent¬ 


ly given throughout the text. 
A large portion of the work is 
of equal value to the ordinary 
student of hygiene, and it is 
heartily commended for popular 
use, as well as for use by mili¬ 
tary students. 

G. A. S. 


The Messiah, the Ancrstr at, Hope 
op THE AGES. The Desire of all 
Nations. By E. A. Gordon. Publish¬ 
ed by the Kaisaislia, Tokyo. Sold 
by the C. L. S., Shanghai. Price, 
$8.50. 

The Hon. Mrs. Gordon, who 
is the author of this book, has 
been for many years a resident 
in the Far East and through 
the greater part of her life a 
student of Oriental religions. 
Others of her works, “Clear 
Round,” and “ The Temples of 
the Orient,” have had a wide 
circulation. Now Mrs. Gordon 
has put forth this very striking 
work on the Messianic hope 
which she finds enshrined in the 
great religions of Asia, and 
bases upon it a comparative 
study of religion. The beautiful 
illustrations in colour add to 
the attraction of the work. 

The learned author has spared 
no pains in the collection of 
information, and all who are 
interested in the subjects dealt 
with will find her work profitable 
reading. It is needful for every 
missionary to Oriental peoples to 
attain a sympathetic understand¬ 
ing of the religious forces which 
underlie their superstitions and 
customs. Many failures in mis¬ 
sionary enterprise may be traced 
to the entire lack of appreciation 
of the truths which underlay 
the ancient non-Christian faiths 
which many earnest Christian 
workers have honestly, but un¬ 
fortunately, revealed. This work 




2)4 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


is a helpful reminder of the 
fact that God has spoken ill 
many distinct messages and by 
various methods to the fathers 
through the prophets, and should 
encourage the search for the 
residuum of divine truth which 
is to be found ill systems over¬ 
laid with superstition and error. 
Much of the material here pub¬ 
lished is helpful, and the purpose 
of the whole is commendable ; 
many of its conclusions, however, 
are far from convincing, The 
author is gifted with wide read¬ 
ing, but her work lacks grip and 
accuracy. Too many of the 
quotations are perverted, often 
by a very little, but still pervert¬ 
ed, apparently for no other 
purpose than to add effect to the 
point the writer desires to make. 
The net result is to accomplish 
the reverse, since inaccuracies 
in the known lead to a general 
suspicion of possible inaccuracy 
in the unknown which continual¬ 
ly holds back the assent of the 
reader. He wishes to verify all 
before he acknowledges convic¬ 
tion upon any. On page 119 we 
are told that we repeat each 
Sunday the triumphant words 
of the grand old historic creed: 
“ I expect the life of the world 
to come.” This is Mrs. Gordon’s 
way of saying : “ I believe . . . 
in the life everlasting.” Of the 
account of the transfiguration we 
read thus: They ‘‘were with 
Him in the holy mount and were 
initiated as eyewitnesses into 
His Majesty.” ‘‘His face did 
shine as the sun. His raiment 
became white, dazzling as the sun , 
as no fuller on earth could white 
them.” And again thus : “ The 
word was made flesh and dwelt 
—was enshrined —among us,” 
etc. Instances might be multi¬ 
plied. If the rvords of Scripture 
are thus dealt with the question 
may well arise, What of the rest 


of the quotations upon which 
the whole value of the book, 
as an argument, must depend ? 
On page 53 an incident is 
quoted from the pen of Dr. T. 
Richard, in which a Chinese 
gentleman, who had read the 
New Testament, without guide or 
explanation, told the missionary 
that the passage which struck 
him most forcibly was “ that 
which says men may become the 
temples of the Holy Ghost.” 
The author adds, i.e., ‘ the 
Shrine of Noble Life' The 
inference is that nobility and 
holiness are interchangeable 
terms ! Surely the New Testa¬ 
ment, with its Hebraic use of 
‘ holy,’ never suggests anything 
of the kind. 

The very suggestive line of 
enquiry into a possible Christian 
source of the highest Buddhist 
teaching found in Japan, urged 
in the first essay of this work, 
“ The Speaking Stone,” is 
marred in the same way. Two 
Japanese Buddhists—Kobo Dai- 
shi and Dengyo Daishi—visited 
Cho'ang, Singanfu, in 804 A.D. 
to study questions of religion 
there. Mrs. Gordon feels assur¬ 
ed that in contact with the 
Nestoriau missionaries, and after 
a study of the Nestoriau stele, 
Kobo took back with him the 
‘ ‘ precious doctrine of the Shin- 
gou sect,” which lies at the root 
of the ever burning fire of Miya- 
jima, the Dai Nichi teaching. 
For in Singanfu he had, without 
doubt, heard of ‘‘the great 
light ” which had shoue to 
lighten the nations like ‘‘a 
su?irise (?) from on high.” But 
the central doctrine Dai Nichi 
is 0, which may not be tran¬ 
slated as Kobo Daishi would 
receive it in China as a ‘ great 
UGHT ’ at all. It is, as it must 
then have been, the great sun. 
Dater, personality is ascribed by 


1910] 


Our Book Table 


the writer to Dai Nichi. That 
connection has to be assumed, on 
general grounds, between the 
Mahayana teaching and Chris¬ 
tianity, should be gladly acknowl¬ 
edged ; much pregnant hope lies 
therein, but the proof is not to 
be given on the strength of 
casual correspondences. There 
is too great a tendency, a tend¬ 
ency which betrays a weakness, 
to treat external likenesses as a 
proof of inward and vital con¬ 
nection. Because legend ascribes 
to Jesus Christ fair stature 
and curling hair, and images of 
Maitreya show the same char¬ 
acteristics, it may not be even 
assumed that the legend and the 
image have common ground. 
The method is entirely unscienti¬ 
fic ; it has much in common 
with a now discredited but once 
popular school of philology. 
Yet in her very comprehensive 
studies Mrs. Gordon has pointed 
the way to students who may, 
by the diligent pursuit of lines 
of enquiry here opened up, do 
much to clear the religious of 
Asia from their excrescences of 
idolatrous superstition and find 
the basic common ground of 
faith from which the steps to 
salvation may be cut. 

The following extract may 
serve to illustrate the object of 
the life work of our author: 
‘ ‘ In these days we stand in 
danger of forgetting that ‘ myth' 
is perception, insight, intuition, 
and that because the myth always 
corresponds to a ‘ reality' we 
must therefore employ the never- 
failing key—‘ by faith’—if we 
would interpret truly the mys¬ 
terious worship of heathen 

civilizations. The germ 

of primal revelation lies hidden 
in them all.” Superstition is, 
we are told, rightly expressed 
by the Japanese word ‘ faith 
gone wrong.' The Japanese 


2J5 

“ World Illuminator,” the Aryan 
“ Sky Father the Greek “ Zeus 
Pater,” the Roman ‘ 'Jupiter 
Maximus,” and the Chinese 
“ Tien,” is He whom the Cord 
Jesus Christ taught His follow¬ 
ers to address as ‘‘Our Father 
in Heaven.” He is also the 
one of whom Paul preached 
at Athens—‘ whom therefore 
unconsciously (?) ye are worship¬ 
ping.’ All this and much more. 
It must be read to be fully 
appreciated. 

Now when the Christian reader 
has finished his perusal of this 
interesting but provoking work, 
he cannot fail to ask himself.. 
How do its conclusions stand 
in relation to a liberal interpreta¬ 
tion of the New Testament point 
of view? Granted that there 
is enshrined in faith all rcund 
the world an inheritance of Mes¬ 
sianic hope ; the question then 
arises, Does the Messianic hope 
satisfy? and, above all, Can it 
regenerate? For the Christian 
missionary, standing in the posi¬ 
tion of an interpreter of the New 
Testament and of the teaching 
and life purpose of Jesus Christ, 
is not simply content to proclaim 
an ideal, or to expound the 
highest truth. Repentance, faith, 
salvation, —these are his watch¬ 
words, and without them truth 
itself is mere good form, and 
the preacher becomes simply ail 
expositor of luminous but non¬ 
lifegiving doctrine. Christianity 
is bound in the nature of the case 
to produce in those who hear 
it a confession of failure, both 
religious and personal, before 
its work can become effective. 
St. Paul at Athens did not simply 
declare “an unknown God.” 
He added : “ Now commands He 
men everywhere to repent . ” The 
message of conformation to the 
Divine Will goes hand in hand 
with information regarding the 



2)6 


The Chinese Recorder 


Divine Lawgiver or the purpose 
of Christ remains unfulfilled. 
Such stress may be laid on the 
fact tint Christ came to fulfil and 
not to destroy, that it may be 
forgotten how twice in His 
earthly lifetime He cleansed the 
temple. “ My Father’s house 
shall be called a house of prayer 
and ye have made it a den of 
thieves." That many have, in 
their zeal for the redemption of 
men, forgotten that men every¬ 
where are made in the image of 
God and are vehicles of some 
measure of divine truth, is very 
true, and we are thankful to 
Mrs. Gordon for the reminder, 
which is so aptly given in this 
work, of the inherent spirituality 
of universal religion, and of the 


[March 

fact that God has nowhere left 
Himself without witness, and 
that Christian truth is either 
enshrined or has been implanted 
in much of the religious exercises 
we see everywhere about us. 
Tliis it is our mission to lay 
claim to in the name of Christ, 
but it is also the business of 
Christ’s messengers to evict, 
even with scourging, the un¬ 
worthy moneychangers and the 
unholy sellers of merchandise 
who have taken possession of 
the temples of the living God. 
It was the law, the divine 
will, that Christ said He came 
to fulfill, and not the vain 
imaginings of the human mind. 

W. N. B, 


New Announcements. 


The Traveller’s Guide. Religious 
Tract Society, London. 

An Elementary Study of Chemistry, 
by Macphcrson and Henderson, 

A First Course in Physics, by Mil¬ 
likan and Gale. 

These 2 books by Rev, Chang 
Ynug-hsun, 

Directory of Worship of Presbyte¬ 
rian Church, by C. D, Herriott. 

"Wlmt a Young Boy ought to 
know” (Stall). Li Yuug-chwen, 
Chinkiang. 

Rev. J. Leighton Stuart, of Nan¬ 
king, has 15 lessons on " Greek for 
Chinese students,” and hopes to go 
on with the work. 

Life of Lord Shaftesbury, E. Mor¬ 
gan. C. L. S. 

Finney’s Revival Tract (out), D. 
MncGillivray, C. L. S. 

Methods of Bible Study. D. Mac- 
Gillivrav. C. L .S. 

Supplement to Catalogue, D. Mac- 
Gillivray, C. L. S. 

Wide, Wide World. C. L, S. (in 
press.) 

Life of Stephen Grellet. C. L. S. 

F. B, Meyer’s Elijah. C. J,. S. 


From Zoroaster to Christ, being 
life of find Parsee convert to Chris¬ 
tianity. C. L. S. 

Poster on Halley’s Comet. C. L. S., 
now in 80th thousand. 

Com. on Amos. C, Campbell Brown, 
Homiletics. W. M. Hayes, 

Life of Mrs. Ruimn. J. Vale. 
Newell's O. T. Studies. J. Vale. 

Expository and Homiletical Com¬ 
mentary on the Gospels. Rev. Thos. 
C. Fulton. 

Life of Alfred the Great. C. L. S. 
Practice of Presence of God. C.L.S. 
Law’s Serious Call. C. L. S. 

Preparation for the Messiah in the 
East. C. L. S. 

Patterson’s Pauline Theology. D. 
MacGtliivjay, C, L, S. 

China Mission Year Book. D. Mac- 
Gillivray. C. L. S. 

Note: In reference to Clarke’s 
Theology, Mr. W. Tremberlh writes 
that he has finished the work. Prof. 
F. J. White also writes that he will 
complete the work of the late Mr. 
Millard on the same book. 

Will the person doing “ Stalker’s 
Paul " please give particulars to Dr. 
MacGillivray ? 



1910] China Centenary Missionary Conference 237 


BOOKS IN PREPARATION IN WBST 
CHINA, 

From the West China Tract 
Society's List. 

Safely, Certainty, and Enjoyment. 

Abridged Pilgrim’s Progress; in verse. 

Christianity and Confucianism. By 
a Chinese student. 

Great Events of Old and New Testa¬ 
ment ; in verse. 

The Holy Spirit. How to obtain and 
how to retain. 

Our Bible Readings. 

Korea and its People. 

Griffith Thomas on the Acts. 

14 Prize Essaj's on the Duty of Men 
to instruct the Women and Cliil- 
dren of their Households. 

Sheet Tract on Payment of Taxes, 

From Guilt through Grace to Glory. 


By Y. V. C. A. 

Temptations of Students, by John R. 
Mott. 

Power of Jesus Christ in the Life of 
Students. John R. Mott. 

Achievement— 0 . S. Harden (abridg¬ 
ment.) 

Constructive Studies in the Gospel of 
Mark. Burton. 

Bismarck : His Life and Work (W£n- 
li), by Rev. F. W. Leuschner. 

Westcott’s Commentary on St. John’s 
Gospel, by Rev. G. Miles, Wesleyan 
Mission. 

Onward, Christian Soldiers. Talks on 
Practical Religion (S. P. C. K.), by 
Rev. Win. P. Chalfaut, Ichowfu. 

Expository Commentary on John’s 
Gospel. George Hudson. 

Mongol Catechism. Robert Stephen, 
Jehol, via Peking, from whom copies 
may be had. 


China Centenary Missionary Conference. 

The Committee’s Final Report. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee held on the ist 
of February the secretary’s and treasurer’s reports were presented 
and passed, and thus the long labours of the committee were 
brought to a close. It will be remembered that the Executive 
Committee was to continue in office until the accounts and business 
of the conference had been settled, and it will not be a surprise 
to anyone familiar with the conference records and resolutions 
to know that it has taken the committee nearly three years to 
complete its duties. Before the chairman formally declared the 
Executive Committee to dissolve the following missionaries were 
nominated as the permanent committee :— 

Rt. Rev. Bishop F. R. Graves, D.D. 

Rev. G. F. Fitch, D D. 

Rev. J. R. Hykes, D.D. 

Rev. E. Box. 

Rev. D. E. Hoste. 

Rev. G. H. Botidfield. 

Rev. D. MacGillivray, D.D. 

The permanent Committee organized by electing the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Graves, Chairman; Dr. G. F. Fitch, Treasurer; and Rev. 
G. H. Bondfield, Secretary. 




238 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 

Secretary's Report. —A report on the work of the various 
committees appointed by the conference was published in the 
September and October numbers of the Chinese Recorder, 
1908, and is presented herewith. To that report there is but little 
to add. 

1. The Committee (No. 8) on the Preparation of a Message to 
the Literati of China issued their message early last year. The 
draft, prepared by Rev. T. W. Pearce, and approved by his 
colleagues, Revs. Dr. Chauncey Goodrich and F. W. Bailer, was 
submitted to several other sinologues and finally prepared for the 
press by Mr. Pearce and his able Chinese helpers. Over 10,000 
copies (in parcels of 10, 15, 25 and 50) were posted to the mission 
stations throughout the empire. Many missionaries wrote for 
additional copies, and everywhere it appears to have been wel¬ 
comed as an admirable statement and a timely appeal. The com¬ 
mittee, and the translators in particular, are to be congratulated 
on the success of this publication. The message should not be 
allowed to go out of print. 

2. The Committee (No. 15) on the Form of Prayer also 
successfully completed their labours, and some thousands of the 
revised prayer were sent out in April last. Several letters of 
thanks have been received. 

3. With regard to the organization or work of the Committee 
(No. 19) on the Preparation of Commentaries, I have merely to 
repeat what was reported in October, 1908, viz., no information 
of any kind has beeu received. 

4. Publication. —The instructions of the conference to publish 
records of the proceedings and the addresses, etc., that w r ere 
delivered, were carried out, and the treasurer’s report shows that the 
sale of these books and of the Century of Missions has not only help¬ 
ed to finance the Conference but has left a substantial balance in 
the treasurer’s hands. The committee is greatly indebted to the 
editors and sub-committees for preparing and seeing these volumes 
through the press. 


The following details may be of interest:— 



Number of 

Copies 


Cost, copies sold. 

on hand. 

1,000 Century of Missions ... 

$2,880.32 946 


3,000 Conference Records 

5,413.26 2,095 

877 

1,000 Conference Addresses ... 

671.53 322 

654 

Copies of the ‘ 4 Records ’ ’ 

and “Addresses” were presented 


as mementos to reviewers, reporters, editors and others and to 
members of committees, etc., as sanctioned by resolutions of the 
Executive Committee. Tetters of thanks are attached to this 
report. 



1910] China Centenary Missionary Conference 239 

A resolution dealing with the remaining stock will be submitted 
to this meeting. 

5. It now only remains for the Executive Committee to 
complete its labours in accordance with the conference resolutions, 
(Records, p. 757) to pass for publication a cash statement, and 
appoint the Committee. 

G. H. Bondfield, Hon. Secretary . 


Centenary Conference Committee, 

BALANCE SHEET. 


Assets, 

Cash at bank. $ 331.79 

Due by American Tract So¬ 
ciety... ..1,211.38 

Stock at cost value 

877 Records . 1,562.87 

654 Addresses . 438. 98 

Typewriter and writing uten¬ 
sils in secretary's office ... 40,00 

I3.585.0a 

G. F. Fitch, Treasurer. 

Audited and compared with books 


Liabilities. 

Due to Methodist Publishing 

House .. ... $ 800.00 

Cr. balance ..2.785,02 


$3,585 02 

it -rnr.»-J 

vouchers and found correct 

J. N, Hayward. 

S. E. Sm alley 


Treasurer’s Report, 

In making his final report the treasurer would call attention 
to a few items of expense which, while seemingly large, yet 
were only relatively so and were unavoidable, 

1st. There was the expense of hiring the Martyrs’ Memorial 
and Town Halls, involving a total of $1,459.50. 

2nd. Advertising, band, etc., $668.20. 

3rd. Printing and circulating papers ordered by the Confer* 
ence, such as, Tetter to the Chinese Churches, Memorial to 
the Home Churches, Memorial to the Chinese Government, Form 
of Prayer for the Emperor of China, etc. Total $1,376.20. 

In this connection it is but just to mention the generosity of 
the Missionary Societies and friends in England and the United 
States, which made the Conference a possibility. 

After all dues have been collected, including quite a large 
sum from the American Tract Society, and all expenses have 
been met, we shall have quite a balance on hand, which will be 
further increased by sales of the remaining Conference Records. 








Centenary Mission aiy 

in account with 


Expenditure. 

To Preparation of Conference and Organizing Ex¬ 
penses 

Printing papers, resolutions, circulars, programs, etc. $ 1,474.10 

Clerical help, typist, etc... 240.00 

Typewriting machine.. ... 151.00 

Stationery, etc.. ... J& 4-74 

Postage on papers, etc. . 545-73 

Hymn books . S7.42 

Sundries. 11.10 


Conference Meetings :— 

Y. M. C. A. Hall 
Town Hall 
Advertising 

Band . 

Police, coolies, etc. 
Clerical help 
Book exhibit 
Sundries. 


Post-Conference Expenses 

Printing resolutions, papers, circulars, etc. 

Postage, envelopes, stationery, etc.. 

Clerical help and typist ... 

Sundries, telegrams, etc. 

Conference Volumes: Printing, Publishing, and 
Advertising :— 

1,000 “ History of a Century of Missions ” 

3,000 " Conference Records ” . 

1 ,ooq Conference Addresses ” . 

General advertising, etc. 


Credit balance at bank 


1,209.50 

250.10 

466.79 

201.41 

171.00 

88.00 

59-75 

120.28 


508.42 

39 i 39 
170.00 

247-39 


2,503.82 

5,413.26 

67f-53 

18.35 


8,606.96 

Less amount due to Methodist Publishing House... 800.00 


2,694.09 


2,566.83 


1,317.20 


7,806.96 

331-79 


fi4,716.87 


Audited, compared, with books, vouchers, and bank pass book and found 
correct. 

J.N. Hayward, ) AudUors> 

S. R. SmaiaEy, 

December 17th, 1909, 




























Conference Committee 

the Treasurer. 


Receipts. 

By Donations and Offertories. 

Paid in China: 

American Book Co., New York ... 
Atn. Bil. Com. Foreign Missions... 
Christian and Missionary Alliance 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South 
Mr. Theo. Morris, New York 
Mrs. Thaw, Pittsburg... 

English Presbyterian Church 
National Bible Society of Scotland 
Wesleyan Missionary Society 
London Missionary Society 
Church Missionary Society 

China Inland Mission . 

Church of Scotland Mission 
United Free Church of Scotland 
British and Foreign Bible Society 

Friends Foreign Mission. 

Canadian Presbyterian Mission ... 

Miss Graham . 

Mr. Cecil l’olhill . 

Collected in U. S. A. by Mr. Filch : 
Southern Presbyterian Church ... 
Protestant Episcopal Church 
Methodist Episcopal Church, North 

Baptist Missionary Union. 

Christian Mission. 

Southern Baptist Convention 

Mr. Solon Severance . 

,, J. M. Gould . 

,, L. H. Wood . 

,, E. L- Moore . 

,, Lobenstine . 


Gold $ 50.00 

I 75'°° 
100 00 
200.00 
25.00 
25 00 
^10.0.0 
15.0.0 
25.0.0 
10.0.0 
15.0.0 
15.0.0 
10 .0.0 
15.0.0 
10 . 0.0 
10 . 0.0 
15.7.x 

Taels 50.00 

Gold |ioo.oo 
200.00 
200.00 
200.00 
150.00 
100.00 
25.00 
5.00 
10.00 
10.00 
50.00 


Gold $1,050.00 
Less expense of collecting... 4 50 


Collections at meetings, etc. 


Total 1,045.50 


• •• 
• •• 


,, Registrations, sate of papers , programs, 
directories, and sundries at counter ... 
,, Advertising in directory 

,, Book exhibit. 

,, Sundries, bank interest, etc. 


„ Sales of Conference Volumes : 

“ History of Missions” ... 
‘‘Conference Records ”... 
“Addresses” . 


Less due by American Tract Society 


$ 96.26 
319-38 
192.79 
378 . > 5 
43-13 

48.42 

92.47 

138.14 

229.73 

92.42 
I37-85 
138.35 

91.47 

i 33.‘ s 5 

92.32 

9 2 -°5 

136.28 

20,00 

67 - 4 S 


2,002.65 

561.50 


116.00 

4.62 

32.89 


2,880.22 
5,004 63 
283.60 

8,168.45 

1,211.38 


5.109.69 

2,496.60 

153-51 


6,957 07 
$14,716.87 


G. F. Fitch, Treasurer. 


Deccember 17th, 1909, 
























242 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


Missionary News. 


Death of Mrs. Williams. 

On January 29 there passed 
away at Canton, deeply regretted 
by all classes, the wife of Walter 
H. Williams, I. M. Customs. 
Mrs. Williams had lived for 
twenty-five years in Canton, and 
had won a unique place in the 
hearts of all. The mission¬ 
ary community, the Consular 
service, the Customs service, the 
navy, the Parsee community, 
and Chinese, Christian and non- 
Christian, all united to pay the 
last tribute of respect. Mrs. 
Williams knew no distinction of 
creed. Her practical sympathy 
passed over all barriers of race 
or color. 


Wuhu Bible Institute. 

Programme.—F eb. 23-Mar. 9, 1910 


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There will be union services on Sunday, 
February 27, and Sunday, March 6. 

Daily evangelistic services will be conduct¬ 
ed by Dr. MacGillivray and Mr. Shi Kwei- 
biao. 

The leaders of the Bible classes will meet 
Rev. Geo. Miller daily in a normal class. 


Remarkable Work at Ichowfu, 
Shantung. 

The Rev. Geo. A. Armstrong 
tells of a new result of revival, 
that is, the enrolling of over 1,000 
enquirers. “ We have been pray¬ 
ing for a long time for God’s 
blessing on the Ichowfu work and 
looking forward with hope and 
preparation for Chinese Pastor 
Ting Id-mei’s coming. He 
arrived here from Yihsien on the 
15th of January and began ser¬ 
vices in the big church on Sun¬ 
day, the 16th, in a quiet way. 
We had invited all our baptised 
Christians from the country dis¬ 
tricts to attend the meetings, and 
about a hundred of them came. 
For the eight days appointed 
there were four daily services— 
daylight prayers at 7 a.m., led 
by our native evangelists and 
Christians and preaching services 
at ix a.m., 3 p.m. and 7 p.m., 
led by Pastor Ting. There was 
a good attendance at morning 
prayers, and at all the other ser¬ 
vices the house was well filled ; 
almost every day the benches 
being crowded more closely to¬ 
gether while others were added. 
From the very first Pastor Ting 
appealed to the people as he 
showed them the love and mercy 
of God. During the first three 
days his energies were directed 
towards the purifying of the 
Christians and the refilling them 
with the love and Spirit of 


1910] 


243 


Missionary News 


Christ. During these three days 
the meetings were somewhat 
emotional, as the Christians re¬ 
pented of their shortcomings 
and reconsecrated themselves to 
Christ. After the third day the 
meetings were more calm, but 
with daily increasing interest. 

On the evening of the third day 
a?i invitation zvas given to out¬ 
siders who zvished to study the 
Gospel to come forward and be 
enrolled. A little child in the 
front seat stood up first, and then 
they began to come forward— 
young and old, poor and rich, 
ignorant and educated—until on 
that first night there were 82 
names enrolled. At all the 
succeeding meetings names were 
added. The Christians began to 
work—the children to bring in 
their playmates,the laborers their 
friends, the students their class¬ 
mates and the rich their compa¬ 
nions. They could not all come 
forward, and so individuals were 
given paper and pencil to take 
names throughout the audience. 
We had prayed for 200. The 
200 mark was passed. We 
prayed for 300, we prayed for 
500. At the end of the eighth 
day, on which the meetings 
were to end, there were 836. 
The meetings were adjourned at 
the end of the eighth day as per 
schedule, but Pastor Ting is 
remaining with us for another 
week, holding daily evening 
meetings and helping us to ar¬ 
range the work for the gathering 
in, and teaching of, the new 
Inquirers. More names are being 
added every day. At present 
the number stands at 944, and 
the end is not yet. (A young wo¬ 
man stepped in just now to bor¬ 
row a piece of paper on which to 
write some more names). Sure¬ 
ly the Lord is manifesting His 
presence among us at this time. 
Although it may be that some 


of these will never get beyond 
the taking of this first step, yet 
the affinity between God and 
man is being made very plain. 
We trust that He will give 11s 
wisdom and strength to win and 
teach a large percentage of these 
who have taken this first stand 
for Jesus. And it does seem as 
if the Lord were adding His 
blessing to our new church and 
that He has accepted the offer¬ 
ing of the Woman’s Board of the 
Southwest, Ever since it was 
first opened on Christmas night 
it has been practically filled at 
all regular services with audi¬ 
ences ranging from 200 to 800. 
It seems as if the Lord has 
abided His time in coming to 
Ichowfu, for never until within 
the past few weeks have we had 
a place where such gatherings as 
these would have been possible, 
A dedicatory service was held 
on Sabbath afternoon, the 23rd, 
with Pastor Ting and the resi¬ 
dent foreign pastors at the helm, 
in which the building in memory 
of Rev. Wallace S. Paris was 
dedicated to the Lord. On the 
same day an interesting con¬ 
secration service was held, at 
which between 20 and 30 small 
children were consecrated to the 
Lord, not by baptism, but by 
their parents consecrating them 
to the work of the ministry or the 
service of the Lord. At another 
service earlier in the week 37 of 
our older women pledged them¬ 
selves to the unbinding of their 
feet. An atmosphere of great 
joy seems to surround us just 
now. One has rather a peculiar 
sensation when one goes upon 
the street now and realises that 
almost every one into whose face 
one looks counts him or her¬ 
self as one of us. It is en¬ 
couraging to know that so many 
of those who have come in are 
our nearest neighbors and from 


244 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


those who have known us best. 
It is said that almost every home 
and shop on the street, from the 
entrance at our compound to the 
crossing of the great street, is 
represented. 

Yesterday we telegraplied and 
wrote to Tsing-chow-fu, calling 
our Bible students out of schoot 
to help us in the work here 
next year, and to-day Pastor 
Ting telegraphed to Manchuria 
to see if lie could not have his 
date there postponed that he 
might remain with us a while 
longer. Our force here is not 
strong. 

Pastor Ting is a man of very 
much prayer, devout and earn¬ 
est, and he would ask that you 
remember these 900 in your 
prayers, asking that the grace of 
the Lord may abound unto them. 

January 27th —Since the above 
was written 60 more names 
have been added. At to-night’s 
meeting the number passed the 
1,000 mark. 


A Million Souls for Christ 
in Korea. 

According to a report from 
George T. B. Davis, the move¬ 
ment for winning a million souls 
to Christ in one year in Korea 
is sweeping over the whole na¬ 
tion. The movement originated 
in prayer and the study of God's 
Word. Feeling the need for 
power, about six months ago 
a little group of missionaries 
called for a week of prayer. A 
few days later these same mis¬ 
sionaries met for an entire day 
of prayer, when the Spirit of 
God seemed to fill the room, 
and after several days of further 
prayer in a temple on a near-by 
mountain, they went forth filled 
with a consuming passion for 
souls. At the Annual Confer¬ 


ence of the Methodist Church, 
South, they adopted the watch¬ 
word of “ Two Hundred Thou¬ 
sand Souls for Christ.” A re¬ 
port of this was carried to the 
General Council of Evangelical 
Missions, and after much prayer 
the Council decided that all 
missionary bodies should join in 
asking God for a million souls, 
and thus they inaugurated a 
Gospel campaign to Christianize 
one million of the thirteen 
million Koreans in one year. 

Because of the oppression of 
centuries the Korean is ofteu 
lazy and shiftless, but he is 
marvellously transformed when 
he becomes a Christian. He 
becomes an intense personal 
worker, and many cases are re¬ 
ported of over a hundred con¬ 
verts as the result of one man’s 
labor. So eager are they to win 
souls that they will set apart a 
certain number of days each 
month for teaching and preach¬ 
ing the Word of God. 

One secret of the success at¬ 
tending the work of the Koreans 
is the intensity and simple faith 
with which they pray and 
study the Word of God. The 
widespread distribution of the 
Bible by the Koreans them¬ 
selves as a method of personal 
work, is one of the foremost 
features of the campaign. 

Dr. James S. Gale, of Seoul, 
one of the wisest missionaries 
in Korea, gives his opinion of 
the movement in the following 
words :— 

“ The present moment calls for 
special effort in Korea. Its watch- 
ward of ‘A Million Souls ’ rings out 
at a time of supreme national hope¬ 
lessness. Wrecked and humiliated 
through her own failures, incapable 
of self-defence or self-government, 
she has fallen to a place of contempt 
among all nations. Authority no 
longer rests with her, finances are 
out of her control, the world of graft 
and fraud in which she lived has 



245 


Missionary News 


4910] 

been spirited away, and to day strip¬ 
ped and convicted and undone, she 
looks for a Saviour. This is the 
supreme moment. We cannot reckon 
on the future or foretell it. Now 
is the moment, and it is here: the 
wide-open door, the humbled people, 
the waiting heart. Will he come, 
this great somebody for whom they 
wait? Is it the Church? Is it the 
Salvation Army? Is it Education? Is 
it America? Who will save them? 
This is tbs question. Jesus the Na- 
zarene, specialist for all hopeless 
ones, despised ones, incapable ones, 
impure ones, fools and knaves, thieves 
and robbers, outcasts and riffraff of 
men and nations. He is here, touching 
this one and that. Reader, if thou 
knowest how to pray, pray that this 
moment may be made sure, this 
sealing of a hundred and forty-four 
thousand and all the extra ones to 
make up the million.” 

From the beginning the bless¬ 
ing of God seemed to rest upon 
the movement. Shortly after the 
Council bad passed the motion, 
the Chapman-Alexander party 
arrived in Seoul to conduct spe¬ 
cial meetings, and these were 
followed by great blessing, not 
the least of which was the or¬ 
ganization of the Pocket Testa¬ 
ment Teague. 

Dr. Horace G. Underwood, of 
Seoul, one of the founders of 
the Korean Church, speaks of 
the movement in the following 
words:— 

“ The prayer for a million souls for 
Christ in Korea this year is not as 
impossible as the prayer offered at 
the first watch-night service held in 
Korea on the last day of December, 
1885. There were then less than ten 
missionaries in Korea, including the 
women and children. The first prayer 
offered was for souls for Christ in 
Korea the coming year. It seemed 
impossible that such a request should 
be granted in Korea, the ‘ Hermit 
Land,” the last of the nations to open 
its doors to the Gospel. In Japan they 
had to wait six years before they 
baptised their first convert, and twelve 
■years before Urey bad six members 
with which to organize their first 
church; while in China they had to 
wait nearly a score of years for their 
first convert. 


” Weak indeed was our faith, but 
we plead with God to strengthen it. 
We baptised two converts that year. 
At the next watch-night service we 
were led to ask for a score of souls, 
and before the end of 1887 there were 
23 baptized believers. With strength¬ 
ened faith the next year we plead 
with God for a hundred, and before 
the end of the year there were 125 
professing Christians. And now with 
the number of missionaries in Korea, 
with the strong church, with the 
organized body of personal workers, 

I believe it will be more thau a 
million before the end of the year. 

“ China and Japan and Russia have 
all acknowledged that Korea is the 
strategic point of the Far East. We 
can well believe that it is also the 
strategic point religiously, and to 
wiu Korea now means to win the 
Far East. ’ ’ 

It is said that the prayers of one 
woman in Texas started the great re¬ 
vival which has been sweeping over 
South China. Will not Christian 
people everywhere unite in cryin# 
earnestly to God for the million souls 
in Korea ? The following are some 
suggestions for prayer 

1. Form little prayer - circles or 

groups among your friends, 
and each day both with others 
aud alone plead with God for 
a million converts in Korea 
by October 9,1910, 

2. Pray that the Korean Christians, 

church officers and leaders, 
and the missionaries, may be 
so filled with the Holy Spirit 
that they may have power to 
win the heathen to Christ. 

3. Pray that the hearts of the 

heathen may be prepared by 
the Holy Spirit to receive the 
truth and be saved. 

4. Pray that God’s Spirit may be 

poured out upou the laud so 
mightily that the entire nation 
may speedily turn to God, and 
thus the prophecy be fulfilled 
of a natiou “ born in a day.” 

In connection with this move¬ 
ment a Day of Prayer for Korea 
is called for by the committee in 
the following appeal:— 

Through the evident guidance of 
the Holy Spirit the General Council 
of Evangelical Missions in Korea was 
led to decide to pray and work for a 
million souls in Korea this year. 
Therefore because the present is 


246 


The Chinese Recorder 


without doubt God’s opportunity for 
making Korea a Christian nation, and 
because Korea is the strategic point 
of the Far East, and to win Korea 
NOW means to help immeasurably 
in the evangelization of the East, 
we ask Christian people in all lauds 
to observe Sunday, March 20th, as a 
“Day of Prayer” for the million 
movement in the onetime “Hermit 
Land.” Pray that through the gra¬ 
cious outpouring of the Holy Spirit 
upon the missionaries, the Christian 
Koreans, and those who are still in 


[March 

the darkness of heathenism, the mil¬ 
lion may be more than realized. 

It is especially requested that in the 
church services, and at Suuday School 
on that day, Christiaans be urged to 
pray daily, individually and in groups, 
that the full harvest may be gathered 
in by the 9th of October, 1910. 

COMMITTEE. 

Dr. James, S. Gale, Chairman. 

Mr. Hugh Miller, Secretary. 

Dr. H. G. Underwood. 

Rev. D. A. Bunker. 


The Month. 


MILITARY EXPEDITION TO LHASA. 

Reuter’s Agency reports on Feb¬ 
ruary 24th that some 25,000 Chinese 
troops, trained upon the Japanese 
system, are being pushed into Tibet, 
from the province of Szechuan. This 
force is equipped with a wireless tele¬ 
graphic installation and quantities 
of machiue guns and mountain guns. 
The army is under the command of 
H.E. Chao Erh-feng, the vigorous 
and enlightened brother of the 
Viceroy of Szechuan. 

The ’ intention, apparently, is to 
establish Chinese domination in 
Tibet, to remodel the conditions on 
the frontier to encourage the settle¬ 
ment of Chinese immigrants. In the 
preparation for the military advance 
7,000 men worked day and night at 
the arsenals in Chengtu, which were 
lately refitted with German ma¬ 
chinery, under German supervision. 
The Chinese suffered severely from 
cold, privation and the hostility of 
the border tribes. On one occasion 
the Chinese were ambushed near 
Batang, where they lost 400 men and 
a number of guns. 

NSW LAWS. 

The Yuch’uanpu has reported on 
the subject of the compilation of the 
proposed new Laws for Navigation, 
Railways Posts and Telegraphs. It 
states that Navigation Laws will be 
based on those of Great Britain; 
Railway Laws will be adopted from 
the German and Belgian codes; and 
Postal and Telegraphic Laws will be 
compiled from Japanese, American, 
Danish and Austrian laws. Messrs. 
Shih Yu and Ma Te-yii have been 
appointed to draft the laws, under 
the supervision of Mr, Chen Yi. 


When the codes have been completed 
they will be referred to the Law 
Revision Commissioners for approval 
before being promulgated by Edict. 

The Commission of Constitutional 
Reform has decided to classify the 
Courts of Justice as follows: 1. The 
Ta Li Yuan or High Court of Justice. 
—This Court will be in Peking. 2, 
The Upper Courts of Justice.—One of 
these Courts will be instituted in the 
capital of each province. 3. Local 
Courts.—One of these Courts will be 
instituted in each prefecture and 
each independent county department. 
4. Lower Courts.—Two of these 
Courts will be instituted in the 
boroughs, shires and districts. 

THE PARLIAMENT QUESTION. 

Several meetings were held by the 
members of the Censorate to discuss 
whether they should forward the 
memorials from the people of various 
provinces urging the Throne to open 
the parliament. The Censorate re¬ 
fused to have an interview with the 
provincial assemblymen now in Pe¬ 
king regarding the speedy opening of 
the Imperial Parliament. 

An Imperial Decree of January 
2nd said : “ In respectfully reflecting 
upon the Decrees issued by Empress 
Hsiao Chiii and Emperor Teh Tsung, 
we find that they were the results 
of their Majesties’ owm determination. 
Their Majesties fixed nine years for 
the period in making preparations 
for a monarchical constitution for 
the Chinese Empire. Their command 
was that the chief power was vested 
in the Throne, but that the adminis¬ 
tration was to be opened to public 
opinion. This was patent to the 
Ministers and people in our whole 
Empire. . . . 




247 


19 tO] The Month 


. . . Our Empire is extensive in 
area, and as neither the preparations 
are complete nor the people’s stand¬ 
ard of intelligence uniform, should a 
Parliament suddenly be opened it is 
anticipated that opposition may be 
rife, which will hamper the progress 
of constitutional government. Should 
this happen not only shall We be 
unable to satisfy the spirit of the 
late.Emperor in heaven, but it will 
be open to question whether the 
representatives, who present the 
petition, can face Our four hundred 
million brethren. 

We wish 1o exhibit absolute sin¬ 
cerity and to hide nothing. In short 
constitutional government will cer¬ 
tainly be established and a Parlia¬ 
ment will be surely opened, but what 
is to be carefully considered is tlie 
question of time and order. Safe 
gait is essential in a long walk, as it 
is unwise to look for immediate 
results in attemping an important 
task. Provincial Assemblies have 
been opened in all the provinces and 
the Senate will be organized in the 
next year, so that the basis of a Par¬ 
liament will be complete. 

We hope that Our Ministers and 
people will perform their duties dili¬ 
gently and compare results according 
to time. They should uot aim at au 
empty name to the detriment of 
actual results. We hereby clearly 
announce that when the nine years’ 
preparations are complete and uni¬ 
versal education has spread among 
the people, We will resolutely issue 
au Edict to fix a time for a Parlia¬ 
ment to be summoned. It is hoped 
in this manner that, in aiming at 
benign government, care may be 
exercised in its deliberations. This 
is issued for general information.” 

According to Chinese information 
an association has been formed in 
Peking, with the object of expediting 
the opening of Parliament. It has 
telegraphed to the Provincial Assem¬ 
blies and to educational and other 
public bodies in all the provinces, 
pointing out the urgent necessity of 
an early opeuing of Parliament and 
requesting them to take action and 
send delegates to support the provin¬ 
cial delegates in their petition* 

OPIUM SUPPRESSION. 

The following important Imperial 
Decree was issued on January 2oth :— 

“ With reference to the regulations 
for opium prohibition, drawn up by 
the Ministry of the Interior in con¬ 
junction with the Daw Revision 


Commissioners and presented by the 
Commission for Constitution Re¬ 
forms, it is to be observed that opium 
suppression is essentially an impor¬ 
tant matter to strengthen the Empire, 
and that Decrees had been issued in 
the previous reign commanding that 
opium should be strictly prohibited. 
Regulations of prohibition have, at 
different times, been issued for 
general guidance, and this year warn¬ 
ings have been reiterated, so that 
instructions and preventive measures 
in the matter may be said to have 
been exhaustive. 

Many provinces have now reported 
the entire suppression of opium 
plantation, and in different parts the 
number of people breaking off this 
habit is gradually increasing. It is 
necessary at once and definitely to 
decide on a plan of punishment and 
warning in order that this poisonous 
bane may be eradicated permanently. 
On perusal of the regulations pro¬ 
posed for opium-suppression, they 
are found fairly complete and minute 
in respect of penalties and fines, and 
these regulations should be promul¬ 
gated and enforced both in and out 
of the capital. 

The viceroys and governors in the 
rovinces where opium plantation 
as not been entirely forbidden, are 
commanded to order and superintend 
the local officials in taking steps to 
reduce the term of years in which 
poppy plantation should be prohibited 
with a view to eradicating the evil 
as soon as possible. In the provinces 
where entire suppression has taken 
place, they should at all times in¬ 
vestigate the conditions, and any 
recrudescence of the evil should be 
regarded as a violation of the laws of 
the government, and action must be 
taken according to the regulations 
for the punishment of the offences. 
All the regulations proposed by 
different government offices in the 
capital aud the variations in the 
length of terms of prohibition pro¬ 
posed by the provinces which have 
been sanctioned by the Throne, 
should become established regula¬ 
tions, and any violation of them 
should be punished accordingly. 

Should any high official in or out of 
Peking, who has control over local offi¬ 
cials, dare to relax his efforts in this 
matter or secretly to offend against 
the regulations he will also be punish¬ 
ed. It is sincerely hoped that this 
chronic curse will be gradually era¬ 
dicated aud that the people will daily 
strengthen and flourish hereafter.” 


248 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March, 1910 


Missionary Journal. 


BIRTHS. 

AT Hongkong, 17th December, 1909, 
to Mr. and Mrs. MohlEr, Y. M. 
C. A., a son (John Yoxall). 

AT Hwangchow, Hupeh, 8tli January, 
to Rev. and Mrs. S. TannkvisT, S. 
M. S., a daughter (Astrid Svenborg 
Maria). 

AT Yung-p'ing-fu, 8th January, to 
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin J. Tharp, a 
daughter (Margaret Ruth). 

AT the Irish Mission, Fakumen, Man¬ 
churia, 23rd January, to the Rev. 
and Mrs. F. W. S. O'Neirr, a son. 

AT Peking, 23rd January, to Dr. and 
Mrs. George D. Dowry, M. E. M., 
a sou (George Edward). 

At Foochow, 29th January, to Mr. 
and Mrs. McLachrin, Y. M. C. A., 
a daughter (Helen Eileen). 

At Nanking, 31st January, to Dr. and 
Mrs. RUSSET,!,, M. E. M., a daugh¬ 
ter (Martha Lovvinia). 

At Shanghai, 7th February, to Mr. 
and Mrs. C. L. Boynton, Y. M. C. 
A., a sou (Charles Dozier). 

AT Hankow, 9th February, to Mr. 
and Mrs. J. M. 0 . Gudar, Am. 
Lutheran Mission, a son. 

At fcfuchow, 13th February, to Mr, and 
Mrs James V. Latimer, Am. Baptist 
M.,a daughter (I'rancis Marlon). 

At Soochow, to Dr. and Mrs. John 
Sneer, M. E. M., South, a daughter 
(Laura Evelyn). 

AT Soochow, to Mr. and Mrs, B. D. 
LUCAS, M. E. M., South, a son 
(Thomas Lawman). 

MARRIAGES, 

At Kwangyuali, nth December, 1909, 
Mr. II, E. Stubbs to Miss E, M. 
Pracy, both C, I. M, 

At Chungking, 20th January, Mr, P. 
O. ORESEN to Miss L, Guest, both 
C, I. M. 

AT Hanyang, 29th January, Rev, 
Hardy Jowett to Katharine 
Artce WhEatrey, both W, M, S, 

At Nanking, 1st P'ebruary, Mr. 
Charres S. Settremyer and Miss 
Edna Eva Kury. 

At Shanghai, 3rd February, Mr. K. 
W. SchweizER to Miss K. L. Bohn- 
Ker, both C, I. M. 

AT Peking, 9th February, Dr. J. Mait- 
rand Stenhouse, Union Medical 
College, Peking, to Miss Gwradys 
Harrison Rees, 

AT Shanghai, 9th February, Rev. 
Wm, H, Standring to Miss Ann 
Rebecca Torrence, both A, C, M, 


ARRIVALS, 

22nd January, Mr. and Mrs. W. T. 
Girmer, C. I. M., returned from 
Sweden viS. Siberia; Miss H. Anniss, 
C. I. M., returned from England vi& 
Siberia; Mrs. A. MEnzies, C. I. M., 
returned from England viS. Canada. 

25th January, Dr. and Mrs. Jack- 
son, A. C. M. (ret.). 

6tli February', Dr. W. MaRCORM, 
wife and three children, S. P. M. 

9U1 February, Rev. L. Davies and 
wife, Am. Pres. Mission, South. 

13th February, Rev. A. R. Kbprer, 
A. P. M. (ret.); Miss C. T. Woods, 
A. P. M., from U. S. A. 

14th February, Rev. T. E. Lower, 
E. B. M. (ret.); Dr. E. Lewis, E. B. 
M. 

15th February, Mrs. J. R. Watson 
and child, E. B. M. (ret.); Miss 
Sadrer, E. B. M. 

DEPARTURES. 

31st January, Rev. E. C, Jones, M, 

E. M., for U. S. A ; Rev. and Mrs. 
Ridgery, A. C. M., for U. S. A. 

31st January, Prof E- C. Jones, of 
Foochow, M. E. M., for U. S. A. 

1st February, Miss J. McIntosh, 
C. P. M., for Canada. 

4th February, Rev. G. L. Purran, 
wife and four children, of W. M., for 
England. 

5th February, Mr. and Mrs. Soren¬ 
sen and two children, C. I. M., for 
Norway, 

7th February, Mr, and Mrs. Dur- 
qUHART and child, C. I. M., for 
England vi£L Siberia. 

Sth February, Mr. and Mrs, C. H, 
TjaDER and son, C, I. M., for Canada. 

18th February, Miss Warmsrey, C. 
M, S,, for Eugland; Miss Edwards, 
C. M. S., for England; Mr. and Mrs. 
A, Goold, C, I, M., for Australia; 
Mr. W, D, Rudrand, Mr, and Mrs. 
S. R. Crarke and daughter, Blisses 

F, J, FowlE. S, A, Cream, K, M. 
Ardis, H, M, Scorer, Frances 
Grace, Dorothy Hope and Harord 
CASSERS, all C, I. M., for England. 

19th February, Drs, J, H, Sowerby 
and H. B. Tayror, A. C, M,, for U. 
S. A.; Rev. T. W, MitCherr, A. P. 
M., for U. S. A. 

20th February, Rev. J. F, BrrchEr, 
wife and two children, Ref. Cb. in 
U. S. A., for U. S. A. 








NOTE 


This photograph (see frontispiece) was taken for 
the Recorder on March 16th by request of the editor 
in view of my “ Diamond fubifec.” 

I arrived in China April loth, 1850—my birthday— 
at the age of twenty-three. 

After taking my degree at the University of Indiana, 
my native state, I spent three years at a theological 
seminary in the same state. During the last year I filled 
a chair of Greek and Latin in Anderson College, but inv 
heart was set on educational work in China, 

At the time of my arrival the smoke of the first war 
still hung in heavy clouds, and I have lived through four 
more wars, in which the Manchns vainly sought to repel 
or expel the aggressive foreigner. 

The frantic outbreak of 1900 has happily proved Lo 
be the dawn of a new era, and all signs point lo the 
triumph of the Gospel. To God be all the glory ! 

W. A. P. M. 


Peking, March , igjo. 


THE CHINESE RECORDER 

AND MISSIONARY JOURNAL 


Published Monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 

Editor-iti-chief Rev. G. F. Fitch, d.d. 

Associate Editors: Rev. W. N. Bttton and Rev. D. W. Lyon. 

Bishop J. W. Bashford. Rev. A. Foster. Rev.D.MAcGiT.LiVRAY.D.D. 

Rev. E. W. Burt, m.a. Rev. J.C. Garritt.d.d. Mr. G. McIntosh. 

Rt.Rev. BishopC asskts. Rev. J.C. Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. F. Mosher. 

Dr. J. Darroch. Rev. D. E. Hostk. Rev. A. H. Smith, d.d. 


VOL. XL1 APRIL, 1910 NO. 4 


Editorial 


in 


Custom anb 
tfattb. 


The topic which is brought forward for consideration 
this number of the Recorder raises issues of a very 
important and most practical nature for the 
missionary cause in China. It is not only so 
in connection with the subjects definitely referred 
to in the articles which are presented, but other cognate 
matters, covering the whole range of the social life of the 
Chinese, must come under the review of every thoughtful 
missionary who desires full equipment for service. One of 
the most difficult of all the problems which lie before the 
workers in this land is that of getting at the inside of the 
Chinese mind. This is never accomplished save by a sym¬ 
pathetic study and close understanding of the social environ¬ 
ment and all that it includes of moral and spiritual influence. 
That social custom has a very definite influence upon spiritual 
outlook has been amply demonstrated, and there can be no 
sufficient understanding of the spiritual problems which 
confront the missionary unless consideration is given to 
the existing social life and religious surroundings of the 
people. The attitude of mind on the part of the worker 
which shirks the labour of such study as is here dealt with or 
which takes refuge in the simple unprepared pronouncement 
of the Gospel revealed in the Word of God, without the 
necessary consideration of the most effective lines of approach, 
is a particularly lazy one, for which there is neither worthy 
precedent nor sufficient excuse. 











250 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


At the present time we would especially urge upon the 
consideration of our readers the suggestions made in connection 
with the transformation of the Ch‘ing Ming 

Baste* anJ) festiyal and worship at the tombs. In all places 
Cb‘ma mi\Q. * K . 

where there are Christian cemeteries, Christian 

services might be held in accordance with the proposals 
put forward in Mr. Walsh’s paper. For those who have 
already made experiments in this way there remains no 
doubt of the tremendous value of such services. In the 
matter of memorials in the churches to the worthy and 
blessed dead, it is not so easy to make any definite suggestions 
which would be acceptable to all, since matters of church 
custom in relation to the adornment of church buildings and 
so on are here involved. But along the line of its own genius, 
each of the various orders of church government in China 
might proceed to some suitable form of memorial. In replac¬ 
ing the existing fear of the spirits of the departed by a gratitude 
to God for their lives and for their eternal reward we should 
certainly be doing our Chinese Christians an unspeakably 
great service and remove at the same time much existing mis¬ 
apprehension. There can be no question of a “compromise 
with idolatry ’ ’ in such a case, for, if it were so, then our own 
memorials of the departed must stand condemned. 

* * * 

White in some religious circles in the West there seems 
to be raging a conflict of opinion around the person of our 

a Do matte "^° r ^ J esus Christ aiK * the credibility of the 

CbrtSTaflb. !^f/ el / e ^ dS ’ ' ve are assured that in the 

held of China there never was a time when 
a greater or more unanimous insistance was being laid by 
those who are concerned in the work of missions iSpou the 
absolute necessity for preaching Jesus Christ as the one Saviour 
of the world and the unique Son of God. Howsoever we may 
differ upon points of criticism, inspiration and church order; 
here we are at one. The Christian missionary knows by 
experimental proof that no church has ever been built success¬ 
fully upon any other foundation than that of the truth of 
the eternal Sonship of Jesus Christ. Men of genius may arise 
who, by force of sympathy, fervour and intellectual ability 
gather around them congregations of admirers and establish 
temporary schools of thought. But upon their death these 
companies are disbanded and pass away. No Christian church 


1910] 


Editorial 


251 


which has been, or is effective in world-service has ever departed 
from the dogmatic teaching of the New Testament in the vital 
matter of faith in the living and redeeming Son of God. This 
is the starting point of all possible schemes of union, for 
it is the common ground of all Christendom. And in our 
endeavours to unify comprehensively the churches of Jesus 
Christ, we must start from this as the central point and 
work outwards. We believe it to be true that the whole 
pastorate of the Christian church in China is thoroughly sound 
upon this essential point. 


* 


Right beside the Canton Medical College rises a preten¬ 
tious building of three stories, well-built in modern style, which 
_ _ is rented by an association of Chinese for a 

Inbepenbence. medlcal scllool > and presided over by a Presby¬ 
terian missionary, for whose services this Asso¬ 
ciation pays a regular salary. Just in the rear of this building 
is another well-built structure, containing auditorium with 
gallery capable of seatiug perhaps a thousand, for a church, 
school rooms for boys and for girls, home for the pastor, and 
rooms for transient guests. Both these buildings have been 
erected solely by the Chinese, largely with money contributed 
by well-to-do Chinese living in the United States, planned with¬ 
out foreign advice or assistance, and intended as an expression 
of what the Chinese ought to do and can do in the way of 
independence and self-support. And as an object lesson of 
what the Chinese are capable under favorable circumstances, 
the buildings and the work carried on iu them are both im¬ 
pressive and encouraging. 

* * * 

There is one fact, however, that immediately impresses 
itself upon one who notes the situation, and that is that 

ttew problems. aU t . his is set down right beside an extensi ve 
mission compound where there is a large and 

well-conducted school for girls ; one of the most noted mission 

hospitals in China with church accommodation for some 

fifteen hundred ; as well as a large and well-equipped medical 

college, and this in a city with an estimated population of 

nearly two millions of people. We mention the matter to 

illustrate the difficulties which are involved in the attempts, 

most laudable though they are, of our Chinese, brethren after 

independence and self-support. How to give advice and direc- 


252 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


tion where, as in this case, it was not asked for and was probably 
not wanted, and might have been resented if proffered—even 
though needed—is a problem which may well engage the 
thought and skill of every missionary. For it is true in the 
church as in the state that the Chinese people are rapidly com¬ 
ing to their own in the matter of self-government, and the 
question now is, How we and they shall work together in 
perfect concord for the one end which we all have in view, in 
order that there be no clashing, no duplicating, no jealousy 
or ill-will, but the acknowledged conviction that we are all 
working for the one great end, and must work together until 
it is accomplished. At the same time there is encouragement 
and stimulus in the thought that our Chinese brethren—and 
we—are gaining by each new experience. New conditions 
are everywhere before us, and greater wisdom and greater 
patience will be continually needed. 

* * * 

Special attention is again drawn to the plans which have 
been made for the carrying on of Christian work in connection 
with the great Nanking Exposition. The finan- 
(Tbe Wanking c j a | ^ ur( j en w }^ not b e light, and it is essential 
Erpoaition, cburclies and missionaries throughout 

China come promptly to the aid of this most important enter¬ 
prise. It is one which will affect all China. From all over 
the Empire men of influence will be visiting Nanking and 
impressions will be produced during their visit which are likely 
to last a long time and to carry far. The work it is propose d 
to do in connection with the Christian Hall at the entrance 
of the exhibition grounds is for the advance of Christianity 
throughout China, and we trust that adequate support will be 
forthcoming from every Christian centre. 

The immediate expense of the project is estimated at about 
$8,000.00. The raising of the large portion of this sum has 
already been undertaken by the Christians of Nanking and 
Shanghai. Another sum of equal amount will be required 
for the carrying on of the work of preaching and teaching 
through the eight months of the exhibition. There will also 
be a call for the services of leading Chinese preachers from all 
over the land in connection with this work, and their expenses 
must be met. We heartily endorse the claims of the Nanking 
brethren who have undertaken this tremendous task and are 
assured that they will receive both the needed financial su pport 


1910 ] 


Editorial 


253 


SunDag School 
£>ag. 


and the unceasing prayers of the whole Christian community 
in China. A fine opportunity is given to us here for a prac¬ 
tical and far-reaching demonstration of our “essential unity.” 

* * * 

Attention is again drawn to the fact that the 22nd 
May is to be observed by Sunday Schools throughout the world 
as Sunday School Day. The Convention of 
the World’s Sunday School Association is to 
be held in the week following the 22nd, at 
Washington, and problems of world-wide Sunday School work 
are to be considered there. The needs of the work in Asia 
will be especially prominent in the discussions. Dr. Bailey, 
the Secretary of the Association, appeals in our columns for an 
observance of this day by pastors throughout this Empire, 
desiring that attention be given to the history and needs of 
Sunday School work. This will provide another opportunity 
for forwarding the work of Sunday Schools among the mission 
churches in China and for urging upon Chinese Christians the 
importance of this branch of Christian missionary enterprise. 
We are sure that all our readers who have responsibility, 
either direct or indirect, for the conduct of services on this day 
will remember the appeal of the Sunday School Association 
and think of the meetings to be held in Washington. The 
Rev. F. Brown, of the Methodist Episcopal Mission, will be 
in attendance at the Convention as the representative of the 
China Sunday School Committee, and with him is to be asso¬ 
ciated Mr. Harry Wade Hicks, the well-known Secretary of 
the Young People’s Movement of America. The Rev. F. B. 
Meyer, whose visit to China last year will be long remembered 
with gratitude, is the President of the World’s Sunday School 
Association and is Chairman of the Washington Convention. 

* * * 

A VERY remarkable official declaration lias been published 
in the North-China Daily News , issued by the Governor of 
Kiangsi concerning harmonious relations be¬ 


an ©ffiefal 
proclamation. 


tween the populace and churcli-members. This 
high official says that “men of the West have 
come to China propagating a religion whose teaching is love 
to others as ourselves and exhortations to virtue generally. 
The older form of this religion came to China under the 
name of the Tien Tsu Cliiao, differing in various points from 
Protestant Christianity. From the time that Chinese ports 


254 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


were opened to Western commerce, the representatives of these 
two religions have come over in very great numbers. This 
has been an inevitable fact in accord with modern world move¬ 
ment. When upsets have occurred between the populace and 
the church it lias been because the local officials have adopted 
mistaken measures or because the higher officials have failed 
to study things ancient in the light of modern conditions . . . 
From the commencement of these missions the newly-arrived 
pastors have not understood the precise conditions and feelings 
of the people, and even after longer residence it has been 
unusual for them to mix socially with the officials and gentry. 
In consequence of this aloofness suspicious have arisen . . . 
But of recent years mutual understandings have developed ; 
disturbances have ceased, as a consequence, and around such 
places as Shanghai and Ningpo bpth scholars and merchants 
have mingled with missionaries and cooperated with their work 
in delightful unseverance . . . For myself, whenever a case has 
arisen between church members and the ordinary populace, I 
have treated both parties alike as under the same law without 
any distinction . . . But when the local officials tie them¬ 
selves to old usages then troubles arise on all hands, for which 
the religion is in nowise to be blamed. It behoves all officials 
therefore to consider the matter in accordance with all law and 
order so as to perfect harmonious relations . . . For mission 
work is recognised by statute, and the personal freedom of 
mission converts is assured to them legally, so as to avoid all 
acrimony and preserve peace. And this is the more fitting in 
view of the constitutional movements now in progress.” 

We hope that the eminently fair and truly statesmanlike 
declaration issued by the Governor of Kiangsi will receive the 
attention it deserves from Chinese throughout the whole 
Empire. Once again we venture the assertion, in the hope 
that the influential minds in China may be led to an 
understanding of the fact, that a full measure of religious 
toleration would at once solve the problems presented by the 
presence of the missionary. 

* * * 

Tfe congratulations of the missionary body will go out, 
we are sure, to the veteran Dr. Martin on the occasion of his 

Out Veterans. sixtieth birtllda y as a missionary to China on 
April ioth. We are honoured in being able to 
publish a photograph of this devoted servant of Jesus Christ, 


19101 


Editorial 


255 


and pray that lie may be spared to continue his wonderful 
missionary career through many future years. Nothing is 
more remarkable in the annals of Protestant missions in 
China than the devoted careers of some of the leading 
missionaries through a whole lifetime of service. We have 
had occasion to refer to many missionary jubilees during the 
past few years. We note now that the Rev. John Macgowan, 
of Amoy, after completing fifty years of missionary service, 
has left China for a well-earned rest in the homeland. 

Congratulations and condolences are never far apart. We 
regret to chronicle the death of the Rev. Dr. DuBose, of 
Soochow, which took place on March 23rd. Dr. DuBose will 
be remembered by the Christian church for his untiring zeal 
through nearly forty years in evangelistic labours, and is sure 
to be held in affectionate remembrance by future generations of 
Chinese for the work he did in connection with the Anti-Opium 
Reform. 

* * * 

WE regret that the authorship of the article which 
was published in the March Recorder, dealing with the 
Union Normal School in Wuchang, was ascribed to 
eflCe ’ the Rev. G. A. Clayton, instead of to the Rev. 

H. B. Rattenbury. 

* * * 

One of the Chinese ministers of the Christian church, in 
preaching upon the Resurrection story of the Gospels, made the 
following significant remark : “A pagoda,” he said, 
®“was originally erected as a memorial to a portion 
of the body of Buddha. Therefore a pagoda is a 
memorial to a dead Master. But the Christian church was not 
founded upon the bones of Jesus Christ. His tomb was empty, 
for the Lord rose again, and our Christian churches are there¬ 
fore the evidence of a living Lord.” The effective difference 
between a living and a dead impulse could scarcely have been 
more aptly put. In spite of all the elements of uplifting 
thought and all the endeavours after a pure life which Budd¬ 
hism represents, and in spite also of the later developments of 
that faith and its remarkable reformation, things for which we 
are devoutly thankful, the great difference between its precepts 
and the Gospel of Jesus Christ, is that which distinguishes 
a dead from a living faith. Christianity is the only religion 
which is founded upon optimism and lives in hope. “ Because 
I live, ye shall live also.” 


256 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April, 1910 


Zhe Sanctuary 

“ The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availetk much."— St. James v, 16. 

“ For where two Or three are gathered together in my Name, there am I in the midst of 
them."— St. Matthew xviii, 20. 


“ All holiness is contained in two 
points : knowledge of God and knowl¬ 
edge of self. Lord, make me to know 
Thee and to know myself. The 
prayer is short, but its meaning is 
infinite. Knowledge of God elevates 
the soul, knowledge of self humbles 
it. The former lifts it to the abyss 
of divine perfections ; the latter sinks 
it to its own abyss of nothingness 
and sin. And the great marvel is, 
that this very knowledge of God 
which lifts man up, humbles him at 
the same time by the comparison of 
himself with God ; and self-knowl¬ 
edge, while it humbles him, lifts him 
up by necessitating his approach to 
God as the assuager of his misery.” 

Grou’s ‘‘Spiritual Maxims.” 

Pray. 

That the superstitions that are ac¬ 
tual forces iu the national life may 
be transformed into as actual spiritual 
power. (P. 257,) 

That those who are superstitious 
may be delivered from their supersti¬ 
tious and brought into the broad 
heaven-lit region of ultimate truth. 
(P. 258.) 

That the Christian church in China 
may imitate God’s method of adapt¬ 
ing God’s revelation so that people 
may the better be able to receive it. 
(P.269.) 

That as the teachers and guides of 
the Chinese there may be given to 
the missionaries wisdom in directing 
the change of heathen into Christian 
rites. (P. 265.) 

That the missionaries may have such 
insight as will enable them to dis¬ 
tinguish clearly between customs that 
are heathen and those that are only 
national. (P. 270.) 

That all teachers of Christianity iu 
China may be given ability to a^apt 
themselves to oriental life and cus¬ 
toms for a greater efficiency in pre¬ 
senting a pure Christianity. (P. 269.) 

That the missionaries may not make 
the mistake of regarding occident- 


alization for spiritual growth. (P. 

278.) 

That missionaries may be careful 
not to do other than conserve and 
cherish all spiritual truth already 
existing in the minds of the Chinese. 
(P 259.) 

That the leaders in the church may 
not so lightly regard externals as to 
present an unsympathetic religion to 
the Chinese Christians. (P. 265.) 

That there may in all places be 
great care never to cause a Chinese 
convert to give up a heathen rite 
without implanting in its place a 
Christian rite as its substitute. (P. 
264.) 

That the Chinese may learn that in 
the crises of life the spiritual power 
that overrules is none other than the 
Christ. (P. 278.) 

That the Chinese Christians may 
not lose their reverence for their 
dead or grow neglectful of the graves 
through a misunderstanding of the 
new teaching that they have accepted. 
(P. 279.) 

A Prayer, 

O Lord God Almighty and all-merci¬ 
ful, cleanse those whom I have defiled, 
heal those whom I have wounded, 
strengthen those whom I have en¬ 
feebled, set right those whom I have 
misled, recall to Thyself those whom 
I have alienated from Thee. I pray 
Thee save these sinners, save all 
sinners, and amongst all sinners save 
me the sinner, for Jesus’ sake, the 
Frend of sinners. 

Amen. 

Give Thanks 

For news of revival from Nan-tung- 
cbow (P. 307), from Ichowfu (P. 307), 
and from Manchuria (P. 308.) 

For success attending labours of 
the three German Missions in the 
South (P. 309,) 

For the earnest efforts of the Chinese 
government in the matter of opium 
repression and the success granted 
(P. 307.) 


Contributed Articles 


Christian Suggestions in Chinese Superstitions 


BY THE REV. W. A. CORNABY 


HE return of Halley’s comet and the need of an active 



propaganda to avert dynamic disaster from the various 


superstitions connected with comets in China, remind 
us that we are living in a land where old-world superstitions 
are actual forces in the national life. From such standard books 
as the very recent “ Mythology of the British Isles,” by Charles 
Squire; Hazlitt's “Mythology of Shakespeare,” and Thistle- 
ton Dyer’s “Domestic Folklore” a whole world of supersti¬ 
tion is revealed to us nearer home in ancient, mediaeval, and 
quite modern times. But we question whether, since the days 
when the Romans annihilated the Druid religion, any of our 
Western superstitions could ever be regarded as dynamic forces 
in the sense in which they are in China. The superstitions 
of the West have beeu most of them modified survivals of 
Celtic and Scandinavian, Roman and Saxon religious rites ; 
those in China are largely survivals of an ancient indefinite 
nature-worship and the still more nebulous but perfectly 
serious science of luck. Thus we may define Chinese super¬ 
stition under two heads: (i). Credulity respecting the direct 
impact of the supernatural upon the natural; (2). The notion 
that good and ill luck are connected with certain actions that 
have really no reference to the matter. Under the first 
heading they are related to various old Roman beliefs, from 
which indeed we get the Latin word superstitionem , which 
we have adopted, minus two letters, as an English word ; and 
under the latter heading they resemble the mass of geomantic 
beliefs held by the later Assyrians and developed up from 
ancient Chaldean religious observances. 

In either case we have before us, in the phrase of John 
Foster (“Popular Ignorance”): “A vacancy of truth, re¬ 
plenished with positive error,” and allowed to affect the social 
and national life of this people, often in a very deleterious 
manner. 


Note.—R eaders of the Recorder are reminded that the Editorial Board 
assumes no responsibility for the views expressed by the writers of articles 
published in these pages. 







The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


The first attitude of the young missionary towards the 
superstitious around him is naturally that of a drastic icono¬ 
clast (which is indeed the attitude of the modern Chinese daily 
press everywhere), although, of course, he will not adopt 
drastic methods, and his words may be of the mildest And 
with regard to several superstitions based on mistaken notions 
of the universe we must feel that these things exist to be 
abolished. Nor does anyone wish that any superstition what¬ 
ever may remain, and if the experience of others coincides 
with those of a past eighteen years in Hupeh, scarcely a 
vestige does remain when Chinese become Christians. But in 
superstitions, as in other falsities, it is seldom that we find an 
hundred percentum lie, a falsity which has uo vestige of basal 
truth. And should that truth, when purged from error, be 
found to be valuable, it may, in the hands of the wise, become a 
useful agent for the deliverance of the superstitious from their 
superstitions into the broad heaven-lit region of ultimate truth. 

It may be objected that since our Chinese Christians, on 
becoming such, become singularly free from superstition, it is 
hardly advisable to waste time in writing or reading what 
might be misconstrued as an overt apology for idolatrous 
systems and superstitious generally. And it may be argued 
with some reason that if the whole native press of China con¬ 
demns superstition root and branch (including modern Chinese 
Buddhism and Taoism as a whole*) it is hardly befitting the 
stated representatives of the truth as it is in Jesus to rake 
among the ash heaps of decadent faiths to find bits of truth 
here and there for exploitation. Further, that as St. Paul 
evidently regarded all heathenism as an apostasy, we may 
well regard it as such, just preaching the Gospel and have 
done with it. 

But on comparing Romans i. 20-21 with Acts xvii. 23, 
we find that heathenism, to his mind, was both an apostasy 
and a quest. The tendency of the past century was to regard 
it wholly as the former ; then as a rebound, the tendency of 
modern writers who have not lived in non-Christian lands is to 
regard it exclusively as the latter. But a due recognition of 

* During the last week of February, in two native dailies of Shanghai, 
there were unmistakable indications of this attitude ; the one condemning a 
certain hsien magistrate for his hobnobbing with a Buddhist monk, and the 
other ridiculing the propensities of “uneducated women” for “inventing all 
manner of spiritual powers, praying in temples, consulting fortune tellers, and 
selecting sites for graves or dwelling-places in consultation with geomancers.” 




1910 ] Christian Suggestions in Chinese Superstitions 


259 


both sides of the case, as with St. Paul, is the true via media 
in the matter. And especially as the tendency of modem 
education in China is to cast forth from the mind all belief in 
the spiritual whatever, it behoves the missionary, while dis¬ 
countenancing all superstition and working for the complete 
despotism (II. Peter ii. i, “the Despotes that bought them”) 
of the Lord Jesus, in these days when, under a veritable disease 
of democracy, young China is breaking loose from all rule 
and authority, political, moral and spiritual,—it behoves the 
missionary to conserve and cherish all absolute spiritual truth 
already existing in the minds of the Chinese. 

The attitude to be commended, then, is that of “ stooping 
to conquer.” For we find that God did so of old in two striking 
instances—making use of existing and superstitious material. 

(1) . Whatever the primaeval origin of the week of seven 
days, for fully two thousand years before Moses, each seven 
days of the lunar month had been associated with the sun, 
moon, and the five planets (quoted in China as well). And of 
the days of the lnuar month the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th 
were “quiet days” on which it was unlucky to change the 
clothes, to offer sacrifice or worship of any sort , to eat flesh 
cooked at the fire, or even in sickness to take medicine. Here 
was an institution which, from time immemorial, had been 
one of superstitious avoidance of both work and worship ; yet 
God, through His servant Moses, laid hold of that ancient 
superstition and elevated it, in connection with His finished 
work of creation, into a Sabbath observance of rest for the 
labourer, of refreshment for the soul, and of adoration toward 
Himself. 

(2) . The second instance is still more striking. In the 
plague-stricken camp of Israel, Moses was divinely prompted 
to lift on a pole a serpent of brass; the serpent being an object 
of superstitious veneration in Egypt as connected in some way 
with the healing art. How boldly then did God risk the 
danger of encouraging serpent-worship itself (see II. Kings 
xviii. 4) to bring His own salvation to the bodies of the 
multitudes and to afford their descendants in after ages with 
a type of the Saviour (John iii. 14) of more than the bodies of 
men ! We are not called nowadays to run such risks as that, 
but may feel justified in pointing out certain underlying 
principles in the superstitions around us. The field is so wide 
that a volume might well be written on the subject, but at any 


260 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


rate some hints and specimens of the method to be adopted 
may be given as a starting point for further study on the part 
of the reader. 

(A) Ancestral worship seems originally to have been a 
form of reverence free from prayer to, or what we of the West 
now call “worship” to, the manes of the departed. As the 
old Book of Rites has it: “ The object is not to pray,” but 
rather to associate the spirits of the departed with the affairs of 
their descendants and to secure the blessing of Heaven upon 
the filial representatives of the family. Thus explained, it was 
hardly a superstitious observance. And in its present super¬ 
stitious degeneration we may note the following : (a) It is 
part of a reverence for past antiquity, the golden age, when 
heaven seemed nearer to earth than at present. In other 
words, the ancestral worshipper feels that somewhere in the 
far horizon of the past the heavenly touched the earthly; as did 
the Jews and as do we. A thought this, which the Christian 
preacher may do well to utilise, for he can add the words: 
“the son of Adam, the son of God.” (b) It is a recognition 
of the sanctity of parentage and of the family-bond. And in 
these days, when Rousseau’s dreams of living “according to 
nature” are being substituted in the minds of young China 
for the morality based on family relations and responsi¬ 
bilities, enforced by Confucius, these kindred truths need to be 
kept ever to the front, (c) Ancestral worship is a protest 
against the Sadncean thought that men live not again, but 
perish as the brutes , for a non-existent spirit can hardly be an 
object of reverence to even the most ignorant. And as the 
chief ancestral worship is performed beside the graves at the 
Ohing Ming festival, “ clear shining ” in Anglo-Saxon Eostre , 
we may encourage ourselves in dealing with it by considering 
how that very similar grave-visitations among our remote 
ancestors have merged into Easter psalms of adoration to Him 
who is 1 ‘ the Resurrection and the Lfife. ’ * 

(B) In Chinese idolatry there is an attempted supply of 
a felt need. For ages the Supreme has been regarded (as the 
Emperor is) as far too exalted to receive petitions from the 
common people. The Chinese say in effect to themselves : “I 
read in the classics of chieftains and rulers worshipping the 
Sovereign on High. But He has become a mere ancient phrase 
or idea, and I cannot worship a mere phrase or idea. If 
existent above the heavens, He is too great and mysterious for 


1910] Christian Suggestions in Chinese Superstitions 261 

me to know or to worship. I must therefore appeal to lesser 
spirits, perhaps of departed worthies, who may be regarded as 
His local mandarins and constabulary.” Man needs some 
divinity as an object of worship , is the truth proclaimed by 
every larger temple and lesser local shrine. And further, 
ghosts of deceased ancestors are insufficient for his needs. 

Then in the popular form of spirit-medium stances, 
although the idol is in the room with candles and incense 
before it, a sort of miniature mountain-chair is held aloft and 
swayed about, perhaps for an hour, to invite the spirit for which 
the idol stands, to come and take up his abode in it. Which 
means that the idol is not regarded as the divinity itself, but at 
best his temporary resting place. Now, pinning down the 
minds of our hearers to that admission, we may ask them 
which is easier to believe : that a divine spirit can enter a 
carved and painted log, utterly devoid of any spiritual qualities 
whilst a mere log, but by the magic of a rough graving tool 
and paint-brush transformed into a residence for a spiritual 
being; or that, on suitable preparation and invocation, man's 
living soul itself may become the abode of a great , benevolent 
Spirit , already related to him as Creator and Preserver and 
Saviour frojn sin? During the years when my task was to 
preach to outsiders, for an hour or even two daily, in a Hankow 
street chapel—and never a week without men starting up to 
their feet and standing for very intensity of interest—I never 
found that the above appeal failed to produce an effect. 
Rather did it ever serve to introduce the main practical item 
in the religion of the Bible, taken as a whole : that goodness 
and godliness involve awaiting upon the Lord to gain His 
indwelling presence and power over selfishness (%£ >ft), to the 
strengthening of the conscience (and establishment of 
the whole character . “Yes, waiting upon Him if necessary 
for an hour as in the preliminaries to your own spirit stances.” 
A truth which, I cannot help feeling, needs to be constantly 
proclaimed from every pulpit in every land, lest dealing with 
semi-prayerless hearts, our avoidance of direct reiterated teach¬ 
ing of this one thing needful may “make the Word of God 
of none effect.” 

(C) Further, in the commoner spirit-seances, and in the 
more refined planchette-s^ances practiced by the scholarly in so 
many guilds, we have before us no mere idle curiosity to inter¬ 
view the departed, but a longing for intercourse with an un - 


262 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


seen divinity , a belief in his nearness , and in the possibility of 
such intercourse; a longing which, in its higher reaches, may 
be gratified in the words : “ Our Father which art in heaven.” 
We may be thankful that, with all his materialism, the Chinese 
scholar has not succeeded in shutting off all belief in the 
spiritual world, and may gain a leverage from practices adopted 
(if in two forms) by learned and unlearned alike in our dis¬ 
courses upon the approachableuess of its Supreme Ruler. 

(D) Yin Yang and Feng Shui may not seem promising 
subjects for the Christian missionary, and yet the latter science, 
based on the theory of the former, is not without its suggestive 
points. Take the concrete example of a pagoda for instance. 
The origin of the pagoda seems to have been an umbrella, 
or umbrella-like shade placed over the ashes of the worthy, 
in regions adjacent to China. From this arose a double or 
treble umbrella as a mark of special honour, and finally a 
solid structure with its tiers of eaves evolved from the early 
umbrella design ] the object being still to mark the spot where 
sacred relics of some religious worthy were deposited. China 
adopted and developed the form of the pagoda, but does not 
seem to liave made it a tower for the marking of sacred relics. 
Introduced by Buddhism, and in the T‘ang dynasty always 
associated with Buddhism, it became adopted under Feng Shui 
influence as a compensation for some deficiency in the contour 

of the land —a deficiency generally apparent to the artistic eye _ 

by which it was supposed to be unreceptive to the felicitous 
influences of heaven. Far back in ancient China an uncon - 
secrated mountain was regarded as an offence to heaven , and 
rulers used to repair to mountain tops to worship the Supreme, 
but here is the idea of providing a compensation for some de¬ 
fect in the lesser hills or the plains ; the pagoda being an 
erection which “answered” to the influences of heaven (as 
indeed the not ancient character for pagoda signifies, being 
formed of earth and an answer). 

First of all, we ought to consult God in the choice of a 
dwelling aud kindred matters as earnestly as the Chinese may 
consult a Feng Shui professor, so as to bring every part of our 
lives into accordance with heavenly influences , and there should 
be special heaven-pointing aspirations and prayers from those 
farts of our lives which we know to have been out of touch with 
the glory of God. Not only are our mountain-tops to be conse- 
crated, but the workaday plains and the lesser hills of life. 


1910J Christian Suggestions in Chinese Superstitions 


26 } 


Then in tlie Feng Shut philosophy a pagoda is “to bring 
heaven and earth into concordant unity, so that they may not 
be in a condition of severance,” These words, with “man” 
instead of “earth,” occur in the “Maxims” of Yang Hsiung, 
B. C. 53, A. D. 18), written concerning “the task of the 
Sages.” Do they not apply far more surely .to One whose 
Person can bring the most defective parts of human nature 
into correspondence with the Divine ? And just as our Lord— 
probably referring to a passage that Nathaniel had been 
pondering over “ under the fig-tree”—used the ancient dream- 
ladder of Jacob as a type of Himself (John i. 51), so He would 
allow a Chinese imagination to picture Him as the true pagoda 
of heavenly influence , raising the lowest in character and 
compensating for the most distressful of circumstances. 

(E) Related to Feng Shut is the superstitious notion that 
every straight alley opposite the door of a dwelling is a proba¬ 
ble inlet of ghostly influences of unpropitious nature. Hence 
the stone set in the wall, or a wooden board in lieu of the 
stone, inscribed H ill ]$( that is, the defiant question: 
“Darest thou (the evil influence) withstand the (power of the) 
stone from (the sacred) T‘ai Mountain ?” 

The first thing that strikes our olfactory sensibilities oil 
close, warm days, is that such alleys are badly in need of 
a quantity of literal feng and shui (wind and water) to ventilate 
and flush them out, for they are choice breeding places for all 
manner of disease-germs, and we admire the wisdom of Moses 
in making sanitation part of the national religion, as indeed 
it has come to be of late years in every enlightened land. 
We have no more right in the sight of Cod to fling away our 
neighbour ' 1 s health than we have to steal and sqttander his 
goods. Indeed of the two crimes the latter may be the lesser. 

Then comes the deeper consideration : Every inlet to our 
lives a possible avenue of evil. For although 4 4 the earth is 
the Lord’s,” a very considerable portion of it is under the 
spell of demonaic influences. Lives wilfully exposed to temp¬ 
tation are sure to invite calamity, and linwatchfulness and 
prayerlessness may often turn our very blessings into curses 
(as in the solemn words of Malachi ii. 2). Is there anything 
for us answering to a potent stone from a sacred mountain (a 
mountain specially associated with the ancient worship of 
God?) Nay, there is something more for us than this. A 
Chinese ideal is “immovable as the (sacred) T‘ai Mountain.” 


264 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


The Christian ideal is “firm on the Rock of Ages:” Christ 
for foundation, Christ for corner-stone; a life founded upon 
that Rock, a character built up of stones quarried from that 
Rock ; then in the confidence of complete prayerful reliance 
upon infinite stability the most tempted believer may say to 
the leagued powers of darkness: “Dare ye withstand the 
power of the T‘ai Mountain?” and reading Psalm ii, may 
even “learn to laugh with God.” Or, bearing in mind the 
common spectacle of the slab of stone, or piece of board, may 
safely sing : 

“ I have a shield shall quell their rage, 

And drive the alien armies back ; 

Pourtrayed it bears a bleeding L,amb, 

I dare believe in Jesu’s Name.” 

With the above hints of an attitude and method to be 
commended, one may leave the subject to be worked out 
further by missionary readers, each for himself. 


Memorials to the Dead and their Relation to 
Christian Practice 

BY REV. W. S. PAKENHAM-WALSH 

ii A ND some there be which have no memorial, who 
are perished as though they had not been and 
are become as though they had not been born.” 
This pathetic little verse occurs in the great passage in 
Ecclesiasticus, beginning, “Let us now praise famous men,” 
and I quote it because it must be the unuttered cry of many 
Chinese Christians in our own day. There may be splendid 
exceptions, but speaking generally the Chinese Christians have 
no memorials and perish as though they had not been. 

On becoming Christians they are cut off from their many 
memorial customs ; for them the *Jf Bjj, or feast of graves, is no 
more; ^ n % the ancestral worship on the 15th of the 
7th moon, ceases; they cannot burn incense on the 1st day 
of the 10th moon, the -f- f||, nor can they any longer join 

in the home worship of ancestors with their relations at the 
3l> the feast of the nth moon. In fact we hardly realize 
how much in the way of heathen memorial rites they give 
up, and perhaps we hardly realize how little in the way 




19io] 


Memorials to the Dead 


265 


of Christian memorial rites we give them. Our own beautifully 
kept English cemeteries in China, and our many ways of keeping 
in mind our loved ones, should draw out our hearts in deeper 
sympathy for our Chinese brethren who have lost so much and 
have so little given them to make up for it. I am speaking of 
externals. We give them something worth all their old 
memorials put together, but we do not give them those 
external expressions of sympathy which, human nature being 
wliat it is, we value ourselves and which they would probably 
value even more. Some may say, indeed some have said it to 
me: “This is an entirely Chinese question, and we must 
leave it to the Chinese church to solve,” but while fully 
agreeing that the Chinese Christians themselves must have 
a large voice in any decision come to, I cannot but think 
that, as their teachers and guides, we are not entitled to 
shelve the problem in that way, but that it is our duty to seek 
in cooperation with themselves to direct the issue, and also 
that they expect us in this, as in other matters, to give them a 
lead and to take them fully into our confidence. 

As a word limit has been set to this paper, I shall try to 
condense my thoughts into a few suggestions, which it will be 
understood open to the fullest criticism. 

Firstly. I would retain as fa a as possible the feast of 
the I would again advocate the retention of the 

name in all Christian communions. It is a beautiful title, 
“the clear bright festival,” and the name has nothing 
idolatrous about it. Just as we retain the old Anglo-Saxon 
title Easter, so let us retain the older and more beautiful 
Chinese title ^ BJJ. The two heathen festivals are almost an 
exact parallel, falling as they do about the same time in spring. 
We retain the old name Easter, the name of an Anglo-Saxon 
goddess, but we explain our use of it by saying: “Easter, or 
the festival of the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ.” 
Let us do exactly the same for the Chinese and accustom them 
to speak of the ^ BJJ, or the festival of the resurrection of 
Christ. Let us explain our English usage of Easter to the 
Chinese clergy and leaders and teach them to regard in the 
same way their own beautiful title. They will respond as 
readily and gladly as did our forefathers, and in a very short 
time the power of the Gospel will have captured what will 
be to all future generations of Chinese Christians a great 
possession, 


266 


The Chinese Recorder 


[Aprfl 


Secondly. I would advocate the use of Christian services 
at the graves or in the Christian cemeteries. At the Pf) the 
heathen are repairing their graves, covering them with paper 
money and bewailing hopelessly their lost ones. Let us 
show them the better way. It was a great surprise to me 
to know that many were already working along this line and 
that in several places such services had already been begun. 
“Twice a year, on Easter and All Saints’ Day, we visit 
the cemeteries in a body ; the whole congregation following 
choir and clergy in procession. Hymns such as ‘ The strife is 
o’er, the battle done,’ ‘For all the saints who from their 
labours rest,’ are sung at the graves, prayers and thanksgivings 
are said, teaching and preaching follow by several speakers, 
directed at first to the Christians and afterwards to the crowds 
of non-Christians who have flocked around ; ” this is an extract 
from a letter from a member of the Episcopal Mission in 
Hankow. “ We have on Easter Sunday gathered a congregation 
of our people in the church cemetery and there held a service 
of thanksgiving for the hope of the Gospel. Our service this 
last Easter took this form ; we sang, first of all, the hymn, 

Give me the wings of faith to rise 

Within the veil and see 

The saints above, how deep their joys, 

How bright their glories be. 

Then we had the reading of Scripture, suitable passages, 
and an address; a hymn for the children, ‘There is a Happy 
Land,’ a prayer, and closed with the hymn, ‘Come let us 
join our cheerful songs with angels round the throne.’ This 
service is now in its third year, and it has been a success, having 
met a decided need on the part of our Christians.” This is an 
extract from a letter which I received last year from a member 
of the London Mission. I mention these as examples of what 
is being actually done, nor does there seem to be any reason 
why similar services should not be held with advantage and 
blessing by every communion all over China. Indeed the 
Anglican Communion is already planning for such a move. 
The Anglican Conference at Shanghai in 1909 A.D. appointed 
a committee to prepare and report to the next conference 
among other services a special service “for use at graves at 
the Ch’ing Min Festival.” 

In connection with these services we might also change 
the heathen custom of covering the graves with paper into 


1910] 


Memorials to the Dead 


267 


the more generally recognised Christian custom of laying upon 
them white flowers, symbolic of the white robes and purity of 
heaven. Also at this season at least, if not oftener, the 
Chinese Christians might be encouraged to repair and tend 
their graves, an office of love now sadly neglected and which 
must at times lead to a misunderstanding of the Christian 
position and be a real hindrance to our work. 

Thirdly. I would advocate the use of some kind of 
memorial tablet. I am well aware that on this point we shall 
not all immediately agree and also that such a vexed question 
must finally be settled by the Chinese themselves. There are 
those who believe that the old ancestral tablets can be dis¬ 
associated from idolatry and be continued to be used by the 
converted families. There are others who think that a new 
form of tablet, or at least a new tablet, is an essential, and it 
may be that until the time when the church in China is strong 
enough and united enough to suggest some one common 
practice that in this matter various uses may obtain. In the 
Chinese Anglican Cathedral at Hankow at the present time 
the names of all the members of the congregation who have 
died within the year are read out on All Saints’ Day, and their 
names are inscribed upon large and handsome tablets of black 
enamelled wood, hung on the walls of the nave near the seats 
of the Christians. Appropriate texts are embossed in gilt 
characters at the top of the tablets, of which there are eight. 
Each tablet is planned to be large enough to contain the names 
of all those who pass to the life beyond the grave within a 
period of five years. These tablets were all given by the Chinese 
Christians themselves in memory of the late Bishop Ingle. 

This idea of making tablets to take the place of the 
ancestral tablets was proposed a good many years ago by Pastor 
Kranz, and it may finally commend itself to the Chinese 
church as the solution of the problem. At the same time we 
should remember the casting away or destruction of the old 
ancestral tablets is forbidden by existing Chinese law. A 
speaker at a recent conference in Shanghai drew attention to 
the law under which the Chinese now live, namely, that “to 
cast away or destroy the ancestral tablet is like casting away 
or destroying the corpses of parents. The penalty for such an 
offence is decapitation.” 

Is it too bright a hope to entertain that as the Chinese 
church becomes more enlightened and waxes stronger in faith 


268 


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[April 


and knowledge, it may prove to us and to all men that the 
Gospel is the power of God even unto the salvation of the 
ancestral tablets from the superstitions which have entwined 
themselves around them? Meanwhile might we not follow 
the lead of Hankow, using the new Christian tablets in our 
churches while leaving the old ancestral tablets an open 
question for the home ? 

Fourthly. We might introduce much more widely the idea 
of memorials in the churches, such as pulpits, reading desks, 
fonts, etc. I hesitate to say stained glass'windows, though 
I know of at least one church in China where stained glass 
memorial windows have been put up. But when leading 
Chinese Christians are called Home, the subject of a memo¬ 
rial might then be discussed and much might spring from 
such discussions. “Some there be,” nay, many of our best, 
“which have no memorial who are perished as though they 
had not been.” 

Not long ago l suddenly met wliat I at first sight took for 
a heathen funeral procession. In front came a native band, 
followed by men carrying flags and banners. I did not at once 
notice that on the banners were Christian texts and mottoes ; 
then came the coffin covered by a large Chinese red canopy ; 
close behind the coffin followed a chair carrying what I at first 
thought was the aucestral tablet, but which I discovered to be 
a picture of the deceased, an elderly Chinese gentleman. My 
curiosity being aroused I followed to the grave, and to my 
astonishment heard the strains of a Christian hymn and realized 
that I was attending a Chinese Christian funeral. Great 
crowds had conic together, and an old missionary with white 
hair, standing by the open grave, spoke to them of the 
Christian hope of immortality and fuller life beyond. It was 
all so Chinese and from their point of view so reverent and 
impressive that my Western prejudices and consternation soon 
gave way to admiration, and the conviction was once more 
impressed upon me, a conviction which I would in turn seek 
to impress upon others, that in our attitude towards these 
old Chinese customs we must, to a much greater extent 
than at present, become Chinese that we may win Chinese, 
retaining all that is good in the old, while supplementing and 
enriching the Chinese church from our own rich. Western 
store. 


1910 ] Some Chinese Feasts and the Christian Attitude 


269 


Some Chinese Feasts and the Christian Attitude 

Towards Them 

[The major portion of the first half of the following article, stating the 
problem brought forward for discussion, is taken from a paper read by the 
Rev. G. F. Mosher before a conference of the American Episcopal Church 
Mission held in Shanghai. The responsibility for the suggestions contained 
in the second half of the paper rests, however, with the compiler.— Editor,] 

A DAPTATION has ever been one of the predominant 
characteristics of the Christian church. A completed 
revelation on the part of God did not mean the completed 
apprehension of that revelation on the part of His people ; as new 
conditions were met they would call for new aspects of Christian¬ 
ity, and though these aspects were not wanting, it is scarcely to 
be expected that their presence could be immediately recognised. 
God’s method with the Jews becomes our consoling thought in 
those moments of depression when it seems that the great forces 
of heathenism cannot be overthrown. It also becomes the model 
upon which we must build our work. Perfectly adapting His 
revelation as He did to that which the Jews from time to time 
were able to receive, Helias set for us an example of adaptation 
upon which must depend all of our success. History shows us 
conclusively that the rapidity and thoroughness of the triumph 
of Christianity has ever been in direct proportion to its adaptive 
powers. Christianity, when it is brought for the first time to 
a non-Christian people, is indeed a stranger in a strange land. 
This was never more true than it is in the present day when, 
having been thoroughly adapted to the Occident, it is brought 
from the west back to the east, in which it bad its origin, to be 
once more adapted to the orient. But the more one studies 
the problem the more vivid becomes his realization that it is 
not Christianity but the Christian that is to be adapted. There 
is scarcely anything more striking in the whole study of the 
Bible than the way in which the customs of the Chinese inter¬ 
pret some of the most difficult passages in the Old or even in 
the New Testament. And it is this fact which gives occasion 
for the paper on the need of adaptation. 

One of the greatest obstacles to the progress of the church 
in this empire is the inability of the modem missionary to 
adapt himself to oriental life. We who are born and trained 
in lands that are esssentially Christian and are brought up to 
view our religion as the only perfect one, acquire a subconscious 


270 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


but very real and vivid impression that in Christianity is to be 
found nothing but good, while in all other religions one looks 
for little that is good. Modern missions had their inception 
tinder such a conception of the religious life of the world, and 
perhaps it is not too much to say that of the new arrivals in 
mission fields to-day only an exceedingly small proportion are 
free of the necessity for unlearning it. The argument would be 
simply, Where there is not pure doctrine there cannot of course 
be pure life. And herein, curiously enough, lies the root of the 
belief that it is useless to labour for the salvation of heathen 
peoples. There are those who conceive that the Chinese, being 
believers in, and a product of, a false religion must of necessity be 
a false people. They are not exactly human with human souls. 
This point of view is in evidence among many whom we meet 
in the home land. Later, as we journey to our fields of labour, 
it is streuuously forced upon us by our fellow-passengers on the 
great ocean steamers, and when we have arrived at our destina¬ 
tions we find large communities of men and women whom we 
can in many ways respect and admire, who presumably know 
the natives and native life and to whom the question has 
ceased to be one that admits of any doubt whatever. Yet we 
can lose neither faith nor courage. Christianity has done 
wonderful things for our forefathers. Personally we have come 
to know Christ by what He has done for ourselves. And so, 
somewhat with faint hearts possibly, but with hope ever strong, 
we take up our task. 

The first awakening soon comes. Some older missionary 
lets fall a remark with regard to some form of Chinese life that 
it is superior to the same thing at home. Our suspicions are 
aroused. Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? But 
shock follows shock until we become accustomed to the idea 
that in truth every product of the native religion is not neces¬ 
sarily bad. Indeed we one day find ourselves coming to 
similar thought about certain customs without help from 
others. Again and again we have this experience until finally 
all our thinking powers are aroused and our minds are turned 
to the solution of this new problem. We ask how these things 
that seem so purely the product of Christian teaching have come 
to be part aud parcel of the life of a people to whom Christian¬ 
ity is as yet practically unknown. Further enquiry develops 
the fact that they have been found already existent by the 
church before the days of present missionary effort. It is not 


271 


1910] Some Chinese Feasts and the Christian Attitude 

true then that all the good things of this world found their 
origin in historic Christianity. Our minds thus are opened to 
the whole question of what Christianity owes to the many 
religions, or rather to the many customs which are the outcome 
of the religions with which it has been in contact. 

A study of auine of the Christian rites and ceremonies 
common to all the churches will show the presence of much 
which is not Christian in origin but which has become so by 
adoption. It has ever been a principle of the Christian church 
to make use of heathen ceremonies by taking them bodily and 
changing such portions of them as were distinctly contrary to 
the teaching of Christianity and also leaving such as were the 
offspring of the national life, and using existing festivals which 
have a strong hold upon the people and have dominated their 
lives, by establishing festivals similarly great, making them 
similarly attractive with the frank intention of entirely over¬ 
throwing their rivals. The festivals of Easter and Christmas 
and many of the ceremonies connected with weddings and 
funerals may be instanced as cases in point. Pagan Rome, 
Teutonic folklore, and Druid festivals have each in their turn 
been used to contribute to the conquest of the Christian church 
in the lands of Europe. 

CHINESE RITES AND CEREMONIES. 

Upon us, as founders of the Christian church in China, 
there lies a great responsibility : “Just as the twig is bent the 
tree’s inclined.” There are in the world but few scholars 
who are capable of discerning the essential differences in men 
of various races or nations ; there are in the church but few 
theologians who are capable of distinguishing between the 
essentials and non-essentials of Christian teaching. We as a 
body are, for the most part, included iu neither class, and yet 
we have to accomplish a work based on the findings of both. 
Our problem is in the concrete, however, through being limited 
in scope to a single nation, and herein lies that which removes 
all sense of oppression at thought of the magnitude of the task. 
We are to study the customs of the Chinese people, discover 
which of them are heathen and which are national, adapt 
the former and allow the latter to take care of themselves. 
The difficulty of the task lies in the fact that in China, as else¬ 
where, the customs of the people are not heathen or national 
but heathen and national, The two are so inseparably woven 


272 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


as to be well-nigh indecipherable ; yet this is not invariably 
the case, and there are instances in which it would seem that 
we have not made the progress that c~v.V •'easonably have been 
expected. Whether difficult or simple, it were inexcusable in 
us not to attack tlie problem with the same earnestness and 
fearlessness that we have seen characterised the church in her 
beginnings in other lands. 

Our concern to-day is, first, to enumerate the more im* 
portant of Chinese festivals and to note something of what 
they mean and how they are celebrated. Second, to suggest 
a means by which they can be adapted to Christian use. 

MARRIAGE CUSTOMS. 

In regard to marriage in China our course is plain. Bishop 
Graves has given to us, in No. 2 of the Morrison Society 
Papers, an account of the essentials of a Chinese wedding, 
which I shall take the liberty to quote as it stands 

" The customs used in Chinese marriages fall naturally into 
two divisions : those of the betrothal and those of the wedding. 

(Betrothal).—In Chinese betrothals the important point for 
us to notice is that the parties concerned are cot the principals. 
The contract is really made between the families of the future 
bride and groom as represented by the heads of the respective 
families, those in whose pairia potestas the persons to be betrothed 
stand. This is the first and most fundamental distinction between 
Chinese and Christian marriage. Among the Chinese the heads 
of the families alone choose, and the inclination of the principal 
parties is not consulted. 

The preliminary negotiations are carried on through go- 
betweens (/^ A)- When an agreement has been brought 
about, presents are sent to the family of the bride ^t), and 
cards with the names and date of birth of the parties are in¬ 
terchanged ($f fe)- 1^ these are accepted a settlement is effect¬ 
ed by sending proof ($ ft), and a contract is written called 
I! ip. The festivities of the betrothal then commence. The 
services of a fortune-teller are usually asked to determine 
whether the horoscopes of the parties, as expressed in the 
cards (/V ^), allow them to marry. The parties are now 
betrothed, and the binding character of the betrothal is such 
that it gives both parties a right to sue for the conclusion of the 
marriage and will be enforced by the courts. 

(The Wedding).—Years may pass, and usually do pass, 
before the conclusion of the marriage. When the time comes, 
presents of different sorts ($J ffc) are sent to the father of the 
bride and a further document (f| ^) is exchanged. In this 
contract the number of the presents and amount of money to be 
sent to the bride’s family are expressly stipulated. Then a day is 
fixed for the marriage (If ffl). 


1910] Some Chinese Feasts and the Christian Attitude 


273 


On the day before the wedding-day the presents, furniture, 
clothing, etc., of the bride are carried through the streets in pro¬ 
cession to the bridegroom’s house. 

On the wedding-day the bridegroom goes in person to the 
bride’s house to bring her honi' 1 . 

The bride, seated in a red chair, is brought in procession to 
her new home, where she is formally received by the bridegroom. 
The bride and groom wor-liip heaven and earth and 

enter the bridal chamber, where they drink cups of wine, which 
they exchange with each other, and the marriage is finished. The 
wife is considered to have left forever her own family and to 
belong henceforth to the family of her husband (fcij ^). 

A curious and coarse custom of playing practical jokes on the 
married pair, called ‘nao-fang’ (pr^ ]|f), follows on the cere¬ 
mony and there is the usual feasting, which accompanies all 
transactions of importance in China. 

These are the customs in brief which are generally used in 
Chinese betrothals and marriage throughout the empire, though 
every place has more or less of local customs which need not 
concern us here.” 

FUNERAL CUSTOMS. 

When a Chinese becomes so seriously ill as to alarm his 
family, they immediately have recourse to a variety of supersti¬ 
tious practices in the hope, not so much of curing, as of 
exorcising the malady and so restoring him to health. They 
propitiate divinities, expel various deadly influences, appease 
an angry god, repeat the formula for dissolving grudges, invite 
the god of medicine to the house, get ten men to become 
“security” for the sick person, call back the departing spirit, 
follow the directions of a certain book of charms, burn a paper 
image as a substitute, and so on ad infinitum . In spite of 
them all every Chinese eventually dies, probably in his best 
clothes and in the main room of the house, to which he is 
carried when hope is abandoned. The priests are then called, 
a tablet set up by his side, a near-by table is prepared with 
food, lamps, and incense, wailing is commenced, which is main¬ 
tained principally by the women of the house, paper-money is 
burned, lanterns—white ones—hung at the door, a mat porch 
is put up, the musicians are called and the caterer notified. 

The body, sumptuously dressed, is put into as expensive a 
coffin as the family feel able to buy and a necromancer 
is called to find a lucky place for interment. From death 
to burial a longer or shorter time may elapse according 
to circumstances; whatever the length of time, from one 
end of it to the other, there is a succession of rites and 


274 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


ceremonies and feastings that are so scrupulous!}' formal and 
exact and so confusedly mixed together that I confess myself 
utterly baffled in my attempt to give a brief description of the 
essentials. With just one further remark, then, we shall leave 
this portion of our subject for the present. Amongst a people 
of such exceedingly strong affections as the Chinese it is 
impossible that there should not be great sorrow and a sense of 
real bereavement at the death of a loved one, but so elaborately 
and superstitiously formal are all of their ceremonies at this 
time that their real feelings are completely misrepresented, and 
to a Christian this is the most cruel part of it all. 

OTHER FESTIVITIES. 

During the course of a year there are fourteen festivals 
observed by the Chinese, which I have roughly divided into 
four classes. 

I. Those when financial obligations must be met. 

The greatest festival of the entire year is that of the New 
Year. The first day itself is the greatest, but the real festival 
extends through the fifth day and to a smaller extent through 
the fifteenth. This festival has its preparation, and also, 
as I have stated, its following days, all business obligations 
must be met, New Year’s calls are paid, and everywhere 
are feasts. 

The 23rd Day of the 12th Moon, known as Song-tsau- 
kyuin fjg J|) is the anticipatory day, when the household 
god’s paper representation is burned (probably outside the back 
door, as being nearest to the kitchen where he resides), thus 
sending him to heaven to make report of his family before 
Nyok- wanng-da-ti. Z-koo ($£ and red sugar are eaten 
by the people on this day they are sticky, and the inference 
is that if the tsau kyuin (|g |£) should eat them his lips would 
stick together, so that when asked a question by his superior 
be would be able to reply only in the affirmative by “5-,” 
il z" (hence the name u Z-koo") and so make report of 
nothing but the good. 

On the 5th Day of the 1st Moon the shopkeepers extend 
a welcome to Dze Zung Lem Ya (ffj ijiljJ qg ^), the god of riches 
or money. Thus they insure good business, which is riches, 
for the year. The rite consists merely in setting off fire¬ 
crackers, and there is a small feast ou the night of the 
4th and the morning of the 5th. 


1910] Some Chinese Feasts and the Christian Attitude 275 

On the 15th Day of the 1st Moon is held the feast of 
lanterns, known as Nyoen-siaii-tsih (jq $ fjJ). At night 
lighted lanterns are hung, and the children have rabbit 
lanterns or horse lanterns for playthings. On this day the 
household god returns and once more takes up his abode 
in the kitchen. The people eat yoen-ts T) which, being 
round in shape, symbolizes completeness, in the hope that 
thus all they undertake during the year will be completed. 
This is the last festival immediately connected with the 
New Year. 

On the 5th Day of the 5th Moon, once more all debts 
must be cancelled. This festival is known as Toen-ng 
or Tanng-ng >, and has a touching story connected with 

it. In ancient times there was a mandarin, named Choeh 
Nyoen . high in the state and much esteemed by the 

Emperor for his singleness of purpose and devotion to country. 
But jealousy was finally aroused, and the Emperor degraded 
him. Disappointed and chagrined he threw himself into a 
creek and was drowned. The people, however, were devoted 
to him and deified him. Boats made in the form of dragons 
(hence the popular English designation of the day as the 
u dragon-boat festival”) go about on the creeks for the 
purpose of finding his body aud bringing it to land, and from 
them rice is thrown into the water for him to eat. As sug¬ 
gestive of this rice thrown to him, the people feast on Tsoug-ts 
m f), which is rice wrapped ill a leaf. 

A third aud last time accounts are cleared on the 15th Day 
of the 8th Moon, known as Pah-nyoeh-pen (7\ M •N 2 ) °r Tsong- 
Is^ieu ( 4 » 1^); in English the mid-autumn festival. This is 
really a festival in honour of the harvest 1110011, observed 
because the moon has a ring around it and puts out all of its 
glory. The people eat nyoeh-ping ( p} fj[) or moon cakes and 
burn incense made into shapes of baskets, towers, etc. 

II. The Worship of Ancestors. 

In the 3rd Moon occurs TsHng-ming (^ ) or the feast 

of graves. The mandarins go to the ancestral halls of the city 
in which they hold office, and there burn incense and candles 
to show their respect for the dead. The people go to the 
graves of their respective ancestors, upon which they put food 
and burn paper money, all of which is for the use of the dead 
in the regions beyond. Some of the people have feasts at 
home, but the emphasis of the ceremonies on this day is laid 


276 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


on those at the graves. There is also a procession, and the 
five gods (generally but not always supposed to be those of 
gold, wood, water, fire, and earth) are carried to the public 
burying ground. 

On the 15th Day of the 7th Moon, kuown merely as TsHk~ 
7 iyoeh-pen ip) there is ancestral worship in the homes. 

Offerings of food are made on the home altar and afterwards 
eaten by the family. There is also a procession similar to the 
one of TsHng-ming . 

On the 1st Day of the 10th Moon, known as Zeh-nyoeh - 
tsau (-p ^ J^) food is placed and incense burned on the home 
altar. Also there is the third and last procession of the gods 
to the public burying ground. 

In the nth Moon occurs Tong-ts (%■ jg), or the first 
day of winter. This is one of the greater festivals of the year. 
It is, in a way, everybody’s birthday, and though it is more 
usual to count a person a year older 011 New Year’s Day, it is 
really on this day that the count should be made. Ancestors 
are worshipped at home in the same way as before, and at night 
nearly every family has a feast, especially the rich, who wear 
their full robes. A proverb says : Toug-Is-doo-koo-sing-nyien 
(* S * ift ®r $), that is, Tong-ts is greater than New 
Year’s Day. 

III. Beginnings of Seasons. 

In the 1st Moon occurs Lih-ts l ung or the first day 

of spring. On this festival all civil mandarins worship a 
paper cow in the courtyard of the yamen and whip it three 
times. There is then a rush on the part of the yamen-runners 
and other people present to secure the different parts of the 
cow. The main object is to secure the head, as this promises 
success throughout the year in catching thieves and other 
culprits! I am unable to find any explanation of this worship 
of the cow. 

During the 4th Moon comes Lih- K au (jJ; J[), the first day 
of summer. The people weigh themselves “ to see,” as I have 
heard it stated, “what progress they have made during the 
year.” They also drink fermented rice wine and eat salted 
eggs, plums, etc., as these are supposed to prevent sickness in 
the summer. 

The first day of winter, because of the nature of its 
observance, we have already noticed under the division relating 
to ancestor worship. 


1910J Some Chinese Feasts and the Christian Attitude 2 77 

IV. Miscellaneous. 

There remain two festivals that are not in any of the three 
classes given. 

On the 30th Day of the 7th Moon is the birthday of the 
god of earth, known as Di-dzaung-ivaung-boo-sah-sang-nyih 
(16 H? 3E H H 0 }. When the god of earth opens his eyes 
the moon will shine, and therefore people can see. This 
festival is observed by burning incense-sticks in the door-way 
at night. 

On the 9th Day of the 9th Moon is Dzong-yang (Jr |*§), 
when people eat dzong-yang cakes. The general thought of 
the day seems to be one of increase, principally in knowledge. 

Of course there are other feasts than these and other ways 
of observing these than the ways mentioned. One may not 
generalise for the whole of China, as customs differ so very 
greatly from place to place. I think, though, that we have 
now come to the point where we are ready in a measure to 
make some suggestions as to how the church may best adapt 
herself in accordance with her old custom to the needs and the 
pleasures of the people. 

II. 

At the outset of the consideration of the right Christian 
attitude towards Chinese festivals the categorical imperative of 
the faith must be fixed in mind. No terms can be suggested 
in regard to idolatry, where it is recognized as such, and there 
can be no compromise with evil. But we are here dealing 
with matters which are not inherently evil and are frequently 
only adventitiously idolatrous. In the matter of marriage and 
funeral customs, to which our attention must be first and chiefly 
given, since here arise practical difficulties constantly affecting 
the work and administration of the church from within, it has to 
be noted that these customs, wheresoever they may be found, 
have been built up upon a religious foundation. Whatever 
superstitious extravagances and vicious practices may have 
accrued to them, there remains no doubt of their prime religious 
significance. Here, then, is a common starting point, At the 
basis of the customs observed in connection with weddings and 
funerals (aud likewise, clearly enough, in connection with 
ancestral worship) we find a factor which is one in purpose and 
instinct, though differing wudely in degree and value, with the 
Christian attitude. That is, we have already to hand for our 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


278 

Christian service an essential, the parallel, as it were, of the 
spiritual nature of man in connection with the work of preach* 
ing, which it is our business to make use of for the purpose 
of the conversion of custom. That essential may be summed 
up thus: ‘ In the crises of life (and death is its last crisis) it is 
spiritual power which overrules.’ And in our use of it we are 
on sure ground, for we are at one in such an attitude w T ith the 
divine process of revelation and with the method of the apostolic 
and historic Church of Christ. The Christian method of attack 
not only ought not to be, but it need not be, the frontal one of 
destructive overthrow, since much that is already contained in, 
and an indispensable part of, the customs under consideration 
is ours to commandeer for Christ. It awaits only the gift of 
right direction to become our most potent ally. 

It is very needful to remind ourselves of the plain fact that 
it is only with matters that are universally and spiritually 
essential that the Christian missionary to a non-Christian people 
is directly concerned. There is nothing in the Gospel which we 
proclaim which makes it any part of the work of the Christian 
church to change the forms of habit or custom in order to pave 
the way for the occidentalization of the world. The Gospel 
is our charge, not sociology. Our action and attitude should be 
such as to make it evident that while Christianity is bound to 
develop certain aspects of existing national life in a given direc¬ 
tion wherever it is preached, it is no part of its programme to 
denationalize. Were it possible for every missionary to couie 
to a true understanding of how much that is merely national 
or Western in form, has been superimposed upon the foundation 
facts of the New Testament injunction, and how much that is 
expedient in the W r est, is not merely unessential but definitely 
inexpedient in Eastern lands, many of our difficulties in dealing 
sympathetically and practically with such customs as we are 
discussing would disappear. The test to be applied is con¬ 
sistency with pure doctrine and Scripture precept and not that 
of comparison with the practice of the churches we represent 
in this Eastern land. 

In a consideration, therefore, of the marriage customs in 
vogue in China attention should be given to certain proceedings 
in our Western Christian mode, which are common to our 
churches, but altogether unessential to the act of marriage 
viewed as a religions ceremony. Some of these may be, 
and are, not merely inexpedient but truly distasteful to the 


19101 Some Chinese Feasts and the Christian Attitude 279 

oriental mind. Neither the absence of a certain formula, nor 
of the passing of a ring, nor of the declaration on the part 
of a minister, may be held necessarily to invalidate the mar¬ 
riage service so long as certain root essentials are observed. 
Marriage is at once a legal contract and a religious act to the 
Christian mind, and the legal contract of the West is not that 
of the East. In its relation to marriage, here as in Western 
lands, the task of the church is to harmonize the legal and the 
religious forms of the service. 

In China the law requires a previous regular contract, 
a mutual parental consent and recognition and a formal public 
declaration of union. Custom demands the worship of heaven 
and earth and the drinking of a cup of wine by the groom and 
bride. Other numerous customs are involved which are bound 
to exhibit, and are indeed rapidly undergoing, change as the 
nation moves along the path of social progress. 

Now the church has to recognize and endorse these 
legal claims. It may modify them, but its marriages must be 
legal. What it has to eliminate, or rather transform, is the 
worship of heaven and earth, making the act one of worship 
of the eternal and true God. It has also by education and 
precept to sanctify the whole conception of the marriage rite. 
But it should do this on a basis of Chinese custom and not of 
Western practice. By its insistence upon the religious nature 
of marriage, as a matter which concerns the welfare of indivi¬ 
dual souls as well as the convenience of families, it is also 
bound, sooner or later, to modify the existing harsh and 
unsatisfactory method of impersonal betrothal. 

So also in matters connected with funeral and kindred 
ceremonies, the relation of the living with the dead and of the 
dead with the spiritual world, our work is that of wise Chris¬ 
tian conservation. Wrongly enough, but very certainly, the 
word has gone forth over all China that foreigners have neither 
regard nor reverence for their dead. Is not the indiscriminate 
break which Chinese Christians have generally been taught to 
make between the old and the new ways of life largely respon¬ 
sible for this unfounded report ? Has the method of the 
missionary taken away too much and given too little in return ? 
Chinese are often astonished beyond measure by the first sight 
which is given them of our foreign cemeteries in the treaty 
ports. The neatness, the obvious care and attention given 
to the dead is so entirely opposed to what they have heard 


280 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


in this respect that they are filled with admiration. Iti deal¬ 
ing with the question of cemeteries there is a great oppor¬ 
tunity given to the Christian church. Means, too, should 
be devised whereby rites and ceremonies which are now 
in the hands of the Buddhist and Taoist priests shall be 
replaced by definite services of Christian prayer. It is not 
sufficient simply to evict those customs which, however 
degraded, are yet the proof of imperishable spiritual desire in 
the hours of life’s deepest need. Something positive must be 
provided. For the spiritual nature, equally with material 
nature, abhors a vacuum. Our pastors cannot be too assiduous 
in their attendance upon Christian families which are suffering 
loss by death. 

Likewise in the matter of the memorials of the dead it 
would seem that in our laudable endeavour to avoid the 
dangers of ancestor worship we have erred in excess on the 
other side. In a laud where the presence and the memorials of 
the dead call forth expressions of deep reverence and devotion 
from the living we have failed to use aright this most effective 
instrument for Christian service. Surely we may obtain, as 
we may also confer, much benefit from a wise recognition 
of such customs. Is it not remarkable that the festival 
of Ching Ming has not been generally laid hold of for this 
purpose ? Here is a festival purer in name, more uplifting in 
character and altogether less pagan in association than the 
old Easter ; nevertheless our Christian Easter has become to 
us perhaps the most spiritual and soul-inspiring of all the 
feasts in the church calendar. Ching Ming should surely be 
taken and renewed in the name of Christ and in the power of 
His resurrection. 

Again it is no part of our Christian duty to attempt to 
fasten upon the Chinese church our Western calendar. There 
is no sufficient reason to urge against the keeping of the Easter 
festival at the Ching Ming season. It is helpful doubtless to 
keep holiday with the church universal ; the reform of the 
national calendar, which is proceeding apace and is only a 
question of time in China will, however, attend to that. In 
the religious observance of the New Year there is no need to 
intrude our Western reckoning upon the Chinese Christians. It 
is rather the privilege of the foreign worker in China to join 
whole heartedly with the Christian observance of New Year as 
it is. The institution of a watch night service of an especially 


281 


1910] Some Chinese Feasts and the Christian Attitude 

impressive character, should take the place of the old heathen 
custom of worship in the temples and serve to greet the coining 
year. Through the special New Year season united services 
of praise are already common, and it is an illustration of the 
value of the whole position herein urged to note how enthusias¬ 
tically the Chinese have taken up a modified observance of the 
united week of prayer. Once the way has been opened they 
are keen in response to the effort to turn old festivals into ways 
of Christian life. 

Missionary effort is but at the threshold of the many 
opportunities which lie before it, and as the Christian mission¬ 
ary learns, in consultation with the best and wisest of his 
Chinese fellow-workers, the inner meaning and hidden sancti¬ 
ties of existing festivals and ceremonies he cannot fail to find a 
better and a surer method of overcoming the false with the true 
by a wise adaptation than any process of mere iconoclasm can 
prove. There could never be, as there need not be, any 
slurring over of idolatrous wickedness or superstitious ’folly, 
but there should be a ready recognition of any present good 
and a constant prayer for wisdom and guidance in making 
the adaptation of existing usage for the conversion of the 
people of the Empire. It is better because it is wiser, as 
it is indeed also more scriptural and more accordant with 
scriptural precedent; more true also to God, since in line 
with His divine method in revelation, to lead men from 
what of truth they have to what He would have them attain 
to. The very fact and process of conversion is a turning, not 
a breaking nor a mere destruction ; it is the expulsion of evil 
by the possessive power of good. There remains the same 
soul, the same life, but the changed heart and the new 
outlook. As to the individual, so through him to the nation. 
We are called and commissioned by our missionary service to 
the task of converting the festivals of the China calendar 
and the social and rejigious customs of the Chinese people. 
It is the Chinese Church of Christ which is our concern 
and to which we owe duty. 


W. Nelson Bitton. 


282 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


Anglican Church Orders and the Problem of Unity 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : We are indebted to you for keeping the subject of 
church unity constantly before the missionary body in China. 
We all feel the urgency of the question. 

Some months ago you appealed to the Anglican Church to 
come to a definite conclusion as to the meaning to be attached 
to the phrase “the historic episcopate” and you add these 
words : “Projects for union which would otherwise be march¬ 
ing solidly forward are halting to-day upon the opinion of 
our brethren, the leaders of the Anglican Communion.” I feel 
inclined to doubt this statement, but the reason why no answer 
has been given to your appeal is not only that the leaders of 
the Anglican Communion have not since met, but because 
that church does not wish to define its opinion on the subject 
of the Christian ministry otherwise than is done in its Articles 
and in the Preface to its Ordinatiou Services, documents which 
everyone has in his hands. 

The lines there laid down have been followed in drawing 
up a constitution, at present provisional, for the church which 
we hope will be formed by the union of the English and 
American Dioceses in China. In the preamble to that con¬ 
stitution it is stated that we “maintain the ministry of the 
church which we have received through the episcopate in 
the three orders of bishops, priests, and deacons, which orders 
have been in Christ’s church from the time of the apostles.” 
We there state how ■we have received the three-fold ministry 
and the time from which we believe it to have come. We do 
not express any opinion as to the orders of others or make any 
deduction as to the superiority of our own. 

Different opinions are of course held by individual mem¬ 
bers and groups of members within our church. It is so, 
surely, in every church whose ideal is inclusive and not ex¬ 
clusive. These opinions are allowed in the church, though 
not endorsed by its authority. As regards episcopacy and its 
value, various opinions are held. The opinion of a large sec¬ 
tion is represented by the Bishop of Durham, Dr. H. C. G. 
Houle, and I venture to send you a copy of a paper of his, read 
lately before a gathering of about 1,500 clergy in Eondon, 


1910] Anglican Church Orders and the Problem of Unity 283 

His name carries so much weight in China that I hope you 
may find room for a reprint of his moderate exposition of 
episcopacy in the pages of the RECORDER. 

Our ambition is the formation of a church widely inclusive. 
There must be a common standard of essential doctrine, a 
common participation in baptism and the Lord’s Supper, 
and a common ministry. Given unity in these things we may 
claim that we are one church. Within it a large diversity 
may be permitted, and will even be a sign of health. We of 
the Anglican Communion have learnt to tolerate and even to 
rejoice in a large measure of diversity. We look forward 
then with confidence that such questions as the recognition of 
ministers ordained and Christians admitted before the time of 
union will be easily decided by consultation when the time 
comes. Let others remember that the Church of England has 
always recognized the validity even ot lay baptism and has 
constantly admitted to her communions Christians of other 
denominations in the largest spirit of charity. 

The hope for reunion is in comprehension as regards 
opinion and practice and not in exclusion, and, as Bishop 
Graves said in the February Recorder, in putting ‘‘mere 
theological opinions into a subordinate place.” 

Believe me, yours truly, 

Herbert J. Molony, 
Bishop. 

Ningpo, March 14th, 1910, 


Address by the Rt. Rev. H. C. G. Moule, Bishop of Durham 

The Church of England, true to its character and genius, 
litters itself with equal decision and restraint upon the theory 
and functions of the ministry. Its leading utterances are 
given in the Twenty-third Article and in the preface to 
the Ordinal. The Article speaks decisively for the normal 
necessity of commission through the church in order to 
regular ministry in the church. The bearer of the office of 
preaching and of ministration of sacraments must be lawfully 
called and sent ; called and sent by men who themselves have 
commission to do so. The preface speaks with much more 
detail about both office and commission. It affirms that it is 
historically certain that “from the apostles’ time there have 
been these orders; Bishops, priests, and deacons;” that these 
were “evermore” regarded as so sacred that their proposed 
bearers were first tested as to qualification and then admitted, 



284 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


“by lawful authority*” with prayer and the significant act of 
the laying-on of hands. Further, to secure historical con¬ 
tinuity for this triple order, and to surround it with “reverent 
esteem,” the church decrees that episcopal consecration or 
ordination shall be, for all her ministers, a necessary condition. 

Such are these utterances on the positive side, the side of 
decision. The great principle of commission in general, and 
the primaeval date of the three-fold ministry in particular, and 
its sacred dignity and value, and the firm adherence of the 
Reformed Church to this order, could not be more explicitly 
stated. On the other hand the utterances are marked by that 
restraint and tolerance which is characteristic of the church of 
the prayer-book. In the Twenty-third Article no word is 
used which is not as a fact equally fit to express the convic¬ 
tions of, for example, the Presbyterian. In the preface and 
in the cognate statement of the Thirty-sixth Article, nothing 
is said to the effect that the very existence of the Christian 
church is suspended on the tliree-fold order, so that this order 
can alone guarantee the working of the covenant of grace. 
And we have ample evidence that the framers of the Articles 
and of the Preface meant so to restrain their statement. Posi¬ 
tively they believed wholly in the primaeval and Catholic 
authenticity of the triple system. But they had learnt great 
things from Scripture and from the vast contemporary history 
around them. And they forebore to exaggerate a reverential 
adherence to the ideal into a condemnation of every other type 
under any other conditions. 

The same balance of decision and restraint appears in the 
Ordinal itself. No other Ordinal known to me equals that in 
which our priests are set apart, for its sublime assertion of the 
spiritual and moral greatness of the commissioned Christian 
ministry. It is not only a phrase here and there which pro¬ 
duces this effect. It is the whole sacred thing. In detail it 
is above all that long and sternly tender address which the 
Bishop is ordered to deliver to the men before him just previous 
to the questions. Then the act of ordination itself is accom¬ 
panied by words of the utmost gravity and power, in which 
the faithful dispensation of the Word and the sacraments is 
enjoined in the very phrases used by the risen Lord to His 
whole church represented in the upper chamber on the even¬ 
ing of the resurrection day. The commission to forgive and 
to retain, given in precisely this place in an ordination service 
for presbyters, has of course its history, and one point in that 
history is that the great formula was unknown there till the 
13th century. But into this it is impossible now to enter. It 
must be enough to express my own belief that the reformers, 
in retaining it, intended it to be construed mentally with the 
following words : “ Be thou a faithful dispenser of the Word of 


1910] Anglican Church Orders and the Problem of Unity 285 

God and of His holy sacraments.” It was to be thus, by 
faithful dispensation of Word and sacraments, that the com¬ 
mission was to be fulfilled as Jewel (an almost “voice of 
the church ” ) explains the matter. But my point is now that 
on any theory the ordaining words are of extreme solemnity. 
They invest the Christian presbyter with the responsibility for 
true Scriptural teaching and for true ministration, which is as 
great and searching as human nature can sustain. And they 
guarantee to him, along with the laying on of the hands of the 
presbytery, the power of the Spirit Himself, to be received 
and wielded in his w r ork. 

I do not remark in detail on the two other services of the 
Ordinal. The holy solemnity of the ordination of the presby¬ 
ter stands pre-eminent. But the ordination of the deacon, and 
the consecration of the Bishop, though even this latter hardly 
reaches the spiritual elevation of its precursor, are altogether 
in harmony with it. From the first supremely solemn question 
put to the candidate for the diaconate to the last prayer over 
the new-made Bishop, the whole Ordinal keeps the "thought 
of the ministry upon a level lofty and apart. It lays an em¬ 
phasis throughout upon the ministerial offices as so great, so 
responsible, so needful to the church, that divine call, and 
human call, and church commission, conveyed with deliberate 
solemnity, are all needed to form an adequate avetiue to it. 

Then on the other hand the restraint of the Ordinal, the 
thing which it does not say, is as noteworthy as its positive 
elements. All along, in all the three services, it regards the 
Christian ministry as essentially a pastorate, not a mediation. 
Compare it with the Roman Pontifical, and the difference is 
indeed conspicuous. There the deacon is commissioned, inter 
alia , to “read the Gospel for the living and the dead" The 
Roman priest receives a double commission: first presbvteral, 
with imposition of hands by Bishop and priests ; then sacerdotal 
by delivery of the holy vessels with the elements, followed 
shortly by imposition of the Bishop’s hands, with authority to 
forgive and to retain. Place this besid- our order, with the 
noble simplicity of its one combined imposition of hands and 
the delivery of the Bible, and the contrast is significant. 
I venture to say that if in order to ministerial grace a sacerdotal 
commission, in a sacrificial and mediatorial sense of the words, 
as distinct from a commission for pastorate and leadership is 
necessary, the Pope was right in denying a valid ministry in 
our ministers. This, I think, is unaffected by the fact that we 
retain the formula concerning forgiving and retaining. For 
though this stands connected by the tradition of ages with a 
proper sacerdotium , it proves, I think, on reflection to have no 
essential connection with it. It is the function rather of the 
accredited messenger than of the altar priest. 


286 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


The stress of our Ordinal, to sum up these comments, lies 
supremely upon the spiritual pastorate of the flock, that reli¬ 
gious office which, as it has been well said, was the personal 
creation of our Lord Jesus Christ Himself. It commits to the 
man supremely the ministration of the divine Word, and 
along with it the guardianship of the ordinances of Christ. It 
bids him animate and enforce his ministry and leadership by 
his life, hid with Christ in God. It sends him out to do all in 
the spirit of a servant, not a master, reverencing the people of 
the Lord. And it sends to him, for all his needs, the special 
grace of the Holy Ghost. 

Is it too much to say that such a programme of the Chris¬ 
tian ministry is true throughout to a Scriptural basis ? 

In the New Testament, on the threshold of this question, 
we meet at once the great phenomenon, not of a hieratic media¬ 
tion (the word hiereus is never once used of the Christian 
priest) but of a pastorate as an integral factor in the life of 
the church. 

The Lord nowhere defines with precision the work of His 
apostles. But beyond question He means them to he not only 
witnesses but guides, leaders, and, in a sense limited yet real, 
governors of order. They in their turn, early in the history 
of their work, pass over some of their functions, namely, the 
ministry of temporal relief, to other men, doing this not any¬ 
how, but by an ordaining act, praying and laying on their 
hands. Then somehow (we shall never know precisely how) 
a ministry of eldership took shape later in the Mission churches 
and at Jerusalem itself, a ministry which also, so far as we 
can divine, needed an ordaining act, prayer and imposition of 
hands to begin it. Later, nearer to the end of the first age, 
we find, side by side in the Missions, the deacon and the 
presbyter busy evidently with each his department of pastoral 
work ; the elders particularly with the Word and doctrine. 
Then again in the same period we find arising, as if under 
the suggestion of circumstances, but assuredly not without 
divine light upon them, a pastorate of pastors, a pre¬ 
sidency among equals for great purposes of order and 
coherence. It is not yet called an episcopacy. That word 
still includes all spiritual “overseers,” all superintendents, 
whether of one Mission or of several ; it awaited the call of 
later needs to appropriate itself to the presiding ministry. But 
in idea and principle the actual functions of Timothy and 
Titus were episcopal, such as the English reformation under¬ 
stood episcopacy, such as Ussher understood it, with the one 
reserve that the office may possibly have been only temporary 
in its bearer. It was, however, while it lasted, a commissioned 
leadership of pastors, and through them and with them of 
people, and it was an organ of transmission of ministry. It 


1910] Anglican Church Orders and the Problem of Unity 287 

was the provision of just that element which is essential for 
strong coherence and for the best guardianship of order—the 
presence of one man, personally responsible for the duties of 
guidance, warning, encouragement and the cultivation of 
union. And this is an element desiderated by many thoughtful 
non-episcopalians. The absolute governmental equality of 
presbyters within an area is an idea with something noble in 
it. But experience not seldom finds it poorly operative, where 
an acknowledged and permanent presidency would do truer 
and deeper work. This was provided for in Crete and in 
Ephesus. And Crete and Ephesus prepare us for the pheno¬ 
mena of the Ignatian time and for the long successions even 
until now. 

Thus, in rapid but I hope not careless outline, I have 
traced the Biblical basis for the words of our preface : “ From 
the apostles’ time there have been these orders of ministers in 
Christ’s church.” The Biblical picture calls for vastly more 
remark, even on its salient features, than is possible here. It 
indicates, among other things, a singular freedom on some 
sides in the relations between pastor and people, a certain 
homeliness in them, such as allows an apostle to address his 
inspired letter to ‘‘the Saints in Philippi, with the overseers 
and deacons,” and again allows a salutation to “the leaders” 
to be sent through the congregation —proof enough, if it were 
needed, that the apostolic Scriptures were intended for the 
most direct possible reception by the laity, not for a reserved 
conveyance to them through the ministry. We have no in¬ 
formation again whether the upper ranks of the ministry were 
at first supplied only from the lower. We have many indica¬ 
tions again that public work for God was ofteu done as in 
the singular and impressive case of Apollos without the 
normal commission. And the whole phenomenon of the 
Christian prophet warns us to-day not to turn sacred order into 
the chain rather than the stay and girdle of the church. But 
these points lie out of the main line of our present inquiry. 
They leave undisturbed what is, in my own conviction, the 
main result of it, namely, that the Christian ministry, as con¬ 
ceived and exercised according to our Anglican order, is true 
in all its essentials to the New Testament basis. In the New 
Testament, as with us, the normal ministry is a divine institu¬ 
tion, not originated by the community, but commissioned and 
gifted from above, with a commission of wdiich the existing 
ministry is the effecting agency and which thus secures a 
permanent succession. In the New 7 Testament, as with us, 
three main functions emerge out of the primaeval apostolate ; 
none of them singly its successor, but each bearing something 
of its office, while the apostolate had also functions never 
transmitted to any successors. In the New Testament, as with 


288 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


the Church of England, judged by her authentic utterances— 
this I must say with as full a conviction as ever—the Christian 
ministry is not the successor of the temple priesthood. It is 
not a sacrificing and mediating sacerdotium . It labours rather 
for an unseen Head who, having sacrificed Himself for us, 
now sits upon the throne of grace, dispensing His high 
priestly blessing, exalted rather upon a heavenly ark than 
standing at a heavenly altar. In the New Testament, as with 
us, the Christian is contemplated as needing indeed pastoral 
aid in spiritual ex gencies to clear his faith and reassure his 
soul, but not as n eding any mediator with his One Mediator. 
He is not more dependent on human intermediaries than the 
Jewish believer was before him as the mediaeval theory of con¬ 
fession, totally without primitive warrant, would make him to 
be : he has access direct to his God through the blood of Christ 
and in the grace of the Spirit. Yet none the less, because 
Christians are a holy community, and also because in the 
divine order man is God’s great instrument for the spiritual 
service of man, the church in the New Testament, as with us, 
needs and has a sacred pastorate. The community is tended, 
guided, served by a ministry commissioned from above, con¬ 
stitutionally and ternporately authoritative, successional within 
itself, a mighty factor for permanence and cohesion, capable, 
if true to itself and its gifts, of incalculable potencies for 
example and inspiration. It is not the creature of the church, 
but the Lord’s gift to the church. It is not the depository of 
His grace, but it is the commissioned bearer of His message 
and of its effectual seals. It is the attendant, not the mistress 
of the holy society. It exists altogether for the chief shepherd 
and His flock. It lives and it is continued in order to preach 
and to set forth Christ Jesus as Lord and itself as bondservant 
of all for Jesus’ sake .—The Record. 


The Nestor of Protestant Missions in China 

BY DR. A. H. SMITH. 

I T would be interesting to know how many foreigners have 
ever completed in the Celestial Empire a “Cycle of 
Cathay.” Perhaps in our time there is but one—Dr. 
William A. P. Martin—who is just rounding out his eighty- 
third year, and who for aught that appears is now the oldest 
foreigner who has continuously lived in China. 

It has been offered as a recipe for a successful life that one 
should first get himself born of good parents and grand-parents. 



289 


1910] The Nestor of Protestant Missions in China 

This Dr. Martin had the good judgment to attend to, and he 
has reaped his due reward. His early school preparation 
was what would now lie thought patch-work and casual, yet by 
using it to its limit he got more out of it than most young 
men from the far better advantages of to-day. His call to 
China from God, and not from man, is a romance in itself. 
His accomplished wife was a wonderful helper in the singular 
career to which her husband was little by little called. Dr. 
Martin’s street-chapel in Ningpo enjoyed the distinction of 
having by a course of natural (and supernatural) evolution 
developed the “ Evidences of Christianity,” a book which 1 ms 
had a unique history and influence. (Before the late Centen¬ 
nial Conference the chairman of the Christian Literature 
Committee reported that this volume had more votes as the 
“ best single book ” than any other, a remarkable phenomenon 
in itself.) It has been reproduced countless times, and its 
influence lias been strongly felt in Japan and in Korea. As 
interpreter to Mr. Reed, the U. S. Minister who negotiated the 
important treaty of 1853, Dr. Martin rendered a valuable 
service, both to his own and to his adopted country. He 
was the organizer and the president of the International Law 
and Language School in Peking, known as the Thing Wen 
Kuan, the first little rill from which the refreshing waters 
of Western learning trickled into the minds of the coming 
statesmen of China. This service extended for thirty years, 
and was followed by the presidency of the New Imperial 
University of China, of which much was expected. But its 
apparent promise was blighted by the terrible Boxer- cataclysm 
of 1900, which left everything in ruins. Most men of his 
experience would have shaken off Chinese dust (and mud) 
from their shoes after being besieged in Peking, as if he bore 
110 relation whatever to the government of China, but after a 
brief visit to America Dr. Martin returned under the auspices 
of the late Chang Chih-tung to be at the head of the Wu 
Clriang University for a period of three years until 1905. 
Again instead of retiring at the mature age of 78, Dr. Martin 
rejoined his Mission in Peking as a self-supporting professor 
of tliings-iii-geiieral, in which highly varied capacity his bow 
has ever since abode in strength. His favorite resort, both in 
summer and in winter, is a temple of the Ch‘ien Lung period 
at the Western Hills, “Pearl Grotto,” where much of his 
work has been and still is done. On the day when he became 


290 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


eighty. Dr. Martin went out thither on a donkey (a two hours’ 
ride or more), climbed the thousand feet to the top, descended, 
rode home, and in the evening went to another mission 
compound, more than a mile distant, to make a social call! 
Dr. Martin has been repeatedly decorated by the Chinese 
government with mandarin rank which, except for its occa¬ 
sional opportunities of usefulness, he does not greatly value. 
His works in Chinese have been of great importance to China 
and have had a large circulation. It is less than a year since 
a small booklet on comparative religion went to press. 
The enterprising secretary of the Christian Literature Society 
had hoped that they might publish the book, and wrote to Dr. 
Martin bespeaking “your next book.” This modest request 
struck his fancy, and that same “next book,” consisting of 
reminiscences of his early years in China, is already well near 
completion, and will soon be published in Chinese. It is need¬ 
less to say that Dr. Martin is the only man who could prepare 
such a sketch from first-hand knowledge. Dr. Martin’s works 
in English are well known and are standards. It is most unfor¬ 
tunate that all his copious memoranda perished in the disastrous 
siege in Peking. But despite that, at this distance of time, 
Dr. Martin (who has a memory still unimpaired, which is a 
combination of sheets of fly-paper and a phonograph) is now 
repairing this defect, and will in due time tell the world a 
good deal which it does not know, but which it ought to 
know. Dr. Martin’s interest in this mundane sphere, like 
Sam Weller’s knowledge of London, is “at once extensive 
and peculiar.” Nothing escapes him, and nothing human is 
for him devoid of interest. He lias seen and known almost 
all the missionaries of a large part of China for six decades, 
and he has met practically all the important and influential 
Chinese and Manchus of China. 

At some perhaps distant day the Chinese will begin 
to get an idea of what it means to have a scholar of the West 
give the whole of a long and fruitful life to China for no other 
reward than the service of man and the glory of God. When 
the American traveller, Bayard Taylor, had an interview with 
Alexander Von Humboldt, then advanced in years, the great 
German savant remarked sadly : “ You see before you a ruin ! ” 
“No,” said Taylor, “not a ruin, but a pyramid!” Dr. 
William A. P. Martin is “a pyramid” with the widest base 
and the highest peak that was ever seen in the ranks of at least 


1910] 


Correspondence 


291 


American missionaries in China. It does not seem impossible 
and perhaps not even improbable that he may live to complete 
three score years and ten in the land of his adoption. 

“ He shall be like a tree planted by the streams of water, 

That bringeth forth his fruit in his season, 

Whose leaf also doth not wither ; 

And whatsoever he doeth shall prosper.” 


Correspondence. 


THU WORTH’S S. S. ASSOCIATION. 

We have been asked to pub¬ 
lish the following letter— Ed. 

To Pastors , Missionaries, Evan¬ 
gelists and Sunday School Su¬ 
perintendents in China. 

Dear Brethren: The World's 
Sunday School Association, 
through the chairman of its 
Executive Committee, sends you 
Christian greetings. 

The World’s next Sunday 
School Convention, to meet in 
Washington, D. C., U. S. A., 
May 19-24, 1910, gives promise 
of being the most important 
Sunday School missionary 
gathering ever assembled. The 
indications are that everv im¬ 
portant country aud missionary 
centre will be represented and 
that the attendance of delegates 
and visitors will number many 
thousands. 

While you (the China Sun¬ 
day School Committee) will be 
officially represented by Rev. 
Frederick Brown, many Chi¬ 
nese and missionaries have also 
signified their expectation to 
attend the Convention, where 
they will all receive a hearty and 
cordial welcome, and we hope 
that as a result of the stimulat¬ 
ing influence of the Convention 
a brighter day may dawn for 
Sunday .School work in China 
as in other parts of the world. 


Sunday, May 22nd, has been 
designated World’s Sunday 
School Day. The Executive 
Committee has, with much care, 
prepared a responsive Order of 
Service to be used as an open¬ 
ing exercise in Sunday Schools 
throughout the world upon that 
day. The indications are that 
this Order of Service will be 
translated and printed in more 
than 200 languages and dialects, 
and we greatly desire that every 
Sunday School in China may 
form a link in the golden chain 
of service which will encircle 
the globe. It will be a great 
inspiration to those who attend 
the Convention to know that 
our brethren in China will unite 
their prayers with ours for the 
blessing of Almighty God upon 
Sunday School work throughout 
the world. 

In addition to the Service for 
Sunday Schools we are asking 
pastors, evangelists and mission¬ 
aries throughout the world to 
preach a sermon emphasizing 
the claims of the Sunday School 
as a factor in the development 
of Christian character, urging 
upon parents and guardians the 
importance of training the chil¬ 
dren aud youth in the knowl¬ 
edge of the Scriptures and 
including in their prayers a peti¬ 
tion for the blessing of Almighty 
God upon the work of the 




292 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


Sunday School in all lands, and 
especially upon the World’s 
Sunday School Convention,which 
at that time will be in session 
in the city of Washington. All 
may not attend the Convention, 
but each one may exercise a 
helpful influence in making 
Sunday, May 22nd, 1910, the 
greatest day the Sunday School 
has ever known. 

As your hearts turn toward us, 
you may be sure that ours are 
turning toward you, especially 
as we hear from the lips of your 
representatives of your trials as 
well as your successes in the 
effort to win the world to Christ. 

Wo-ri.o’s S. School association. 

Gro. W. Bailrv, 
Chairman of the Ex. Committee. 


A REVIEWER REVIEWED. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : I11 his review in 
the December Recorder of 
Price and Chen’s Scripture 
Catechism “ J. V.” makes the 
following criticism. Page 6 “ tfe 

a m - is «tttiisgB 

31 i U * rather implies that 
Adam, when he was created,, 
was placed on a stool or stage, 
from which, when he sinned, 
he fell down ” ! 

The reviewer may not have 
been aware of the fact that in 
selecting that particular sent¬ 
ence for adverse criticism he 
was aiming not at the compilers 
of the Scripture Catechism but 
at Dr. Calvin W. Mateer, whose 
sentence it is ! Question No. 
15 of the Shorter Catechism 
reads, “ What is the sin where¬ 
by our first parents fell from 
the estate wherein they were 
created?” And the sentence 
under discussion is Dr. Mateer’s 
translation of that question. 


Not only were the compilers 
in using that sentence quoting a 
master of the language, but they 
were also using good Chinese 
colloquial, which “J. V.” 

ridicules, but in nowise proves 
to be incorrect. 

The word Ml it has a wide 
meaning and signifies space, 
situation, position, etc., and is, 
I submit, a proper translation 
of estate in the sentence above. 

Will “J. V.” show 11s a 
single instance in which Mj {£ 
means “-stool” or “stage” ? 

R. V. 

SALARIES OF CHINESE 
HELPERS, ETC. 

To the Editor of 
“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : I would like to ask, 
through the columns of the 
Chinese Recorder, for an ex- 
planation of the principle upon 
which the low scale of salaries 
of Chinese helpers and pastors 
is based. During the past 
Chinese New Year season I 
have visited several mission 
stations in Chihli, Shantung 
and Honan and have heard, 
numerous stories, all of them 
similar in their essential details, 
about the loss of trained helpers 
from active work. It is quite 
evident that the trouble is at 
the centre financial, and I have 
been given to understand that 
the disparity between salaries 
offered by the missions and 
those paid by other employers 
is represented by ratios of about 
one to ten, or one to fifteen. It 
may be that there are fundamen¬ 
tal rules of procedure which are 
mutually contradictory, and my 
reasoning may be at fault. I 
would like exceedingly to have 
it either criticised or verified by 
members of the mission body. 



293 


Correspondence 


1910 ] 

If there is one principle which 
is being recognized in the home¬ 
land as being productive of 
efficiency, it is that a man 
should receive as salary what 
he is actually worth. Mission 
Boards pay, it can be safely 
assumed, on an average a half 
to two-thirds as much as mis¬ 
sionaries could otherwise earn, 
enough, whatever the figures 
may be, to provide good food, 
clothes and education for all of 
the family. It appears to me, 
as an interested layman, that 
the principle mentioned is not 
only being violated, but an 
added serious mistake is being 
made. According to Chinese 
custom a man’s salary is not 
the whole of his income. If 
Chinese custom is followed in 
the payment of small salaries, 
and foreign custom is enforced 
regarding the taking of commis¬ 
sions and small bribes, it is not 
surprising that trained young 
men with a normal sense of pride 
and honor are glad to escape to a 
realm of activities where salaries 
are ten to fifteen times as large. 

I have heard missionaries cri¬ 
ticise the government severely 
because they do not give higher 
salaries to their public servants 
of the new regime. I have also 
heard missionaries say that all 
over the empire young Chinese, 
trained in mission schools, can 
be found in Customs offices, 
government schools and places 
of business; that the young 
men are soured on missions and 
missionaries because of the con¬ 
ditions under which they left 
the former. It appears to me 
that some bold strokes are 
needed at once to save these 
most able products of the pro¬ 
paganda for the work which 
they alone can do. 

I have a great admiration for 
the members of the missionary 


body and for what they are 
bringing to pass. My concep¬ 
tions have been gathered within 
the circle of workers in five 
different organizations, none of 
whom have given me any satis¬ 
factory explanation for the above 
condition of affairs; some, on 
the contrary, gave expression 
to what sounded like pent up 
feelings of reluctant criticism. 
I would appreciate very greatly 
a discussion of the principles 
involved. 

Believe me to be, 

. Very sincerely yours, 

Mortimer Jay Brown. 


BAPTISTS AND FEDERATION. 
To the Editor of 
“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : In your issue of 
February you have an article on 
this subject by the Rev. James 
V. Latimer of Huchow, in 
which the Baptist position is de¬ 
clared without any equivocation. 
With much that my brother 
Baptist says I atn in hearty 
agreement, but I wish to point 
out that there are Baptists who 
take an entirely different atti¬ 
tude to that which he lays down 
as final on the part of Baptists. 

On the Tentative Committee 
of the Shansi Federation Scheme 
it was closely discussed whether 
the Baptist churches would, or 
would not, admit to the full 
privileges of church fellowship 
members of other churches with¬ 
out insisting on the administra¬ 
tion of baptism according to the 
practice of the Baptist churches. 
This was referred to the various 
missions, and by a unanimous 
vote the English Baptist Mission 
agreed to do so. We do not 
abate one jot or one tittle of 
our Baptist convictions, but if 


294 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


by a severe logic we hold to our 
conviction that immersion of 
the willing subject is the only 
scriptural mode of baptism, we 
also hold, by an equally impera¬ 
tive logic, that he who confesses 
that Jesus is the Christ, and 
whose life makes it evident that 
he holds the truth in sincerity, 
is most certainly a Christian man, 
and we cannot venture to shut 
out such a Christian brother 
from the privileges of Christian 
fellowship. Suppose, for in¬ 
stance, that a Christian who is 
a Methodist, or a Presbyterian, 
or an Episcopalian, comes to re¬ 
side in this city. The only 
church here is a Baptist church. 
He seeks fellowship with us ; by 
his life, and by his zeal, and by 
the gifts of the Spirit, he can 
strengthen the cause of our Lord 
in this city, and we can help 
and encourge him in pilgrimage 
heavenward. Are we, because 
he has been trained to different 
views on Christian baptism, to 
put a stigma on him in the sight 
of the heathen and treat him as 
one outside the Christian fold ? 
God forbid. Loyalty to our 
own view does not mean that 
we should break the covenant of 
love in which our Lord has 
made us one. 

Neither, I think, would we 
wish any church, or mission, to 
alter their practice with regard 
to Christian baptism unless they 
were convinced that their prac¬ 
tice was erroneous. Such an 
accommodation to our view of the 
case would only be a courtesy 
that meant nothing, and we do 
not wish courtesies to take the 
place of truth. If our brethreu 
come to see as we do, we shall 
heartily rejoice, but till then it 
is only an offence to ask them 
to conform to our practice. 

Christian union must rest on 
a higher basis if it is to be worth 


anything. We do not create the 
unity of the Christian church; 
it is our privilege and duty to 
recognise it. That should be 
the objective of all our schemes, 
and to make that possible our 
organization must be of the 
lightest character. We can 
meet, we do meet, in united 
conferences, and thereby pro¬ 
claim our union and our unity, 
but any organic control of the 
separate missions by any united 
conference is impossible, and any 
attempt to do this will only post¬ 
pone the day of union. 

With regard to Rome, the dif¬ 
ficulties are exceedingly grave. 
Until Rome relinquishes her 
most favored tenets, e.g. t Mariol- 
atry and the Sacrifice of the 
Mass, a large majority of Pro¬ 
testant Christians will not desire 
any fellowship with her com¬ 
munion, and Rome understands 
no fellowship but submission. 
Union with Rome is therefore 
not on the horizou, and it is 
futile to suggest it. In this pro¬ 
vince the fear of sometime or 
other becoming entangled with 
Roman error is on the part of 
some missionaries leading them 
to oppose all schemes of federa¬ 
tion, and as chairman of the 
Shansi Tentative Committee I 
appreciate their difficulty, and 
regret that there should be any 
allusion to such a union, which 
will never come until Rome 
ceases to be Rome, and which 
only acts as a deterrent to more 
cautious brethren. I therefore 
agree with Mr. Sparham, not 
with Bishop Graves, and I earn¬ 
estly hope that what is prac¬ 
ticable, not what is impossible, 
will be kept steadily in our view. 

Yours fraternally, 
Arthur Sowrrby, 
English Baptist Mission. 
Tai-yueu-fu, Shansi, 


Correspondence 


295 


1910 ] 

1 ‘ THE OPEN LETTER FROM THE 
ANGLICAN COMMITTEE 
ON UNITY.” 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : I think that it is 
but right that someone should 
thank you for printing the 
articles on Church Unity which 
appeared in the February issue 
of your magazine. I believe 
that those articles, serious as is 
the set-back that two out of the 
three must give to this great 
cause, will be of the utmost 
value in clearing the air and 
showing us how useless it is to 
think that we have made any 
substantial progress in the mat¬ 
ter. The statements of the 
“Catholic” and Baptist posi¬ 
tions are so clearly put that 
your readers must feel that 
organic union is out of the 
question and that even a work¬ 
ing compact is impossible till 
we have all spent more time in 
prayer and learned deeper lessons 
from God’s Word. 

I am not concerned just 
now to deal with the question 
of union as such. But I do 
think that as straight truths 
are being uttered, it is wise to 
refer to the statement made by 
Dr. Graves in his article that no 
replies have been sent to a cir¬ 
cular on Christian unity which 
was (I quote from memory as 
my copy of the Recorder is 
not with me) sent out to all 
missionaries after the the 1907 
Conference. I have asked half-a- 
dozen workers of some standing 
and none of them can remember 
having received such a letter. 
I have a copy which I begged 
from a member of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church as a favour. 
Imperfect circulation, and not in¬ 
difference, may iu part account 
for the absence of replies. 


But is not the probable reason 
why many missionaries who 
did see the circular regarded it 
as unnecessary to reply because 
that circular lays down the 
“Lambeth Quadrilateral” as a 
good ground for reunion? That 
famous Quadrilateral was issued 
in 1888, and the reception ac¬ 
corded to it in Great Britain at 
that time ought surely to have 
warned the Anglican Bishops 
in China not to repeat its clauses 
in 1907 as a basis for reunion. 
But as Dr. Graves, even in 1910, 
seems to think that the fourth 
of those famous suggestions will 
still bear repetition, may I be 
allowed to state the position of 
the church, to which I rejoice 
to belong, on this particular 
question? If representatives of 
other churches will do the same, 
our “Catholic” brethren may 
decide that union on these 
particular lines is impossible 
and consider whether they can¬ 
not make some more reasonable 
suggestion. 

Speaking then for the Wesley¬ 
an Methodist Church, I would 
say that this Church is unable to 
make any response to the cir¬ 
cular because it cannot see its 
way to accept the unhistoric 
theory of the “historic epis¬ 
copate.” When the “ Lambeth 
Quadrilateral” was considered 
at the Annual Conference of 
this Church in 1889, the mem¬ 
bers of that assembly asked 
politely, but pointedly, what 
the phrase “the Historic Epis¬ 
copate” meant, and to this day 
they have had no intelligible 
answer. And I venture to say 
that the Bishops who could 
not give an answer then cannot 
give one now. Since 1888 
“English, Scottish and Gertnau 
scholars have been pursuing 
their thorough investigations 
iuto Early Church History, and 


296 


The Chinese Recorder 


in the light of their discoveries 
the ‘historic episcopate’ has 
assumed the form of a dissol¬ 
ving nebula. The overwhelming 
force of present-day expert opi¬ 
nion is against the ‘Catholic’ 
theory that the church in its 
earliest times was governed uni¬ 
versally by the ‘three orders.’ ” 
But as the above words, though 
the utterance of one worthy of 
respect, are the utterance of a 
non-conformist, I fear that they 
may not be accepted by the 
Anglican clergy in China as of 
anv value. So may I refer to 
a recent article in the Titerary 
Supplement to the London 
Times , based on Gwatkin’s 
"Early Church History?” The 
writer of that article abstains 
from quoting German Protestants 
and English non-conformists. 
He confines himself to scholars 
of the Church of England, and 
evidently tries to spare the feel¬ 
ings of the High Anglicans as 
much as possible. But as the 
result of his review of the situa¬ 
tion he whispers the sad news 
that the results of the work of 
the principal historians of their 
own community are unfavorable 
to the "Catholic” theory. In 
so doing the reviewer comes into 
line with Professor Gwatkin 
himself, whose volume (to 
quote another review) " round¬ 
ly declares that the Tractarians, 
by their partisanship and cre¬ 
dulity, have covered the study 
of Church History with re¬ 
proach, and pours scorn on their 
uncritical methods and unhistor¬ 
ical dogmas.” The Bishops 
assembled at Lambeth recorded 
their conviction that ‘‘unity 
without truth has been destruct¬ 
ive” to the church. If so, why 
is it in 1910 suggested that we 
unite in a theory of church 
government which history de¬ 
clares to be untrue ? 


[April 

Now, Mr. Editor, I do not 
want to enlarge on this matter 
and I do not want to stir up 
controversy, but I feel that it is 
really time that someone should 
publicly explain that the pro¬ 
bable reason why the circular 
issued by the Anglican Com¬ 
mittee on Union has not had 
more answers is because most 
of those who received it consider 
that it was adequately and con¬ 
clusively answered tea years 
ago in Great Britain and that 
modern historical research has 
been answering it ever since. 

There is no need perhaps to 
go further, but while I am writ¬ 
ing I would say that even in 
the third of the proposals made 
at Lambeth, one can see the 
same desire on the part of the 
Anglican Church to safeguard 
its own position. “The two 
sacraments ordained by Christ 
Himself—Baptism and the Sup¬ 
per of the Lord.” If the clause 
had stopped there, would it not 
have sufficed ? Why should our 
Anglican brethren add, ‘‘min¬ 
istered with unfailing use of 
Christ’s words of institution and 
of the elements ordained by 
Him ” unless they wish to make 
sure that in the reunited church 
others shall come into line with 
them and that they shall not be 
required to make any conces¬ 
sions ? Is there to be no room 
in the one Church of Christ for 
the man who holds with all re¬ 
verence the theory that our 
Lord used “bread ” and “ wine” 
simply because they were the 
commonest elements of a meal in 
Judaea and for no other reason, 
and that in other lands other 
elements may well be used ? 

In conclusion, will it not be 
well, while we are waiting for 
the revelation of that great 
thought about church govern¬ 
ment which musi underlie all 


1910] 


297 


Correspondence 


our various systems and which, 
when it is revealed, will reuuite 
us, if we concentrate our ener¬ 
gies (to refer again to the Eam- 
beth Conference decisions) on 
preventing needless collisions 
and unwise duplication of labor ? 
In this practical matter we all, 
Anglicans and others, have much 
to learn. 

I am, yours sincerely, 
George A. Clayton. 


ON BIBLICAL NAMES. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : In your December 
issue Mr. Bond field wrote of de¬ 
fects in the transliteration of 
scriptural proper names. This 
matter should be easily rectified, 
but there is a deeper one that, 
it seems to me, deserves consi¬ 
deration. 

Last July you published a 
letter signed “G. W. S.,” ad¬ 
vocating more method in trans¬ 
literation and suggesting that 
the meanings , rather than the 
sounds, might be reproduced. I 
was hoping that what “ G. W. 
S.” said would evoke some 
expression of opinion, but not a 
word have I seen for or against 
those “weird, uncanny, and 
meaningless names ” of which he 
wrote. The subject is one upon 
which a good deal might be said, 
but, with your permission, I shall 
merely note briefly a few things 
as they present themselves. 

The prevailing system has 
produced a host of combina¬ 
tions—many meaningless and 
some ridiculous. Seeing that 
the Hebrew custom of giving 
significative names to persons and 
places is exactly paralleled in 
China, it seems very strange that 
hitherto translators have been 
content with mere transliteration. 


It cannot be urged in reply 
that because in English we have 
merely taken over the sounds, 
more or less exactly, of the ori¬ 
ginals, therefore the same me¬ 
thod is suitable in Chinese. The 
cases are quite different. In 
English, the meaning of the 
proper names is of little conse¬ 
quence; in Chinese it is an im¬ 
portant element. Further, in 
English we have an alphabet, 
the letters of which have lost 
their hieroglyphic meaning and 
are now only marks of sound, 
but in Chinese each character 
that we use to represent phone¬ 
tically the Hebrew and Greek 
syllables is also a hieroglyph 
with a living meaning . 

So when we read that Abram 
® fS H (be., “The uncle or¬ 
chid”) had his name changed to 
?ii (“ Uncle hauling 

the net”) we wonder if it would 
not be better, from the Chinese 
point of view, to write jgi 3C 
and*##. 

It must be conceded that we 
should try to stand at the Chi¬ 
nese view r point. Our mission 
is not to occidentalize. In Eng¬ 
lish we write “ Maker-shalal- 
hash-baz,” a name which is just 
a jumble until we learn what it 
means; just such a jumble 
“ Yang-tsze-kiang ” was to us a 
good while ago. But when we 
transliterate the name into “ 

H W ^ ^ A” we have not 
only an approximately phonetic 
representation of the Hebrew 
phrase ; we have also a string of 
Chinese words that give no in¬ 
dication of the original meaning, 
“ Haste to the spoil, quick to 
the prey,” and may mean, 
“ Where the black sand is 
pungent one horse drinks like 
eight! ” In like fashion for the 
fine word “ Ebenezer” we write 
“ HI iU it ” (Cantoneseprov¬ 
ince Yi-pin-yi-ch'it), which 



298 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


means, “Tosetupwhat is handy/’ 
Here, certainly, there may be a 
faraway reference to the ‘ 4 Stone 
of help” which Samuel set up, 
but the reference is only acci¬ 
dental. From the Chinese point 
of view the meaning is nearly 
everything, the sound is almost 
nothing. 

Neither can it be urged that 
the forms of Biblical names are 
now practically fixed. Perhaps 
half a million Chinese are at 
present acquainted with the com¬ 
monest Biblical names. What 
are these to the great multitude 
who will be reading the Bible 
before long ? 

It seems to me, then, that 
translation is preferable to trans¬ 
literation in the great majority 
of cases. The difficulty of chang¬ 
ing from one to the other is 
great, and the obscure meaning 
of many of the original names 
makes it greater. The question 
is whether it is worth while. I 
believe it is worth while, and I 
also believe that when Chinese 
experts in Hebrew undertake 
the translation of the Bible they 
will solve the problem. 

However if our present tran¬ 
slators should say that it is im¬ 
possible or impracticable to carry 
out the plan, there is one thing 
that certainly can be done, and 
that should be done at once. It 
is this: In transliteration let 
such Chinese words be used as 
have approximately the same 
sound in the principal dialects— 
“ Mandarin,” Fukiene.se, and 
Cantonese. Hitherto, for good 
reasons no doubt, only 41 Man¬ 
darin ” has been considered, 
but good reasons fifty years ago 
may be bad to-day. 

For example, Joseph jf/j jg; 
is read at Peking (authority 
Parker in Giles) Yo-se, in Ning- 
po Yah-sah. in Fti-chau Yok- 
saikj iu Canton Yeuk-shat. 


Would not the original be more 
nearly reproduced by 3^ ij$(c 
P. and N. Yu-su-fu, F. Fu-su- 
hu, and C. Yau-so-fu? 

Again Andrew % ^ ^ is 
read “ Ang-taik-liek ” at Fu- 
chau and “ Gn-tak-lit ” at Can¬ 
ton. Surely something better 
can be devised. Would not 
JlS p!ij be nearer the Greek An¬ 
dreas ? 

One more note. Would it not 
materially help the Chinese read¬ 
er ill. ?ST. etc -> 

were added, when possible, after 
the names of places? If, in 
Psalm lxxxix. 12, Tabor (broken 
height) and Hermon (rugged, 
abrupt) must be transliterated 
^ (great morning) and J& ^ 
(black door), at least the word 
[if could be added to each. 
Yours very faithfully, 

Ales:. Don. 
Dunedin, New Zealand. 


ON THE TRANSLATION OF 
“THE AGES.” 

To the Editor of 
“The Chinese Recorder.”" 

Dear Sir : May I correct a 
few inaccuracies in the opening 
clause of Mr. Hutton’s letter ? 
After telling us that if we 3 ook 
into. Dr. Young’s Concordance 
“ anyone can see that 4 olam’ is 
uniformly used for such words 
as ‘ever’ and ‘everlasting’ ” he 
continues: “Dr. Young, how¬ 
ever, gives us another word in 
form and sound very like ‘ olam ’ 
with only the difference of a 
letter. It is the word ‘alam,’ 
and means 4 hidden and hidden 
times.’ Its use in the Bible 
seems limited to the book of 
Daniel. Dr. Young, iu his lexi¬ 
con, gives for 4 alam ’ 4 that 

which is hidden,’ but for ‘ olam’ 
that which is everlasting, eternal, 
and never that which is hidden.” 



1910] 

After noticing that Dr. Young 
never once, as his translation for 
'olam,' gives the words ‘ ever,’ 
'ever-lasting, 5 or‘eternal,’ but 
always ' age ’ and ' age-lasting,’ I 
proceed to remark that ‘ olarn ’ 
and ‘ alam ’ merely differ as 
' eternel ’ in French differs from 
'eternal' in English and are 
entirely identical in sense. In the 
book of Daniel, from Chap. 2-4 
(from the words “ 0 king”) to 
the end of Chap. 7, the language 
is Chaldee or Aramaic, and 
'alam’ is merely the Aramaic 
form of ‘olam.’ Outside this 
section of Daniel Mr. Hutton 
will find ‘ olam.’ If Mr. Hutton 
wants full proof that ‘alam’ 
means primarily ‘hidden time,’ 
secondarily ‘age,’ ‘age-lasting,’ 
or ‘ indefinite remote time,’ 
which may mean time which 
is terminable, Ez. iv. 15. (Ezra 
iv. 8, vi. 18 is also in Ara¬ 
maic), or may connote duration 
without end, he need only turn 
up his Young’s Concordance 
where, under the word EVER¬ 
LASTING, Heading 3, he will 
see ‘alam;’ ‘age,’ ‘age last¬ 
ing,’ is applied to the life of 
an earthly king, Dan. ii. 4, iii. 
9,- v. io, etc., as well as to 
God’s life and His attribute of 
stedfastness. Dan. iv. 34, vi. 26. 
Before leaving this clause I 
would remark that Geseuius is 
usually reckoned, in the depart¬ 
ment of Hebrew philology, to be 
a Master of masters. In that 
sphere he shines as Beethoven 
does in music, Lord Kelvin in 
physics, or Gabriel Stokes in 
mathematics. Yet Mr. Hutton 
not only ventures to say in 
the opening sentences of that 
paragraph that “ it seems that 
Gesenius is making a mistake,” 
but he unaccountably puts me 
down as responsible for Gese- 
nius’s explanation of the word 
‘ olam.' 


299 

I simply transcribed from 
Geseuius’s Lexicon, and I 
venture to say that if Mr. 
Hutton looks up any Hebrew 
lexicon, or consults any Hebrew 
scholar, he will find that they 
will, one and all, give one 
verdict on this point. My 
“teaching,” then, on this point 
is, I trust, based on truth. 

For liis criticism of mv re¬ 
marks on Ps. xc. 2, I must 
simply ask Mr. Hutton kindly 
to read them again; he will 
see then that they prove the 
very thing that he imagines I 
deny. 

As to Micah v. 2, some thiuk 
the words “ from everlasting ” 
should be translated “ from 
days of old.” See R. V. marg., 
Mic. vii. 14, 20, also Am. ix. 
11; probably referring to the 
Messiah as descending from 
David. See Camb. Bible for 
schools m loco. 

Mr. Hutton thinks it is un- 
criptural to affirm from I. Cor. 
xv. 28 (the last “end” of 
which Revelation treats) that 
“the Father” will be “all in 
all.” He says on p. 174 : “ Now 
to be scriptural it is God (not 
the Father) who is said to 
become “all in all.” May not 
this mean the Triune God ? ” 

I reply: Does uot verse 24 
plainly tell us to whom “God,” 
in this passage, refers? “When 
He shall deliver up the kingdom 
to God, even the Father Cp. 
John xiv. 28, xx. 17, I. Cor. 
xi. 3. 

Mr. Hutton then continues: 
“ It seems that to Mr. Smith 
this phrase ‘the ages of ages’ 
cau have no infinite meaning.” 
I give him no ground for saying 
this. I simply say that this 
and cognate expressions may be 
used of what is terminable; 
plainly implying that they often 
connote (even if they do uot in 


Correspondence 


300 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


themselves strictly mean) dura¬ 
tion which is limitless. 

Of what use is it to quote Dr. 
Angus, whose incautious state¬ 
ments many of us know, when 
the Greek fathers flatly deny 
what he affirms? If Mr. Hutton 
holds that such phrases as 
“ unto the age,” “ this age and 
the age which is to come ” and 
“ unto the ages” iu themselves 
mean inanity, what will he 
make of such phrases as those 
which occur in the LXX.: “ To 
the age and the yonder side 
(of the age),” Mic. iv. 5; “to 
the ages and beyond,” Dan. xii. 
3; and “to the age and the 
age (to come) and beyond” 
of Ex. xv. 18 ? This last, of 
course, having a most important 
bearing on the punishment for 
the sin against the Holy Spirit. 
Those phrases from the LXX. 
seem to show that infinity can¬ 
not be expressed by ages ; there 
Is always duration “ beyond.” 
The above LXX. phrases are 
translations of the Hebr. “ le- 
oiatn va-ed,” “to eternity and 
beyond,” a phrase only once 
used of evil, viz., in Ps. ix. 
5, where it simply means extinc¬ 
tion of posterity and not endless 
conscious suffering at all. Even 
the expression “all the ages,” 
used only in Ps. cxlv. 13 
(Gk.) and Jude 25 is uever 
used of evil, but only of good. 

I am sorry to see that, not¬ 
withstanding the plaiu remarks 
in my article as to “in the name 
of Jesus” being the only true 
translation of kv tgj dvofiari irjaov 
in Phil. ii. 10, Mr. Hutton gives 
“by virtue of the uame of 
Jesus.” What a strange pre¬ 
judice seems to exist against 
this Scripture ! The English 
A. V, gives “at the nan^e;” 


the Chinese Peking Version 
“ hearing the name ; ” the latest 
Union Version (unless they have 
recently altered the language) 
has “because of the name,” 
so difficult does it seem to 
simply take that Scripture as it 
stands! 

Mr. Hutton will find in the 
final edition of the Uuiou Version 
that the phrase ^ 1§| has 
been excluded in all passages 
concerniug the ages. The 
senior member of the Revision 
Committee has written to me as 
follows: “So far your letters 
have led to two or three changes, 
one of which is to put jfj; JlJ 

ia P lace of M $3 
This is not what you wish, but 
it does away with a phrase 
which is certainly not in the 
Greek.” The phrase he refets to 
is avev reAovy, “without end.” 
For “the ages of ages” I had 
pleaded for f)| Jit jit, with 
the literal Greek lit M % Jit ^ 

jtt in Ihe margin ; but half 
a loaf is better than no bread, 
and I am deeply thankful to 
God that He has led the com¬ 
mittee to make this decision. 

The Mandat in Union Version, 
as it will appear iu the April of 
this year, will cease to affirm (as 
all such versions known to me, 
except Dr. John’s, have done 
hitherto) by well-grounded in¬ 
ference that thousands of millions 
of Chinese ancestors are doomed 
to an endless hell. Surely a cause 
for humble, heart-felt praise to 
God ! 

Oh, for more worthy thoughts 
of God and “the Gospel of 
God!” (Gal. iii. 8, Rev. xiv. 6.) 

Sincerely yours, 

Stanley P. Smith. 
TsBChowfu, Shansi. 


On account of pressure on our space some correspondence 
has had to be left over to next month. 




























1910] 


Our Book Table 


301 


Our Book Table. 

The object of these Reviews is to give real information about 
books. Authors will help reviewers by sending with their books, 
price, original if any, or any other facts of interest. The custom 
of prefixing an English preface to Chinese books is excellent. 


“New China. A Story of Modern 

Travel.” By W. T. Fullerton and 

C. E. Wilson, B.A. Morgan & 

Scott, London 1910. 3/6. 

The authors of this modest 
and brightly illustrated volume 
spent some four months in N. 
China in the autumn of 1907 
and winter following, and this 
is a popular account of their 
travels and impressions. For 
the home reader it contains many 
shrewd and humorous sketches 
of life in the interior, with its 
comfortless inns, and roads ' ‘ one 
palpitating mass of gelatinous 
mud.” But readers in China 
will turn from these picturesque 
but all-too-familiar details to the 
later chapters which deal with 
the present missionary outlook. 
Of the two authors one was 
himself for several years a mis¬ 
sionary in India, while his com¬ 
panion is a well-known evangelist 
and successor to F. B. Meyer 
at Melbourne Hall, Feicester. 
Their special task was to 
examine and report on the work 
of the English Baptist Mission 
in the three provinces of Shensi, 
Shansi and Shantung, but na¬ 
turally they visited many other 
missionary centres, and their 
observations apply far beyond 
the scope of their immediate 
mission. Coming as they did, 
well-equipped by a living sym¬ 
pathy and a large experience, 
their report, though primarily 
addressed to friends at home, 
cannot fail to command the 
attention of workers on the field. 

It will surprise no one who 
realises the vast unoccupied 


spaces of the N. W. part of 
China that the travellers went 
home to plead for more workers, 
and a vigorous attempt is now to 
be made to link up the mission 
stations in Shensi with those in 
Shansi. They were also impress¬ 
ed—indeed how could it be 
otherwise ?—with the present 
unique opportuuity for aggres¬ 
sive work in every department— 
evangelistic, medical, education¬ 
al. “We came,” they write, 
“from the visitation of our 
Shantung colleges more than 
ever convinced that no work of 
greater missionary value can be 
maintained in China than this, 
provided it is carried on—as we 
rejoice to know our brethren are 
carryingit on—with true spiritual 
fervour and singleness of aim.” 
Thechapter entitled “ A Modern 
Prophet ” gives some account of 
the senior B. M. S. missionary, 
Timothy Richard, who recently 
completed forty years’ service in 
China. Here is a thumbnail 
sketch of l,i Ti-mo-t‘ai : ‘‘He 
is a great prophetic figure, with 
thoughts greater than his speech, 
often saying things liable to be 
misunderstood because he takes 
so much for granted and is so 
little careful to guard his utter¬ 
ance from misconception ; child¬ 
like with childlike egoism, sim¬ 
ple-hearted, whole-souled, broad¬ 
minded. China is written upon 
his heart.” 

Many readers will turn first 
to the general summing up of 
impressions in Chap, xxiii., 
“The Report of the Spies.” 


302 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


Let me cull a sentence here and 
there at random. 

“It is impossible to do other 
than assent to the unanimous 
verdict that China has at length 
come to the hour of destiny.” 
“ Of the missionaries themselves 
we speak with dispassionate 
praise. There are men and 
women in China who, if they had 
remained at home, would have 
been in the front places in their 
professions, and there are in¬ 
conspicuous workers who equal 
them in unwearied and fruitful 
service. In the ranks of the 
hundreds of missionaries whom 
one met there were not half-a- 
dozen of whom it could have 
been honestly suggested that 
they had made a mistake in going 
toChina.” Again, “ Direct, posi¬ 
tive, aggressive, and wisely 
directed evangelism is what 
China needs.” “Let there be 
no compromise in the message 
in order to gaiu adherents.” 
Again, “ There is no exclusive 
claim to completeness that can 
be maintained on behalf of any 
missionary method . . . but in 
every method it is the man that 
counts more. And China must 
have those of the best sort. It 
is strange that it has not by this 
time become the chief ambition 
of every Christian youth ■with 
brains and trained faculties to be 
a China missionary. There is 
no greater chance of fruitful life 
anywhere.” 

The authors close with what 
seem to the present reviewer 
wise words .regarding Christian 
union: “ China is perhaps ahead 
of other mission fields in 
schemes of union. And the 
best and most intelligent 
Chinese Christians are ahead 
of the missionaries in their 
enthusiasm for one church for 
the whole of China. If mission¬ 
aries are not to lose their leader¬ 


ship they must speedily agree 
on their plan of action and 
provide channels for the expres¬ 
sion of the national sentiment. 
Two methods are being attempt¬ 
ed at present, and it is quite 
possible that the one may 
eventually clash with the other. 
On the one hand there is a 
federation of the Christian forces 
province by province, and on the 
other a drawing together of the 
members of the various deno¬ 
minations all over China. 
Already all the Presbyterians (and 
more lately the Anglicans ?) 
“ have been organised into one 
body. The danger in this move¬ 
ment, otherwise admirable, is that 
it may evoke the sectarian spirit 
it seeks to avoid. The federation 
of all the Christians in a province 
w r ould seem to be the hopeful 
way of reaching the ultimate 
goal, for the members of 
churches near together are 
surely more to each other than 
others who happen to bear the 
same denominational name hun¬ 
dreds of miles away.” This 
extract, and the appeal to the 
Missionary Committees at home 
to grant the men on the field 
large liberty in this question, 
will suffice to illustrate the 
broad and catholic point of 
view of the authors. The book 
contains nothing new and makes 
no big pretensions, but it will 
cheer toilers on the field to see 
themselves and their problems 
through other eyes and should 
stir fresh interest at home in 
China and the Chinese. 

E. W. B. 


The 23rd and 24th Reports of the 
Mission among the Higher Classes 
in China. 

The report of this important 
work is issued in a comely 
volume. It contains ample de¬ 
tails of the work of the Inter- 



1910] 


Our Book Table 


303 


national Institute in all its 
branches. There is a valuable 
record of the director’s visit to 
Peking and his experiences 
there. There are interesting 
indications of the working of the 
Chinese mind, which generally 
reaches the same end in a 
different way from that of the 
Westerner. It is well that these 
phases of thought and work 
should find a permanent place 
in these records. I11 the main 
this is an account of the work 
of the International Institute. 
It tells of vigorous work at¬ 
tempted and considerable fruition 
seen in completed buildings and 
“finished students.” The scope 
of the work is ample, and em¬ 
braces educational, social and 
institutional work. This shows 
a worthy attempt to reach the 
end in view—the promotion of 
harmony between east and west. 
The necessity of this is sometimes 
forgotten. The friction arising 
from contact of different nation¬ 
alities, each with its commercial, 
political and religious interest 
to advance, escapes attention. 
In this mission then there is a 
great idea advocated and neces¬ 
sary work attempted, which in 
the end will greatly facilitate 
the success of even private 
interests. Here it is attempted 
to soften the asperities of con¬ 
flicting civilizations, and an 
endeavour is made to advance 
friendliness and harmony. 

The encouragements are men¬ 
tioned as well as the discourage¬ 
ments. It is a great pity that 
the institution should fail for 
lack of support or be hampered 
in its work. This is possibly 
the only institution where for¬ 
eigners and Chinese cooperate. 
This implies some latitude of 
thought which may be distaste¬ 
ful to some. Yet in view of the 
object to be attained the present 


compromise is well justified, and 
in the end will bear good fruit. 
We heartily commend this report 
to tiie attention of the thinking 

pUbliC. vr 


A History of Christianity in Japan. 
By Otis Cary, D.D. For thirty 
years missionary of the American 
Board. Vol. I., pages 423, Roman 
Catholic and Greek Orthodox Mis¬ 
sions. Vol. II., Protestant Missions. 
Pages 359. F. H. Rtvell Co. 1909. 

These two substantial volumes, 
published in commemoration of 
the fiftieth anniversary of the 
beginning of Protestant missions 
in Japan, are an important con¬ 
tribution to the history of mis¬ 
sions. At the late celebration 
of the semi-centennial of modern 
missions in Tokio it was in¬ 
teresting to remember that Dr. 
J. C. Hepburn, who was one 
of those most active in the 
work in 1859 and for long after, 
is still living at an advanced 
age in New Jersey. This 
illustrates forcibly how the vast 
changes of all kinds in the 
Empire of Japan have all fallen 
well within the scope of one 
extended lifetime. Dr. Cary 
has performed his task in the 
spirit of the historian and not 
in that of the controversialist. 
He appears to have made a 
thorough examination of the 
existing materials, and the 
reader is enabled to get the 
result of much toil and midnight 
poiing over musty manuscripts 
and tomes, particularly in the 
case of the Roman Catholic and 
the Greek missions. 

While not a popular work, 
in the sense of giving hasty 
epitomes of a great range of 
diverse topics, these volumes 
will take their deserved position 
as standard histories of one of 
the most important and most 
fruitful mission enterprises of 



304 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


the nineteenth and the twentieth 
centuries. 

They have made their appear¬ 
ance at ‘the psychologic moment’ 
when attention has been attracted 
to the various celebrations in 
Japan of fifty years of progress, 
and will remain as a monument 
of the author’s industry and 
skill in the collection and the 
marshaling of facts. These 
books should find place in all well- 
equipped mission and general 
libraries the world around. 

The New York price is $2.50 

uet A. H. S. 


John Innocent. A Story of Mission 

Work in North China. By G. T. 

Candlin. London: United Metb. 

Publishing House. 1909, Pp, 306. 

This is the life story of one 
of the pioneers in the northern 
part of the Chinese Empire. 
Mr. Innocent belonged to one 
of the smaller denominations 
working this vast field, but 
his experiences were varied and 
embraced such stirring scenes 
as those of the great T‘ai-p‘ing 
rebellion, during which he 
visited Soochow and nearly lost 
his life ; the Nien-fei rebels and 
marauders in the province of 
Shantung, the Tientsin mas¬ 
sacre, and later the great Boxer 
uprising—though before that 
storm broke Mr. Innocent had 
left China, as it turned out for 
the last time. 

While this volume is of special 
interest to those familiar with 
the denomination specially con- 
cerued (the Methodist New Con¬ 
nexion, now the United Method¬ 
ist) no one can follow its tale 
without gaining a vivid notion 
of the kind and the scope of 
the work involved in founding 
a mission in China immediately 
following the war with Great 
Britain. Mr Caudlin has eluci¬ 
dated the narrative with illu¬ 


minating exposition. The care¬ 
ful reader might discover some 
errors of statement iu a few 
minor matters, but they do uot 
in any way affect the narrative. 
Those who remember Mr. Inno¬ 
cent will be glad of this reminder 
of his faithfulness, his steadiuess, 
and his broad charity. Those 
who never knew him cannot fail 
to be benefited by the portrai¬ 
ture of oue who labored so long 
aud who accomplished so much. 

His widow still survives at a 
green and fruitful old age at 
Brighton with one of her chil- 


Children of China. By Rev. Colin 

Campbell Brown, Oliphaut, Ander¬ 
son and Ferrier. Price is. 6d. 

Not only to the “ boys and 
girls” to whom Mr. Campbell 
Brown writes his introductory 
letter, aud whose alert gaze and 
assured interest have evideutly 
influenced his sub-consciousness 
and guided his pen, but to the 
many older readers, both at 
home and in China, will this 
attractive book be welcome. 
From the simple statement of 
Chinese cosmogony down to the 
farewell peep at the little ones 
going to bed in Christian homes 
the interest never flags. No one 
seems to be forgotten and no 
phase neglected from the baby 
Emperor to the little slave girl 
and from children’s games to 
children’s woes. Although such 
subjects as religions, reverence 
for parents, faithfulness, super¬ 
stitions, etc., are treated, the 
style is so simple and happy 
that big subjects are easily 
understandable by little people. 

The three-coloured illustra¬ 
tions deserve special praise. As 
trichromatic printing gains in 
naturalness we may expect mis¬ 
sionary books to blossom out in 
oriental colouring. G. M. 




1910] 


Our Book Table 


305 


REVIEWS BY J. D. 

flf&ISs* Health Primer, by Rev. 

Hunter Corbet, D. L). The Chinese 

Tract Society. 20 cents per copy. 

This book is in Easy W£h-li. 
It is divided into three sections 
—Care of the Body, Nursing, 
and Household Remedies. The 
advice given in the first two 
sections is good ; that in the 
third we are content to take 
on trust. Doubtless the recipes 
are old and tried. There are a 
few illustrations, and the letter- 
press is easy to understand. 


A Primer of English for foreign stu¬ 
dents, by Wilfrid G. Thofley. 

Macmillan & Co. have done 
well in introducing this excellent 
primer to Chinese scholars. It 
is the kind of book which would 
be useful as a text-book for 
teaching grown-up tjhiukitng 
men. The teaching is by the 
“direct” method. This is 
clearly explained in the preface. 
Teachers will do well to make 
themselves acquainted with this 
book. 


Confucian Cosmogony. A translation 
of section forty-nine of the “ com¬ 
plete works ” of the philosopher 
Choo-foo-tze with explanatory notes 
by the Rev. Thos. M’Clatchie, M.A. 
Presbyterian Mission Press* Paper 
covers, $1 ; cloth, $1.25. 

This book, by one of the old 
and almost forgotten mission¬ 
aries to South China, Was sup^- 
posed to be long out of print. 
Unexpectedly some twenty co¬ 
pies have been unearthed and 
are on sale at the prices stated. 
There are few missionaries who 
Would not wish to know what 
the great Confucian expositor 
taUght concerning heaven, earth 
and the gods. The information 
is given in this book, and page 
for page with the Chinese text 
there is an English translation. 


The author has also appended a 
short life of ChU Fu-dz and ail 
explanation of the diagrams of 
the yin and the yang which one 
sees so often on Chinese walls, 
books, etc. We need not always 
agree with the translation offer¬ 
ed to us of the statements in 
the Chinese text, but it is always 
suggestive. Those who purchase 
one of the few copies still to be 
had of this old book will in 
days to come reckon themselves 
fortunate. 

acknowledgments. 

Transactions of the Asiatic Society 
of Japan. Kelly & Walsh. Yeii 
3 ‘ 50 . 

Journal of the Educational Associa¬ 
tion of Fukien Province. 

United States Bureau of Education 
Bulletin, 1909, No. 2. Admission 
of Chiuese Students to American 
Colleges. John Fryer, Professor of 
Oriental Languages and Literature, 
University of California. 

Mongol Tract. Weiliaiwei Printing 
Press. 

A Missionary Home in North China. 
John A. Stooke, Chefoo, 


From Macmidean & Co. 

First Books of Science, Physics. L. 
Lownds 1/6. 

An excellent text book for younger 
pupils beginning the study of phy¬ 
sics. 

Murcb^’s .Science Readers, Book IL, 
w'ith Anglo-ChineSe Notes by Prof. 
Gist Gee. Translated by Sting Pah- 
poo. Both of Soochow University. 
Kelly & Walsh. 60 cts. 

This book is uhifottn with book I., 
which was reviewed in the January 
Recorder, It should prove in¬ 
teresting as well as instructive to 
Chinese students. The notes are 
voluminous and useful. 

The New Anglo-Chinese Readers. 
The Primer 15 cts. 

The Tale of Troy Retold in English. 

Clear type and interesting and easy 
style. There are Chinese note* 
explaining difficult sentences. 





306 


The Chinese Recorder 


[Apiii 


Books in Preparation. (Quarterly Statement.) 

(Correspondence invited.) 


The following books are in course 
of preparation. Friends engaged in 
translation or compilation of books 
are invited to notify Rev. D. Mac- 
Gillivray, 143 N. Szechuen Road, 
Shanghai, of the work they are 
engaged on, so that this column 
may be kept lip to date, and over¬ 
lapping prevented. N. B. Some whose 
names have been on this list a long 
time are asked to write and say if 
they have given up the work, or 
what progress, if any, they are mak¬ 
ing. Perhaps they are keeping others 
from doing the work. 

C. L. S. LIST. 

Booker T. Washington’s “ Up from 
Slavery.” By Mr. Kao Lun ching. 

Wide Wide World. By Mrs. Mac- 
Gill ivray. 

Religious Contrasts in Social Life. 
E. Morgan. 

American Education. E. Morgan. 

Romance of Medicine. McPhun. W. 
A. Coruaby. 

Pitch’s Lectures on Teaching. W. 
A. Cornabj'. 

Chronicles of the Schouberg-Cotta 
Family. 

Sterling’s Noble Deeds of Women. 
D. MacGillivray. 

Speer’s Principles of Jesus, by Joshua 
Vale. 


GENERAL. 

Halley’s Comet. C.T. S. J. Darrocb, 
Ballantine’s Inductive Studies in 
Matthew. 

Organ Instructor. By Mrs. R. M. 
Mateer. 

Murray’s Like Christ. By Mr. Chow, 
Hangchow College. 

Illustrations for Chinese Sermons, 
by C. W. Kastler. 

By the same. Chinese Preacher’s 
Manual, and Daily Light for Chinese. 

Systematic Theology. 12 parts. 
Dr. DuBose. 

Torrey’s What the Bible Teaches. 
By J. Speicher, 

“ Recent announcements ” column 


Stepping Heavenward. By Mrs. 
Crossette 

Expository Com. on Numbers. By 
G. A. Clayton. 

Expos. Com. on Hebrews, by G. L. 
Pullan. 

Little Meg’s Children. By Mrs. 
Crossette. 

Sermons on Acts. Genahr. 
Outlines of Universal History. H. 
L, W. Bevan, Medhnrst College. 

Tholuck’s Sermon on the Mount. 
By J. Speicher. 

“ Ilis Great Apostle,” and “ His 
Friends.” By Rev. Chang Yang-ksiin. 
Stalker’s Paul. 

J. H. Jowett’s The Passion for Souls. 
(In mandarin.) Fulness of Power. 
Metaphors of St. Paul. Dean Howsou. 
By J. Vale. 

Mrs. Nevius’ Mandarin Hymn 
Book. 

The Roman Theology and the Word 
of God, by Alphonso Argento. 

Constructive Studies in Life of 
Christ. H. W. Luce. 

New Primer of Standard Romaniza- 
tion on the Accumulative Method. 
By Frank Garrett. 

Training of the Twig. Drawbridge. 
J. Hutson. 

Prof. J. Percy Bruce is preparing 
the following :— 

Elementary Outlines of Logic. 
Expository Lectures -on the His¬ 
torical Parts of the Pentateuch. 

Expository Lectures on Old Testa¬ 
ment History (Solomon to Captivity). 

Biblical Atlas and Gazetteer. R. T. 
S., Loudon. 

R. A. Haden is preparing Murray’s 
Humility and Holy in Christ. 

James Hutson : Meyer’s Burdens 
and How to Bear Them. 

James Hutson : Willison’s Mothers’ 
Catechism. 

Mrs. R. M. Mateer: The Browns a£ 
Mount Hermon. 

F. C. H. D rever; Bible Reading 
Outlines for the Blackboard. 

Lectures 011 Modern Missions, by 
Leighton Stuart. 

Laboratory Manual in Chemistry 
(Mandarin), by J. McGregor Gibb. 

will appear in next issue. 


l9to] 


Missionary News 


307 


Missionary News. 


Good Work at Nan-tung-chow. 

At the recent revival meetings 
and special work at Nail-tun g- 
chow, Kiangsu, where Rev. W. 
Remfry Hunt led the meetings 
with the missionaries and the 
native evangelists, tliere was 
much blessing. Some score or 
more of the Chinese confessed 
their faith in Christ. 


Christian Endeavor Convention, 
Peking, 1911. 

The Peking Missionary Asso¬ 
ciation recently voted unani¬ 
mously to invite the next Na¬ 
tional Christian Endeavor Con¬ 
vention to Peking, to be held 
some time in April or May, 1911, 
instead of 1910, as previously 
contemplated. The exact date has 
not yet been decided upon. Every 
effort will be made to arrange for 
the best possible program. It is 
hoped that this convention will be 
a representative gathering and 
that it will give a great impetus 
to the work throughout the 
Empire, aud especially in North 
China. 


Bishop Bashford’s Report on 
Opium in West China. 

After an extended tour aud 
thorough enquiries from com¬ 
petent observers, the Bishop 
says:— 

“There are two things that I am 
sure of. The first is that the Chinese 
government is thoroughly in earnest 
about compelling the nation to aban¬ 
don the use of opium, and the second 
is that the government is succeeding 
splendidly in its enlightened efforts.’’ 

The Rev. J. F. Peat, of the Method¬ 
ist Episcopal Mission Chungking, 


who had travelled widely through the 
province a short time before my airi- 
val, had not seen a single field of 
opium under cultivation. He had 
been 20 years in Szechuen and was 
familiar with the appearance of the 
country in all seasons, and he told me 
that over vast areas, which at that 
time of the year were ordinarily 
covered with poppies just bursting into 
bloom, nothing was now to be seen 
but sugar-cane, rice and other food 
crops. 

Five years before I myself bad 
travelled extensively in Szechuen and 
seen fields stretching out beyond fields, 
all given up to the cultivation of opium. 
I had asked my missionary friends 
how much of the land was devoted to 
this purpose. The answer 1 invariably 
received was that from 30 to 35 per 
cent was so applied. This year, how¬ 
ever, I spent a longer period travel¬ 
ling in Szechuen and went over rather 
more ground than I did five years 
ago, and I did not see one field of 
opium on the whole trip, and not a 
single one of the 30 or more people 
whom I questioned on the subject 
had seen such a field this past winter. 
Much opium in Szechuen in January, 
the month to which my enquiries re¬ 
lated, used to be in bloom and quite 
easy of recognition. 


The Ichowfu Revival. 

The Ichowfu revival is still 
continuing to move forward. 
When Pastor Ting Li-mei left 
after a little over two weeks here 
for Manchuria 1,400 names had 
been enrolled of those saying 
that they were willing to study 
the Gospel, and since then an¬ 
other 300 or 400 names have 
been added. All classes of 
people are included — coolie, 
shopmen, literati and official. 
Rev. W111. P. Chalfaut, of the 
Theological School at Tsing- 
chowfu, and Chinese Pastor Li 
Tao-hwei have come to help us 
during the Chinese holiday 
season. 





308 


The Chinese Recorder 


Revival in Manchuria. 

Rev. George Douglas sends 
us the following from Liao-yang : 

Several friends have- asked 
me for an account of a series of 
meetings held in this city by 
Pastor Ding Id-mei. 

Det me say at once that he 
has gone, leaving a fine stimulus 
behind. He turns everything 
into an occasion for prayer. 
This is his real source of power ; 
he is Spirit-filled, for lie is not 
a man of outstanding eloquence, 
though he has a fund of apt 
illustrations. 

We began onr day at 7 a.111. 
with prayer meetings in six 
different centres throughout the 
city. To these be bid our 
Christians come with slips in 
their hands showing what mem¬ 
bers of their families and other 
friends were not yet Christian 
and for whom they invited 
prayer. Jang-sail mu-rin was 
then invited by the leader to 
state his case in public and give 
reasons. Thus the nets were 
cast early in the day. Pastor 
Ding himself did not attend 
these meetings, which was wise. 

At 11 and 4 o’clock, twice 
daily, our church was crowded 
when Pastor Ding preached ; 
his appeal being mainly to the 
outsider, but very skilfully turn¬ 
ed upon the church member too. 
At his request I early sent a 
band of thirty workers round 
the city with my card (duly 
protected from abuse) and a 
printed invitation, which seems 
to have been well received. We 
called the meetings a Yen-shuo- 
hui , but the crowd came to 
a distinctively divine service 
with a full range of hymns 
and prayers and reading of the 
word. The preaching centred, 
wdiere it ought, at the cross. 
One of the best addresses was on 


{April 

“The love of Christ constrain¬ 
ing,” and our Matichu chief 
magistrate sat by my side one 
morning right through amoving 
appeal on “ My peace I leave 
with you.” 

Sixty-four new enquirers were 
enrolled openly before the con¬ 
gregation. This is a feature 
which Pastor Ding strongly in¬ 
sists upon without committing 
the candidates too much, and 
we are going to continue it. 

There were none of the terrible 
scenes which characterized the 
great revival two years ago, but 
many came forward asking for 
prayer, confessing vows unful¬ 
filled and carelessness as to the 
welfare of their neighbours. 
Then the same waves of general 
petitions swept over the con¬ 
gregation without the agony. 

Conference of German Missions. 

Rev. I. Genabr, Hongkong, 
sends an interesting letter on a 
conference of the three Ger¬ 
man Missions iu the South. He 
says:— 

A Delegates’ Conference of 
the Basel, Berlin, and Rhenish 
Missions, was held in Tungkun 
on Monday, February 28th, in 
which altogether 13 members of 
the three Missions took part. It 
was the second of this kind ; the 
first bad takeu place two years 
ago in Hongkong, when it was 
arranged to have such a con¬ 
ference every two years iu turus 
at one of the stations of the 
three societies respectively. 

The object of having these 
conferences is to bring the three 
Missions, who practically be¬ 
long to the same order, into a 
closer union. For the same 
reason a periodical had been 
started by the three Missions two 
years ago, called the Chinese 
Christian Fortnightly . 


1910] 


309 


Missionary News 


When meeting together two 
years ago a representative com¬ 
mittee was selected from the 
three Missions, to prepare a 
new hymn book with tunes for 
the use of the three Missions. 
Both the new hymnal and the 
new hymn book were now 
laid before the conference. The 
hymn book forms a fine volume 
containing not less than 480 
hymns, 196 of which are either 
newly translated from the Ger¬ 
man or taken from other existing 
hymn books. The old hymnal 
has also been carefully recast 
and is enriched by many new 
tunes taken from the best avail¬ 
able German and English sources, 
containing altogether 247 tunes, 
compared to 140 in the old 
hymnal. Reports were read by 
the secretaries of the three 
societies, giving the statistics of 
last year. They are as follows : 

BASEL MISSION. 

Stations, 10; out-stations, 92 ; 
Christians, 10,554; catechumens, 
816; ordained preachers, 6: 
trained catechists, 86; assistant 
catechists, 43 ; schools, 53 ; scho¬ 
lars, 1,560; male teachers, 77; 
female teachers, 12 ; theological 
seminary 1, students, 50; mid¬ 
dle school, 1 ; morrnal school, 1 ; 
students, 70; hospitals, 2, with 
two branch hospitals; baptisms 
during 1909, 439; Y. M. C. A., 3. 

BERLIN MISSION. 

Stations and out-stations, 113 ; 
Christians, 8,051; ordaiued preach¬ 
ers, 5 ; catechists, 49 ; assis¬ 
tant catechists, 69 ; male teach¬ 
ers, 52 ; female, 8 ; primary 
schools, 48, with 1,038 scholars ; 
secondary schools 2; scholars, 
76; middle school 1; scholars, 
43; girls’ schools, 6; scholars, 
176; baptisms during 1909, 542 ; 
contributions of the churches, 
$2,742.46. 


RHENISH MISSION. 

Head stations, 7 ; out-stations, 
17; Christians, 2,090; ordain¬ 
ed preacher, 1 ; catechists, 12 ; 
assistant catechists, 14; male 
teachers, 20; female, 4; theo¬ 
logical seminary 1 ; students, 13 ; 
middle school, 1; scholars, 22 ; 
secondary school (boys) 1 ; scho¬ 
lars, 37 ; secondary school (girls), 
1, scholars, 41 ; primary schools, 
26 ; scholars, 729; Sunday 
Schools, 3 ; scholars, 107; hos¬ 
pitals, 2; leper asylum, i, 
with 147 inmates, of whom 
105 are baptized ; Bible-woman’s 
school, 1 ; native contributions, 
$2,034.17; baptisms during 
1909, 301. 


North China Educational Union. 

The North China Educational 
Union Board of Managers held 
its annual meeting at the Union 
Medical College on February 8 
and 9, 19 to. In the absence of 
Dr. Cochrane, the Chairman, 
Rev. C. H. Fenn, D.D., was 
elected Chairman pro tern. The 
following Missions were repre¬ 
sented on the Board: London 
Mission, American Presbyterian, 
American Board, Woman’s For¬ 
eign Missionar}'' Society of the 
M. E. Church. In the Union 
Medical College three other 
Societies also unite—the London 
Medical Missionary Association, 
the Church of England, and the 
Peking University, and that 
Board of Managers also met 011 
February 8. 

Excellent reports were given 
from all of the colleges in the 
Union—Arts, Woman’s Theolo¬ 
gical, Medical, and Woman’s 
Medical. 

There was considerable discus¬ 
sion as to plans for enlarging 
and perfecting the Union, with 
the object of uniting all of the 



310 


The. Chinese Recorder 


[April 


Missions in North China if possi¬ 
ble. A special committee for 
this purpose had been appointed 
the preceding' year, and its re¬ 
port \vas received. In response 
to an invitation given last year 
to the Societies cooperating in 
the Medical College to come into 
full membership iu the Union, 
the reply of one of these Socie¬ 
ties raised an important question 
as to conditions of membership, 
and this led to the referring of 
the whole matter to a new spe¬ 
cial committee of five members 
for report later ; it being thought 
that certain changes in the Basis 
of Union may be necessary to 
the further development of the 
Union. 

The same question arising in 
the Medical Union, it was 
thought wise to appoint there a 
joint committee of the bodies 
originally uniting iti that, and 
it is hoped that this committee 
will be able to make such a re¬ 
port as to clear up any remaining 
indefiniteness iu the Basis of 
Union of the Medical College. 

Three or four years ago it 
was decided that the College 
year should begin at the Chinese 
New Year, in conformity with 
the usual custom of the govern¬ 
ment schools. Later it was dis¬ 
covered that this plan was not 
suitable for the Woman’s College, 
and permission was given for 
that institution to return to the 
old time; the academic year 
opening in the autumn. This 
year one of the Missions pro¬ 
posed that all of the colleges 
go back to this former plan ; the 
claim being that the govern¬ 
ment schools themselves are 
now adopting the foreign school 
year. While no definite decision 
was reached, the matter was 
referred to a committee re¬ 
presenting the several college 
faculties. 


It was decided that diplomas, 
which have heretofore been sign¬ 
ed by the principal of the college 
concerned, shall hereafter have 
also the signature of the chair¬ 
man of the Board of Managers. 

A movement was inaugurated 
for bringing about the adoption 
of a uniform schedule of studies 
for lower grade schools connected 
with the Missions in the Union. 
A committee was appointed to 
prepare such a schedule, and 
this committee is also to consider 
two related questions: Shall 
English be introduced as a 
regular study in these lower 
schools as is already being done 
in most of the colleges ? and, 
Should there be uniform exami¬ 
nation papers made out for use 
in all of these schools ? The 
aim is a well-developed school 
system. 

Chari.es E. Ewing, Secretary. 

C. H. Fenn, Chairman. 

Chihli Provincial Federation of 
Protestant Missions. 

The biennial Council of the 
above Federation met at the 
American Board Mission, iu Pe¬ 
king, on February 23-25, 1910. 
There were present 36 delegates 
from the various missions. 

A special prayer meeting was 
held on the evening of the 23rd, 
and the Executive met at 9.30 
a.m., on the 24th. 

The following addresses were 
delivered during the meetings: 
Rev. J. W. Eowrie, D.D. (A. 
P. M.), on The Essentials of 
True Unity, based on John 
xvii. 21; Rev. Ui Pen-yuan 
(A. B. C. F. M.), on The 
Duties and Privileges of Federa¬ 
tion iu China; Rev. Liu Fang 
(M. E. M.), on The Benefits of 
Federation; Mr. Ch‘eng Chiug- 


1910] 


Missionary Journal 


311 


yi (L. M. S.)> on the Progress 
and Continuity of True Union ; 
Rev. A H. Smith, D.D. (A. 
B. C. F. M.), on the Evils of 
Divisions and how to guard 
against them. 

At the business, meetings the 
following resolutions were adopt¬ 
ed unanimously :— 

1. That each Mission iti the 
Federation be respectfully asked 
to appoint one representative so 
as to form an Evangelistic Asso¬ 
ciation for the province, which 
shall endeavour to find out what 
districts there are still unoccupi¬ 
ed by the Protestant Mission 
and devise plans for evangelis¬ 
ing same. 

2. That we publish annually a 
booklet, giving details of stations 
and out-stations, with names of 
foreign and Chinese agents in 
connection with this Federa¬ 
tion ; and, further, to include a 
list of unoccupied cities and large 
towns; and, if possible, that a 
small map be included in the 
book. 

3. That the Executive Com¬ 
mittee be instructed to consult 
with the Executive of the North 
China Tract Society as to the 
feasibility of starting a Christian 
paper. 


4. That it is eminently desir¬ 
able that all Missions adopt a 
common ritual, if possible, for 
funerals, marriages and other 
customs. That each Mission 
working in Peking be requested 
to appoint delegates, one Chinese 
and one foreign, to form a com¬ 
mittee for the consideration of 
such matters, whose report shall 
be submitted to the next Coun¬ 
cil meeting for discussion, with 
a view of applying same to the 
whole province as far as possible. ’ 

5. That, in future, three 
months’ notice be given to all 
Missions forming the Federation 
of the time and place of the 
biennial Council meetings. 

Rev. C. H. Feun, D.D., show¬ 
ed and described a map of the 
province, covering the terri¬ 
tories wherein the Missions 
forming the Federation are 
workiug, and members of the 
Missions, including the Bible 
Societies and Y. M. C. A., gave 
brief statements as to the extent 
and prospects of the work done 
within those areas. 

Other matters, of local import¬ 
ance, were also dealt with. 

W. Hopkyn Rees, 
Hon. Sec. 


Missionary Journal. 


BIRTHS. 

AT Kaying, Swatow, 4th February, 
to Rev. and Mrs. J. H. GiFlTN, A. B. 
M. TJ., a daughter, Louise Mar¬ 
garet. 

At Kutsingfu, 15th February, to Mr, 
and Mrs. D. J. Harding, a sou. 

AT Kaishan, Honan, 23rd February, 
to Rev. and Mrs. Erik Sovik, A. 
L. M., a son, Elgar Christian, 


ATCanton, 2nd March, to Mr. and Mrs. 
R. T. Cowx.es, a son, Paul William. 

At Hangchow, 6th March, to Rev. and 
Mrs. Clarence I). Herriott, A. P. 
M., a daughter, Margaret Holden. 

At Hwaikingfu, Honan, 13th March, 
to Rev. and Mrs. J. A. MowatT, 
C. P. M., a son. 

AT Hangchow, 23rd March, to Rev. 
and Mrs. Doherty, C. I. M., a 
daughter, Beatrice Florence Eleanor. 



$t2 


The Chinese Recorder 


MARRIAGES. 

At Holy Trinity Cathedral, Shanghai, 
Miss Andekson and Mr. NlCOLL, 
of Cliefoo. Independent. 

At Sianfu, Mr. C. J. JknSEN to 
Miss E. E. Pettekson, C. I. M. 

AT Foochow, 25th February, WaWKR 
W. W I lei ams, M.D., and Miss 
Grace ii. Travis, both M. E. M. 

A'r Tientsin, 16th February, Mr. 
August H. Reinhard and Miss 
Peake Robinette, both S. C. M. 

DEATHS. 

AT Hongkong, 3rd February, Mrs. 
\V. T. Locke, A. P. M. 

AT Fangcheng, Hupeh, 16th February, 
Oscar Rudolph, Jr., aged 4 years, 
and NEVIUS LEh, aged 2 years, 4 
months, beloved and only sons 
of Rev. and Mrs. 0 . W. Wold, 
Hauges Synod Mission, of small* 
pox and pneumonia. 

AT Siangtan, Hunan, 8th February, 
Ruth Althea, aged 1 year, 2 
months, and 2 days, daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Shantz, C. and 

M. A. 

At Soochow, 22nd March, Hampden 
C. DuBosE, D.D., aged 64 years. 

ARRIVALS. 

February 27th, Mrs. A. Aldridge, 
Eng. Bapt. (ret.). 

March 4th, Dr. P. S. EvAnS aiid 
family, A. B. M., South, Yangchow 
(ret.) ; Dr. W, F. Seymour and 
family, A. P. M , Tungchow (ret.) ; 
Bishop White and wife, Kai-fong-fu 
(ret.). 

March 5th, Miss Anderson, from 
Scotland, for Chefoo. Independent, 

March 8th, Dr. W. and Mrs. WIL¬ 
SON, Misses F. H. Culverwell and 
F. Lloyd, C. I. M., returned from 
England via Siberia. 

March 12th, Rev. F. W. Bible and 
family, A. P. M., returned from 
U . S. A. 


[April, 1910 

March 14th, Rev. G. F. and Mrs. 
Easton (ret.), Misses H. E. Lk- 
vermore, E. F. HEiss, L. M. Shil¬ 
ton, N. Fugl, M'.'B, Ewens and D. 
M. WATNEY, M.B., D.B.S., from 
England ; Mrs. H. J. HELGi.sen from 
Norway, all C. I. M. 

March 15th, Rev. A. A. Bullock 
and wife, A. P. M., Nanking, returned 
from U. S. A. 

March 16th, Mr. E. O. Barber and 
Miss M. E. Booth fret.) and Miss 
Phyllis deck, from Australia, C. 
I. M. 

March 21st, Miss SuE M. Koons, 
M.D., and Miss Sara M. Peters. 
both M. E. M., returned from U. S. A. 

DEPARTURES. 

February ioth, Rev. and Mrs. E. L. 
Mattox, A. P. M., Hangchow, for 
U. S. A., via Europe. 

March ist, Rev. P. J. King and 
family, C. M. S., for England. 

March 5th, Mr. and Mrs. J. MeiklE, 
to England, C. I. M. 

March 8th, Rev. J. T. McCutchen 
and family, S. P. M., Chinkiang. 

March 15th, Mrs. R. J. Gould and 
three children, B. and F. B. S., to 
England; Dr. P. D. Bergen and 
family. A. P. M., Weishien, to U. S. 
A.; the Misses Wolee, Miss N. 
Thomas, C. M. S., Foochow; Mrs. 
Harmon and children, E. B. M. ; 
Mrs. H. T. Reid and Mrs, R. A. 
Parker and three children, M. E. 
M , South. 

March 22nd, Rev. and Mrs. E. 
D. Hill, Ch. of God Mission, for 
Canada; Rev. F. Brown, M. E. M. ; 
Dr. W. E. MACKLIN and family, F. 
C. M.; Mrs. Boardman, S P. M ; 
Dr. and Mrs. C. F Kupeer, Mr. 
and Mrs. RICHTER, M. E. M., to 
U. S. A. 

March 18th, Misses C. RkAdshaw 
and G. Banks, C. I. M., to England. 

March 25th, Dr. J. N. HAyES and 
family, A. P. M., Soochow, and Mr. 
Julian HaBKN| for U. S. A. vict 
England. 



FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, SHANGHAI, 









THE CHINESE RECORDER 

AND MISSIONARY JOURNAL 


Published Monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 

Editor-in-chief: Rev. G. F. Fitch, d.d. 

Associate Editors: Rev. W. N. Bitton and Rev. D. W. Lyon. 

Bishop J. W. Bashford. Rev. A. Foster. Rev.D.MAcGnj.iVRAY,D.D. 

Rev. E. W. Burt, m.a. Rev.J.C. Garritt, d.d. Mr. G. McIntosh. 

Rt. Rev. Bishop Casseus. Rev. J. C. Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. F. Mosher. 

Dr. J. Darkoch. Rev. D. E. Hoste, Rev. A. H. Smith, d.d. 


VOL. XLI 


MAY, 1910 


NO. 5 


Editorial 

The outstanding event of the past month has been the 
trouble in Hunan. There have been many contributory cur¬ 
rents to the storm which has for the time being 
overwhelmed the work of Christian missions in 
that province. It is evident enough, however, that 
the uprising is not specially anti-missionary, although it is 
preponderatingly anti-foreign. The agitation against the rail¬ 
way loan, the remembrance of the deplorable circumstances 
which attended the first financing of the Canton-Hankow railway, 
the irresponsible agitation of an unreasoning anti-foreign pro¬ 
paganda, together with the local conditions of rice famine and 
official negligence,—all have contributed to bring the present 
lamentable condition of things to pass. Possibly the most 
serious aspect of the whole situation is found in the significant 
fact that the Hunanese troops could not be used to suppress the 
rioters. The increasing efficiency of the foreign-drilled troops 
of China will add not safety but menace to the situation if 
these are not to be trusted to obey their officers in the interest 
of order, or if their officers are not ready to use them for this 
purpose. If the efficiency of the soldiery of China is to be 
found on the side of lawlessness the outlook is not comforting. 
What is to be the outcome of the present situation may not be 
prophesied ; if Peking officialdom does not bestir itself to hold 
rigidly in check the forces of disorder which play upon 








314 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


ignorance and are directed by fanaticism, then it is proving 
itself a blind leader of the blind and can look forward to 
nothing but destruction. Anti-foreign riots are among the 
short cuts to dismemberment for this Empire. A regenerated 
civil service and the sufficient education and nurture of the 
people are the needed factors of reform and the means of future, 
lasting security. 

* * * 

More than this no one who is a believer in the mission¬ 
ary enterprise but will feel that the position of affairs in Hunan 
is an additional incentive to missionary service 
Gbe AMsstonarg |.] 3ere< t ^ great door and an effectual is opened 

to us, and there are many adversaries.’ Hu¬ 
nan is suffering from too little missionary effort of the right 
kind. We say this advisedly, for any form of such effort 
which is built upon wrong foundations, and which is identified 
in the eyes of the people with law-suit troubles or an undue 
insistence upon treaty rights in the face of local ill-will, is not 
missionary effort of the right kind, and it produces the wrong 
harvest. Hunan must be won in the spirit of Jesus Christ and 
conquered by the goodness which is of God. Such a cause 
must prevail. 

There is therefore no need for undue alarm and no call 
for counsels of panic. If China were not suffering from 
ignorance and wrong, the missionary would not be here. The 
greater the ignorance the deeper is the need, and the recent 
troubles are in themselves a call to better and more faithful 
service. To the Christian such outbursts as this of Hunan are 
not the end of anything with which he has concern ; they may 
and should be the beginning of a new way of life and opportu¬ 
nity. When the doors of the province are once more opened 
we are sure that our missionaries will be among the first to 
enter and to resume their labours for the welfare and regenera¬ 
tion of its people. In the meantime let it be made manifest 
that our sympathy goes out to those who have been the un¬ 
thinking agents of our temporary disaster, for ‘ they know not 
what they do. ’ Hunan will yet be the jewel of the conquest 
crown of Jesus Christ in China. 

* * * 

DOES the fact of a Western education in itself make nearly 
impossible a sufficient mastery of the Chinese language and 


Editorial 


315 


1910] 


its classics? There are educationists who suggest that life 
is too short for the attainment of proficiency in both. But 

why ? It is surely after all more a 
Chinese Uroftclencs *n» tion of method than aught dse . 

Western atta nment. ^ £|j- nese | s along rational and 

scientific lines, the time so saved should more than suffice for 
the acquisition of English and certain cognate subjects. Along 
old lines and old methods a life-time was all too little for the 
mastery of Chinese, but these are changing, and the result is 
years of saving during the fifteen years of a career of study. 
Should it happen that the wrong ideal is set before the youth 
in our schools and they are taught to look first and chiefly 
upon the attainments of Western scholarship, then it must 
be that Chinese studies will go to the wall. An appreciation 
of the needs of the nation will, however, save from such a 
perversion of educational aim. To-day our leading education¬ 
ists of the West have seen clearly enough the folly of teaching 
Greek to youths who are imperfectly acquainted with their 
mother tongue. Substitute English for Greek and there 
appears a danger which missionary education in China has 
with difficulty avoided. A thorough knowledge of Chinese and 
its literature is essential to a Chinese student, whatever his 
calling in life may be. It is not needful for an English 
education to preclude Chinese scholarship ; the question 
is one of balance and care in the years of educational pre¬ 
paration. 

Some cases have been cited recently of young Chinese 
scholars who, after graduation, have deliberately and purposely 
turned from the further study of Western knowledge in order 
to devote their talents to the teaching of Chinese by scientific 
methods. Such men are the educational prophets of a new 
and long desired era. With them begins a race of student 
teachers to whom the future of China will owe more than can 
yet appear. 

* * * 

Missionary education in China is beginning at last to 
recover from the wave of English study which threatened a 

few 7 years ago to submerge it entirely. 
Chinese Scholarship qq ie act j on 0 f the Peking government in 

requiring from students educated abroad a 
certain knowdedge of Chinese, seemed 
hard to candidates at the time it was made effective, but has, 


anD the Christian 
Church. 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


5T5 

•without doubt, produced good results in enforcing upon the 
attention of all college students the need for adequate knowledge 
of their mother tongue. There is now on all hands a desire to 
heighten the standard of Chinese study and to give the study 
of the Chinese language its due place in school curricula. In 
their propaganda along the lines of literary enterprise missions 
are bound to remain dependent upon Chinese scholarship. 
The old type of scholar is passing away and the new scholar¬ 
ship which is available to the missionary is not as efficient in its 
line as the old was. The encouragement of the Chinese scholar 
is not only an attitude which should be adopted for its own 
sake, since we are in China for China’s good and not to west¬ 
ernise her and her ideals, but is also an important factor in the 
success of missionary work. While the number of English- 
speaking Chinese is bound to increase enormously and at a 
growing rate, it is not likely that a day will ever come 
when anything other than the Chinese language can be 
made the medium of evangelistic and literary effort in this 
empire. It is a subject which makes its demand on the 
missionary in regard to his personal attainment, and must 
press with increasing persistence upon his mission policy both 
in church and school. 


tTbe Cburcb anb 
Institutions. 


* * * 

The remarkable extension of institutional work in connec¬ 
tion with missions in China which has been witnessed during 
the past few years, due in large measure to 
the increasing interest which is taken by the 
supporters of missions in the education policy 
of missions and especially in regard to the establishment and 
equipment of high schools and colleges, has possibly proceeded 
at too great a pace for the necessary balance to be secured 
between the strength of the church as such and its investments 
in work along institutional lines. Most Christian workers in 
all centres of service where institutional work has been devel¬ 
oped out of due proportion to the church life with which it is 
or should be connected, are agreed that a very necessary and 
vital factor is thereby missing from missionary equipment. 
There are fields of missionary labour where tremendous and 
apparently successful educational institutions are existing side 
by side with a weak and struggling Christian church. Such a 
condition of affairs is the reverse of admirable. In general it 


1910] 


Editorial 


317 


would seem that unless special circumstances call for unique 
enterprises, missionary policy ought to be directed towards 
the establishment of educational work in connection with 
existing church organisations, and evangelistic enterprise 
should be placed from the very beginning in the forefront of 
institutional service. Education does not of itself tend to the 
upbuilding of a Christian church, but it cannot be too strenu¬ 
ously asserted that where educational work is begun and carried 
on in direct connection with church work and under the 
impulse of evangelism, the result is always an enormous strength¬ 
ening of the Church of Christ with which it is connected. It 
is half the accomplishment of a problem to lay hold of it from 
the beginning at the right end. 


* 


Gbe Chinese Cburcb 
anb tloleratlon. 


The question of religious toleration in China is one 
which presses very heavily upon the Chinese church. Depend¬ 
ence upon the treaties for freedom to 
exercise religious liberty and to do Chris¬ 
tian work is a hindrance enough to the 
foreign missionary and too often productive of misunderstanding 
and ill-will. When, however, the Chinese convert in his turn 
has to make appeal to the terms of the treaties, and that 
through a foreign Consul, in order to secure for himself freedom 
to worship God, then the result is oftimes disastrous. It 
is not to be wondered at that the intrusion of foreign influence 
into the realm of Chinese state policy on behalf of Chinese 
citizens should be resented. The influence of the foreign 
ecclesiastic has always been a source of provocation in political 
history and it is proving no less so in China to-day. But the 
remedy is not yet clear to the mind of Chinese statesmen, how¬ 
ever plainly it may be written for students of history in the West. 
A belief in liberty as the remedy for certain specific national 
difficulties demands a measure of trust on the part of both 
governors and governed which is lacking among the Chinese 
and which is not any more evident to-day than it was a genera¬ 
tion ago. Nothing short of religious toleration, however, 
can finally solve the political problem which the fact of the 
Christian church raises in China. 

Will the proposed constitution bring this any nearer ? If 
the constitution is fixed and the religious question is left in the 
indeterminate state which marks it to-day, serious difficulties 


318 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


are inevitable. Yet the constitution is a matter of Chinese 
politics with which foreigners, however interested they may 
be, have no direct concern. Should not the Chinese Christian 
leaders get together and attack this problem by approaching, in 
their own names and on their own behalf, the government 
of the empire with a plea for toleration and for a recognition 
of the religious rights of man ? Interference on the part 
of foreigners, howsoever good the motive may be, is more 
likely to hinder than to help the cause. Upon the Chinese 
rests the right, as well as the need, for some action; the 
problem as well as the hardship is chiefly theirs. 

* * * 

There is a call to-day greater than there has been at any 

time in the last generation for men of wide vision in the 

_. ^ „ mission field of this Empire. Understanding of 

fn peril ot A , & 

Change the times and a °ig outlook were never more 

needed than to-day, for the opportunity is great 
and the difficulties unique. The magnitude of the problem 
which China presents leads some to pessimism and drives others 
into exaggeration. We need the calm mind of assured strength 
and the far sight of simple faith. ‘ With God all things are 
possible’ should be a note of sustaining grace to us, and we 
should find refuge and hope from the history of God’s Church 
in the world. Missionaries to China should not be amongst 
those who stumble at great things, since it is to great things 
that they are called. 

The policy which the day calls for is that which is kindled 
in devotion to the person and message of Jesus Christ and 
which embraces in its sweep the entire regeneration of the race. 
Changing conditions do not affect such a policy as this, for it 
stands upon sure ground and knows its ultimate aim. Its 
methods are adaptable as the demands of the situation may 
require, its source and object are unchanging. It can always 
lead the doubting and win the erring because its standard is 
sure, and it is neither distressed nor disturbed by the details of 
the hour. The passing phases of world politics, the rise and 
fall of national sentiment, the educational change and the ever 
widening range of discovery all fall into place and serve a 
purpose when the outlook is eternal and the scope universal. 
Then it is true that ‘all things are ours.’ The conditions in 
China to-day demand no less an ideal than this. 


1910] 


Editorial 


319 


“ me woulD 
see Jesus.” 


Even though the remarkable interest in Christianity on 
the part of Chinese students in Tokyo, reported elsewhere in 
this issue (see page 373}, be due in part to their 
consciousness of China’s weaknesses, it is no less 
an occasion for gratitude to God that the interest 
is there. Gike the Israelites of old some of them are hearing 
the divine call to individual repentance through the medium of 
the nation’s need. It is surely encouraging to learn that their 
attitude is more than one of a mere willingness to hear what 
the man who knows has to say. In their eager search after 
the deeper significance of the truth, they reveal an earnest 
enthusiasm which betokens sincerity. Get us pray that the 
One who is the embodiment of the truth they would know, 
may become to many of them also the way and the life ! 
Get us remember, too, their brother-students in China. 
What the Chinese students in Tokyo are thinking to-day, the 
Chinese students in government institutions in China will be 
thinking to-morrow. The attitude of the former will soon 
be the attitude of the latter. Where are the Andrews and 
Philips to acquaint them with the Jesus they need to see and 
know? 

* * * 

The Editor-in-chief of the Recorder will, we are assured, 
have the sympathy of all our readers in the accident which 
has befallen him. Dr. Fitch was knocked from 
b * cycle * n the streets of Shanghai and sustain¬ 
ed a fracture of the thigh bone of his leg. He 
is now in hospital and making satisfactory progress. Our work 
can ill spare the wise counsel of our senior colleague, to whose 
judgment aud perseverance this Journal owes much. Dr. 
Fitch has endeared himself both by the large heartedness of his 
life and by the constancy of his work to all who have been in 
any way associated with him, and we trust that ere long his 
familiar figure will again be seen in the accustomed places of 
his many-sided labours. 


* * * 

WE have received a letter from the venerable Dr. Martin 
thanking the Recorder for its appreciative notice 
t, at n. di amon( j jubilee and offering his grateful 

thanks to the numerous friends who sent him notes and cards 
on that occasion. 


320 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May, \<m 


Zhe Sanctuary 

“ The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much."— St. James v, 16. 

“ For where two or three are gathered together in my Name, there am I in the midst of 
them."— St. Matthew xviii, 20. 


Pray 

x. For the Chinese People : 

That their religious sense may be 
aroused. (P. 330.) 

That they may as a nation soon 
come to feel the existence of the 
Christian religion as a system of 
thought. (P. 329.) 

That for the gods now worshipped 
by them there may be substituted that 
one God who alone can teach a higher 
moral life than Confucianism or their 
philosophy can give. (P. 326.) 

That the good and evil now inex¬ 
tricably mixed up in their minds may 
become clearly separated. ( P. 322.) 

That the same intense sense of sin 
that Christian people have, may de¬ 
velop and grow in their lives. (P. 322.) 

That they may as a nation no longer 
rest content with being no worse than 
the highest they know. (P. 326.) 

That they may be converted to the 
religion that can give them a higher 
moral teaching against avarice. (P. 
324 *) 

2. For Chinese Christian Scholars: 

That Chinese members of the church 
may come to a consciousness of the 
need for able men to prepare liter¬ 
ature. (P. 328.) 

For the preparation of such an 
apologia as will enable the church to 
justify itself in the midst of a hostile 
and unbelieving nation. (P. 329.) 

3. For the Missionary Body : 

That they may individually grow 
so in holiness as never to be able to 
find, and never to seek, an excuse for 
a sin committed. (P. 327.) 

That more may be added of the 
kind who shall never know defeat 
and who are able to do the impossi¬ 
ble things. (P. 353.) 

That they may more fully, ever, 
appreciate the true nature of the prob¬ 
lem that confronts them. (P. 333.) 

That they may have the ability to 
see and the strength and grace to 
use such evangelistic methods as will 
most nearly meet the needs of the 
work they are actually doing. (P. 333.) 

That they may carefully discri¬ 
minate in the doctrines they preach, 
and by a more sympathetic use of 
Chinese literature be enabled to 


preach the Gospel in the form that 
will be the most readily understood 
by the people. (P. 334.) 

That there may be, on their part, 
less “unnecessary trembling over 
the ark of God.” (P. 334 .1 

That they may be helped in solving 
the problem of combining a higher 
evangelization with a higher educa¬ 
tion. (P. 337.) 

That they may be led to a more 
definite and a more determined en¬ 
deavor to win the literati. (P. 335.) 

A Prayer. 

O Thou Good Shepherd of the 
sheep, look mercifully upon those 
who have none to watch over them 
in Thy name. Prepare them to re¬ 
ceive Thy truth and send them 
pastors after Thine own heart. Re¬ 
plenish with Thine abundant grace 
those whom Thou dost send and 
awaken the pity of Thy people for 
all these strangers to Thy covenant, 
so that, by their cheerful contribu¬ 
tion and the cooperation of Thy 
Holy Spirit, multitudes may daily 
be added to the church and become 
partakers of the salvation which Thou 
hast promised, O Ford and lover of 
souls. Amen. 

Give Thanks 

That “ holy, holy, holy is the 
Lord of Hosts and the whole earth 
is full of His glory.” (P. 325.) 

For the revelation of a holy God 
that was given to the Jews and through 
them has been handed down to us. 
(P. 324.) 

For the “millions” of names in 
Christendom that are holy and for 
the example and help these have giv¬ 
en to us of to day. (P. 326.) 

That the foreign missionaries in 
China, in spite of their handicaps, 
have yet been able to do work of a 
high order in preparing for the Chris¬ 
tianization of the empire. (P. 343.) 

For the many men of first rank in 
business and professional circles who 
have been produced by the Christian 
church in China. (P. 339.) 

For the encouragement given in 
places where self-government has been 
tried by the closer drawing together 
of the Chinese and foreign workers, 
(F. 3370 


Contributed Articles 


The Chinese and Christian Idea of Sin 

Notes of a sermon preached by the Rev. C. E. Darwent in Union 
Church, March 13th, 1910. 

Leviticus xi. 44, “For T the Lord your God am holy; sanctify your¬ 
selves ; therefore be ye holy, for I am holy,” 

O NE day I was discussing the subject which is of peren¬ 
nial interest, and which inevitably crops up when 
foreigners foregather, the subject of the idiosyncrasies 
of the Chinese, especially the cases of untrustworthiness one 
so often meets with ; the disappearing shroff, the peculating 
Mandarin, that peculiarity which Dr. Arthur Smith calls the 
power of “absorption,” that national feature of character, in 
which being caught is as bad, if not more to be dreaded than 
committing the sin. Someone present there said ; Are there 
any really honest Chinese? That was sure to be said ; it 
always is said. 

Then at this moment there came to me light on this 
question as I had never seen it before, and because you may 
not have that light I want to pass it on to you this morning. 

I said you have no right to expect the Chinese to possess 
as high a moral standard as we have. For one thing, if the 
Chinese can by any possibility be as good as we are on the 
average, if they can be expected to have as high a standard 
as we have, then it is obvious that Christianity has nothing to 
teach them and missions are an impertinence and a mistake. 
That is clear. And those friends of the Chinese who always 
try to make out that they are as good as we and cap every 
story of Chinese obliquity with one of foreign obliquity prove 
too much. They destroy the basis of missionary effort. 

I said further, not only are the Chinese not in as 
high moral condition as Christian nations, but they cannot 
be . Try as he may, be as faithful as he may to the light God 
has given him, let him keep his conscience as clear as is 
possible from the veil of polytheism, the Chinaman, and 
every heathen man, cannot by any possibility reach the level 

Note —Readers of the Recorder are reminded that the Editorial Board 
assumes no responsibility for the views expressed by the writers of articles 
published in these pages. 






322 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


even of a very inferior Christian ; he cannot have the same 
intense sense of sin, lie cannot, do what he may, feel the 
shame, the guilt of it; he uses words like ‘sorry,’ ‘repent,’ 

‘ shame ’ as we Christians do, but they have not the same 
content; these words cannot, by any possibility, connote the 
same poignancy of realization of the guilt and iniquity of sin 
as they do in us. It is futile therefore as well as foolish for the 
missionary or any other friend of the Chinese, it is suicidal 
as far as the propaganda of the Gospel is concerned to attempt, 
to maintain that the Chinese or any other heathen people 
can reach our level in moral and spiritual life. 

And the reason for this came over me as it had never done 
before. It is that there is no such an idea in any heathen mind 
as that of an absolute distinction between good and evil, 
holiness and sin. That a “ great gulf” has been fixed from all 
eternity between the holy and the sinful does not exist any¬ 
where except in those nations that have received it as a revela¬ 
tion from God, which is given in that wonderful religious 
development which commenced in Moses and culminated in 
Jesus Christ. There is no such a thing as a real sense of sin, 
as we understand it, outside the Bible. Good and evil are hope¬ 
lessly and inextricably mixed up and always have been in the 
minds of all men, except among the peoples who have seen light 
in what we may call the Judaeo-Christian revelation that is 
contained in the Bible. There is no absolute “ thou shalt not ” 
and “ thou shalt ” outside that. Where the Bible is not known 
and Christ is not known, the sinful and the holy run into one 
another, modify one another, overlap one another, glide into 
one another, are subtly interlaced with one another. So that 
people like the Chinese cannot possibly feel the guilt and awful¬ 
ness of sin as we can do. 

And the reason of this is that all heathenisms, ancient and 
modern, and most of the anti-Christian philosophies, ancient 
and modern, ar e pantheistic. That is the thought which, with 
its practical consequence, I want to bring home to you. 
Pantheism is the belief that “the universe as a whole, man 
included, is God.” It may mean, as Professor Iverach says, 
“either that the all is God, or else that God is all, that the 
only real existence is God.” That is, it may signify that the 
sum-total of particular existence is God, that the universe is 
itself the only real being, or that God is the only real being, 
and all finite being is only illusion and appearance. 


The Chinese and Christian Idea of Sin 


323 


1910 ] 

This may sound, to some rather mystifying, but the 
essence of it is that there is but one principle or being in 
existence. Call it God or the universe, call it what you like, 
it is but one. There is no real separation anywhere between 
God and the world, or the gods and the world, and the 
principles good and evil that govern it. How then can people 
who think in this way feel about sin as we do ? They argue 
and act upon their arguments logically enough. They say : 
“What we call sin or evil certainly exists; therefore there 
must be something to be said for it; it cannot be quite as bad 
as our conscience suggests.” There is no getting out of 
that conclusion. Sin or evil do exist. They must therefore 
have some place in the divine if all is divine. There is no 
escaping that. 

And as a matter of fact if we only look for a moment into 
all heathenisms we find that to be the case. 

There is no holy God who can say “Be ye holy, for I 
am holy,” but the God of the Bible, the God of Christ. All 
heathenisms have gods who are direct patrons and gods of 
sins. Among even those great men, the Romans, Mercury “ was 
the god of thieves and pickpockets and all dishonest persons, as 
well as of merchants and orators.” That was pleasant for the 
members of these two distinguished callings, but how could 
any Roman feel that stealing was a very heinous sin when it 
had a god ? Impossible. It is so in China. Thieves have 
their patron god. In the time of St. Paul the great temple of 
Venus at Corinth had a thousand priestesses. And who do you 
think these priestesses were ? They were a thousand prostitutes. 
Seeing that sins of the flesh had a goddess, the Greek drew 
the inevitable and logical conclusion that indulgence in the 
flesh would please the goddess. In all heathenisms, founded 
on pantheism, nature and man and the gods, the moral and 
unmoral are all jumbled together in one confused whole. 
“Whatever is, is right.” “It must be in some way right, else 
how could it exist at all,” argues the mind of man ; and only 
dishonest thinking can, on the basis of pantheism, deny it. 

Think how the Romans and Greeks deified men ! Not 
on the ground of holy character, no, but on the ground of 
some great deed. In his 26th Homily on II. Corinthians, 
Chrysostom taunts them with making Alexander the 13th 
“ god.” And he says : “ They make even boxers gods.” And 
so they did. How then could they be as good as the men in 


324 The Chinese Recorder [May 

tile Christian churches who having seen the glory of Jeliovah 
and the sinlessness of Christ knew what man should be ? 

And here in China it is as I have said—gods and men, 
fire and water, good and evil, are all mingled together in such 
a dreadful jumble that the natural conscience of the nation 
must be blinded. “There is a god, Lu Tai-peh,” says the 
late Dr. DnBose, “ who is worshipped by drunkards.” Compare 
that with St. Paul’s: “No fornicators nor drunkards shall 
inherit the kingdom of God.” How can any Chinese feel 
the sting and shame of it as w r e ? There is a god of wealth. 
Then the more you pray to him for riches, anyhow obtained, 
the more you honour him. Chinese moral teaching has words 
against avarice, but not their religion. There is a god of war, 
often the patron of trade guilds. How cau there be that sense 
of the wickedness of war that has never been absent from what 
I may for brevity’s sake call the Bible religion ? There is 
nothing in Chinese religion like this: “There shall be no 
more war; they shall beat their spears into pruning hooks,” 
and nothing like this: “ Blessed are the peacemakers.” No, 
avarice and fighting are, after all, in the world ; they exist; 
therefore there must be something to say for them ; let them 
have their gods. That is the only conclusion the heathen 
can draw. This thought could be illustrated from the Indian 
and every other form of heathenism. 

But now turn to the Bible. Here is my text. Here is 
light. “Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with 
any creeping things, for I am the Lord your God; ye shall 
therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy, because 
I am holy.” That must be a revelation ! If not how did 
the Jews come to find out that which all the most brilliantly 
intellectual nations of the world had missed ? God is holy. 
There is one above all infinitely holy who is not touched by 
evil. However sin entered the world it is not in Him or from 
Him. It is in man, not in God. He is against it, He hates 
it. By no kind of philosophical jugglery could the Jew deify 
sin, make Jehovah its patron. The Jews fell into sin, but 
they never in their deepest fall attributed it to God. The 
kernel, the heart, the centre of the universe was unstained. 
God was holy. “ The term holy,” as Dr. Orr says, “denotes 
God (i) in His distinction from, and infinite exaltation above, 
anything that is creaturely and finite ; and (2) in His separation 
from all moral impurity, or positively in the splendour of His 


1910] 


The Chinese and Christian Idea of Sin 


325 


moral perfection.” That is it. The foundation of all true 
religion is God’s holiness. The pantheistic idea can be made 
fascinating, but it is ruinous to all religious life. Let Him 
cease to be holy ; how can any unholiness be sinful ; why 
should we be holy ? Why indeed ? 

The holiness of God means that He is separate from the 
world with its sin, however much truth there is in His imma¬ 
nence. He cannot be immanent in evil things and evil men. 
Heathenism has no idea of this. To it the world is eternal. 
Where it speaks of a creator, it only means a fashioner of 
the eternally existing material of the universe. The sub¬ 
stance of the universe, including good and evil , is eternal. 
Therefore evil, when all is said and done about its iniquity, is a 
part of nature. It cannot be so bad. The primitive substance, 
out of which all things are made, had evil in it as well as 
good. It is only in that marvellous religious development of 
which we have a record in the Bible that the finite is put in its 
proper place, that the Eternal is free from all complicity with 
sin. He is holy, on the side of holiness, working for holiness, 
labouring so intently that His Son shed His blood to bear 
away the sin of the world. 

There is nothing approaching that in any heathenism. 
You cannot have a holy God who is not personal, separate 
from the world. God as “world-process,” as the “soul of 
the universe” and in other alias in which modern pantheism 
disguises its unbelief, cannot be holy. Holiness implies a 
personal will in God. You cannot be holy without that, nor 
could God. Heathenism knows nothing of that. Only the 
Bible has a God “glorious in holiness.” The “heavens are 
not clean in His sight,” is Job’s awestruck exclamation. 
“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is 
filled with His glory,” says Isaiah. And so the majestic 
revelation grows brighter in its undimmed lustre until the 
sinless Son of God comes among us, carrying in His own 
person the spotless holiness of God “who sitteth upon the 
throne of His holiness” into the very midst of humanity with 
all its sordid sin, to be a Redeemer of man from sin and fill 
him with the holiness of God. “ Who shall not fear thee and 
glorify thy name, for thou art holy.” 

What heathen can feel about his sin as you do who have 
had this revelation of the holiness of God ? He cannot. To 
him after all sin is a feature, a necessary feature in nature or in 


526 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 

the nature of things, so it cannot be so very guilty. If he lies, 
what about it? It is natural. If he is cruel, after all, nature 
is cruel. He is no worse than the highest being he knows of. 

It is certainly a marvel that the natural conscience of men 
is so sensitive to sin. The good men of heathenism stand 
high ; it is very beautiful to think of them. But it is as the 
author of “ Ecce Homo” says: “There are only one or two 
names in all heathenism that can be described as holy. In 
Christendom there are millions; every village has some.” This 
is because we have a holy God. The heathen with his natural 
conscience blinded by pantheism has a god who is mixed of 
good and evil. Why should he be better than lie ? 

The thing that destroyed the religion of the classical 
nations was that the moral teaching and consciousness of Greece 
and Rome got ahead of their religion. Philosophers taught a 
higher morality than the religion did. People began to laugh 
at the gods who were worse than themselves. How could 
those nations rise to high levels with their religion putting 
them back ? It is so in China. Confucianism or philosophy 
teaches a higher moral life than the gods of China have. 
How then can China rise to high levels with her base gods 
whom she worships? No nation can rise above its religion. 

It is as Professor Orr says : “ All pantheistic systems with 
theories of idealism which exclude, or inadequately affirm the 
Divine Personality, are hostile to Christian views of sin.” 

That is so. And we have to watch that to-day, and in 

our teaching hold up before men, Christian and heathen, God’s 

holiness. Let that go, all goes. Let God be in any way 
identified with the universe; then sin is part of Him ; it is in 
Him. He is in some way responsible for it. It ceases to be sin. 

That is true of Spinoza, whose pantheism is so attractive 
to the modern mind. He says: “Repentance is foolish.” 
Of course it is, if the all is God and evil is part of the 

all. Why should a thief repent ? It is true of all the modern 

philosophies that originate with Hegel, who taught that sin 
is a “step upward,” the first step towards moral life on the 
part of man. That is false. The possibility of sinning is neces¬ 
sary for moral life, but not actual sinning. The Bible is 
clear in that matter. Jesus Christ was tempted, but He did 
not sin. God is holy, absolutely holy. This is true of Monism, 
which is so popular. This conception makes all that exists, 
God included, one. Then the conclusion is inevitable. Sin 


1910 ] Accomplished Chinese Scholars for Literary Work 327 

is not sin. It is part of the whole. We shall never lift up 
the Chinese by teaching them that. Let there be no mistake 
about that. Whenever that is held, the sense of sin is whittled 
down and tends to disappear, and no redemption will be needed. 

This matter is of immense practical importance to us 
all. We are ever urging excuses for our sins, we say they are 
“inevitable,’’ the result of circumstances, and so on. No. 
The Gospel repeats that grand declaration: “I the Lord 
your God am holy ; therefore be ye holy.” We must make 
no terms with sin. Whatever may have been its origin God 
is clear of it. In Christ He redeems us from it. 

This is the hope of the world. There is no hope in 
what are called “the ethnic religions.” In them evil is 
entwined in the very fibre and heart of the universe and 
their followers cannot be expected to “hate iniquity.” But 
our holy God creates hope. He is righteousness and truth, 
He will labour through His Holy Sou till “there be no more 
curse, and there shall be no night there, and they need no 
candle nor light of the sun, for the Lord God giveth them 
light, and they shall reign for ever and ever.” 


How May the Christian Church Secure the 
Services of Accomplished Chinese 
Scholars for Literary Work. 


BY REV. EVAN MORGAN, C. L. S. 


A ND by this it is understood that these scholars shall be 
followers of the Christian faith and be imbued with the 
Christian spirit and ideals. In the end only such men 
can adequately present the Christian doctrine in a full and a 
convincing way. Hitherto the church for the most part has 
been and is dependent on mercenaries. These men have 
rendered valuable help, and we should be thankful for it during 
the time of our poverty. But this method can never be per¬ 
manent nor satisfactory. What does not spring directly from 
native soil will lack the blush and bloom of vitality, and the 
expression of the Christian tenet by the pen of a scholar, who 
is not fully in sympathy with his subject, will lack fire and 
imagination, and, that nice turn of phrase which makes all the 



328 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


difference between the quick and the dead. So far the church 
in China is not able to command the services of any of her 
children in preparing the great apologia which only literature 
can furnish. 

It is not easy to say how this want may be supplied. A 
few preliminary considerations may help us to realize the 
gravity of the situation and give some indication how to remedy 
the defect. 

A CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE NEED SEEMS TO BE THE FIRST 
condition OF SUCCESS. This is not always recognised. It 
has been all too inadequately considered in the past for reasons 
that will appear later on. Before stating some of the more parti¬ 
cular and definite needs, it would be well to consider some general 
ideas that bear on the subject. Literature has been the great 
instrument at all times in the hand of the church for carrying 
on its work of advocating its claims and repelling attacks. If 
it lacks the native ability to create this instrument it loses 
greatly in force and efficiency. Just consider the value of this 
organ in consolidating the church and establishing it on the 
firm foundation of a common service and a common aim. 
Scattered are the units that go up to make the one church, but 
by means of literature a cohesive power is given to unify the 
whole. The work of one is made known to all and the aspira¬ 
tions of a few become the property of many. It also tends to 
preserve the purity of practices and keep intact the ideals from 
one age to another. It is at once a corrective to tyranny and 
a stimulus to action. It is the sure bond of unity and the safe 
guard of individual liberty. Its service to humanity can no¬ 
where be more beatifully seen than in China. In the face of 
much that is mutually hostile and competing interests, in a 
country with great diversities of climate, and a people of many 
moods and temperaments, amongst a people where forms of 
speech are more numerous than their provinces, in the social 
varieties and political distinctions we have the wonderful spec¬ 
tacle of a vast nation held together by common sentiments 
transmitted by means of literature. It has preserved for these 
millions a measure of liberty and democratic ideas which have 
been of immense benefit. Ancient ideals live to-day in the pages 
of the sacred word. Not only so, but this very bond reveals the 
kinship of the sages of antiquity and the men of to-day. All 
within the four seas are brethren. And the word is the reveal¬ 
ing and at the same time the unifying bond. 


1910 ] Accomplished Chinese Scholars for Literary Work 329 

Again of all the monuments of antiquity the work of 
literary men is the most permanent as it is the clearest mirror 
of the human mind. The dead continue in this way their 
work. Clement, Augustine, Justin and a host of others, 
though dead, yet speak to us. Other relics fade and crumble 
into dust. The book alone becomes imperishable because the 
substance can be transmitted from one medium to another 
without loss of value. These can be renewed every age and can 
convey the thought of one generation to another for long ages. 
And thus the past lives again in the present as the present will 
in the future. Institutions undergo constant change ; fashions, 
even in religion, become corrupted, and what the disciples 
initiated would not be recognized by them were they to appear 
in our midst to-day, but the words they committed to faithful 
men in the first century continue without change. The value 
of literature must be apparent to any reflecting mind who 
considers what it has done for the church and mankind. And 
one cannot help regretting the lack of native talent in the 
church of China to wield this instrument in its own interests. 

But let us consider the need of such men more 
particularly. There is the preparation of the church’s 
apologia. The great work of the church must be to justify 
itself in the midst of a hostile and unbelieving nation. It must 
advance its interest by convincing the unbelieving and over' 
coming opponents and finally bring the intellectual wealth of 
this land to the obedience of God as revealed in Christ. We 
must be under no delusion as to the ultimate condition on 
which success aud triumph rest, and it is that the nation must 
be convinced that Christian truth is necessary for it and the 
best instrument for human progress. And until the intellect 
of the land is convinced, and there has been an acceptance of 
Christ by it we can never feel the position of the church safe, 
nor its final triumph assured. For this work of the church the 
services of its own accomplished children is necessary. Twenty- 
five years ago I heard Dr. Nevius express the opinion that 
the difficulties of the church had not then appeared. But they 
would arise in time and we should early prepare for them. 
The difficulties are more apparent to-day than they were then. 
But even yet they are not keen. For this reason: that Chinese 
and Christian thought have not yet really come face to face. 
The Chinese, as a nation, has not yet felt the existence of the 
Christian religion as a system of thought, It has only been 


330 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


regarded politically. As a system of thought there has been no 
contact. It has neither aroused the nation to think, nor stirred 
it into opposition. And for this cause that the church has 
lacked a share of the nation’s intellect. Christian thought 
moves outside the national current of thought. It is therefore 
most desirable to obtain accomplished men {a) TO AROUSE THE 
RELIGIOUS SENSE of China. It is quite time that an angel 
descended and disturbed the pool. They are only possible 
when the church provides them. The religions sense is dor¬ 
mant and thought is stagnant; we want accomplished natives to 
enter and arouse the great locked forces of this people. ( b) To 
lead the intellectual life of the church. Christian thought will 
move slowly in any case. But unless capable men appear it 
will never move at all. There are great possibilities before 
the church when its wealth shall be interpreted by Chinese 
philosophy. We may hopefully look for new expositions that 
will fit the Christian dogma to Chinese ideals. There is a 
possibility here that will help the whole body and the Eastern 
church will return the capital loaned to it with generous 
interest. But not only are these intellectual leaders wanted 
for the church, but they are also needed to propagate the 
Christian idea in the laud. It is almost impossible to hope for 
individual conviction on a large scale. Before this is feasible 
a wide currency must be given to Christian ideas and they 
must he so- spread that their weight shall be generally felt 
before individual acceptance can be expected widely. Some 
attempt a popular demonstration by means of plays and some 
by ritual. But Protestants must look to literature for this 
effect. This then is another call for the services of the 
accomplished scholar and thinker, (c) But again we must 
remember that when the clash of thought comes the attack on 
the Christian faith is likely to be keen. We may expect that 
there will be many a Chinese Celsus in the coming days. 
Their keen wit and biting satire will not be spared. They 
will be well-equipped and will not miss the weak points in the 
presentation of Christian truth. For one tiling they, like Celsus, 
will object to our claim of private judgment and condemn the 
whole movement of men walling “themselves off and isolating 
themselves from mankind.” This is a strong phase of ancient 
Chinese literature. What the preacher says in all good faith 
they will distort as Celsus did when he said “this is the 
language of the Christians. ” “ Eet no cultured person draw near, 


1910 ] Accomplished Chinese Scholars for Literary Work 331 

none wise, none sensible, for all that kind of thing we count 
evil, but if any man is ignorant, if any is wanting in sense and 
culture, if any is a fool, let him come boldly. Such people 
they avow to be worthy of their God, and so doing they show 
that it is only the simpletons, the ignoble, the senseless slaves 
and women folk and children, whom they wish to persuade, or 
can persuade.” ‘‘For whom do they invite,” he continues. 
“Whosoever is a sinner, or unintelligent, or a fool, in a word, 
whosoever is God-forsaken, him the kingdom of God will 
receive.” “We see them in our own houses, wool dressers, 
cobblers, and fullers, the most uneducated and vulgar persons, 
not daring to say a word in presence of their masters who are 

older and wiser.but when they get hold of the children 

in private and silly women with them, they are wonderfully 
eloquent, to the effect that the children must not listen to their 

father, but believe thetri and be taught by them .that 

they alone know how to live.” “They are like quacks 

who warn men against the doctor”—take care that none of you 
touches science—knowledge makes men fall from health of soul. 
“And the absurdity of it! Why was he not sent to sinless 
as well as to sinner ? What harm is there in not having 
sinned.” Celsus compares Christians to “ a swarm of bats—or 
ants creeping out of their nest”—or worms in a conventicle 
debating which of them are the more sinful, and saying, God 
reveals all things to us . . . He forsakes the whole universe, 
and the course of the heavenly spheres and all this great earth 

he neglects to dwell with us alone.“God is,” say the 

worms, “and after Him come we, brought into being by Him 
in all things like into God, and to us all things are subjected— 
earth and water and air, stars—for our sakes all things are, and 
to serve us they are appointed.” “Some of us,” continue 
the worms, “some of us sin, so God will come, or else He will 
send His Son that He may burn up the unrighteous and that 
the rest of us may have eternal life with Him.” And again he 
attacks the Christian conception of God, “ who is subject 
to anger and passions,” the incarnation, and most other 
doctrines, such as the resurrection and miracles, etc. He 
ridicules the incarnatiou and the passion. “Suppose that God, 
like Zeus in the comedy waking out of a long sleep, determined 
to rescue mankind from evil, why on earth did He send this 
spirit into one particular corner ? He ought to have breathed 
through many bodies in the same way and sent them all over 




332 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


the world. The comic poet to make merryment in the theatre, 
describes how Zeus waked up and sent Hermes to the Athe¬ 
nians.do you not think that your invention of God’s 

Son being sent to the Jews is more laughable still?” This 
is the style of the attacks that the early church faced and con¬ 
quered, meeting attack with defence, argument with argument, 
baseless innuendos and biting satire with convincing evidence 
of the reasonableness of the faith. The church has met with 
its Celsus already in China. Kang Hsi was such a one in a 
gentle and moderate way, but it can’t be said that the apologia 
offered was altogether satisfactory. Recently the Hunan tracts, 
coarse as some of them were, contained many of the arguments 
and followed the line of attack with which the early church 
was assailed. Unfortunately there has been no worthy reply 
from the Chinese Christians to these assaults. 

The old question of gods or atoms will find a large 
place in the life of the century. What Japan is discussing 
to-day will find a place in China to-morrow. Chinese philosophy 
is in its old age and relies on old maxims rather than on a 
quickening inspiration to meet the onset of the new questions 
that are arising. To those who are concerned in the progress 
of man the outlook is not altogether cheerful. Theories of life 
will abound. Endless discussions there will be on man and God. 
Materialistic conclusions will have a fierce contest with man’s 
spiritual aspirations. And the result ? ... is uncertain, unless 
the organ of God on earth is prepared to meet the situation. 
And we come to the pertinent question whether 

THERE IS A SUPPLY FOR THIS IMPERATIVE DEMAND AND NEED. 
It is not difficult to answer this. There has been no material 
of first rate quality within the church to cope with the pressing 
needs. No native talent of any mark has so far appeared. The 
need exists, the times are ripe, but the men are not provided. 
Foul’ charges remain unanswered, materialistic philosophy 
seems to gain ground and occupy the field, the challenge of a 
scoffing philosophy has not been taken up. No worthy advo¬ 
cate of the “ Ecclesia of Worms” has appeared. For the most 
part what apologia exists is the work of the missionary. This 
can never be effective nor meet the situation because it lacks 
the true native cult. It is only through Chinese Christian 
scholars that the work can be efficiently done. 

How then can we account for this dearth. Many 
reasons are not at once apparent, (i) Inexperience of the 



19101 Accomplished Chinese Scholars for Literary Work 333 

worker. The problem has not been fully appreciated nor the 
methods adequately considered. (2) Certain preconceived ideas 
stood in the way, such as that the Gospel is first for the poor. 
Preach to the cripple and the simple, the artisan and the 
fanner, the hawker and those on the margin of national life. 
Again the delusion that the evangelical method at home must 
be the universal method of evangelism. Slum and the mission 
room is the hall mark of this type. Certain catch words have 
hindered the work and workers. Certain methods that met a 
temporary need in the home lands have become stereotyped. 
We are liable to forget that circumstances gave rise to these 
phases and conceptions, and that these methods originally 
arose from the earnestness of people who strove to meet the 
claims of special conditions and places, and who felt convinced 
that the usual routine of church life did not solve in their 
countries the problem of how to reach the whole nation. But 
in the hands of others these methods have become the evils 
they were destined in the first place to overcome. In certain 
quarters there has been a prejudice against the class under the 
delusion that it would be disloyal to the central truth of the 
Gospel to meet their special needs in any way. Those who are 
governed by this prejudice overlook the fact that special effort 
implies nothing more than an application of method, a 
specialized way of attaining an end. This is constantly done 
at home and in the mission fields, such as medical work, 
opium patients, etc. And if the principle be allowed in this 
respect it passes comprehension why it should have been 
neglected in appealing to the scholars of China. One is 
inclined to ask if it is any wrong to be an educated man ? 
When in the early years of the 19th century an attempt was 
made in England to reach the multitude without the pale and 
carry on popular services in the theatres, etc., Lord Dungannon 
moved a resolution in the House of Lords “ to call attention 
to the performance of divine services at Sadler’s Wells and 
other threatres by clergymen of the church of England on 
Sunday evenings and to make a resolution that such services, 

being highly irregular., are calculated to injure. 

sound religious principle, etc.” The noble lord was wrong in 
objecting to this special attempt to reach a class, as some earn¬ 
est men in China are lacking in consideration of the problem 
when they take a partial view of the great missionary problem 
and apply a principle which answered certain conditions else- 



The Chinese Recorder 


3)4 


[May 


where, but may be altogether inappropriate in China. The old 
accusation was, “ My people doth not consider.” 

I cannot help feeling that certain theological doctrines, 
such as election, have militated against successful missionary 
operations, and for that reason unconsciously the quality of the 
church life is not as high as it should be. Again there has 
been a prejudice against Chinese literature. Some would no 
more think of handling it than they would a dirty rag, and only 
the force of circumstance compelled them to admit their 
school boys to have the most meagre acquaintance with their 
own literature. Any real study of it was discouraged and the 
culture which it alone could supply was rigidly excluded. 
The study of the New Testament alone was held to be sufficient 
knowledge of Chinese. The genius of the Chinese mind, as 
expressed in their San-tzu-ching and classics, has been cast 
aside in favour of the barbaric productions of a Christian San-tzu- 
ching, in indifferent hymns, and the classics with a Christian 
commentary ! The worker has often been too nervous. 
He has unnecessarily trembled over the ark of God and made 
the measure of his own understanding the standard of the 
divine operations. There has been a certain hesitation in 
giving a thorough mental equipment lest the student fall away 
from grace and the church. Where more generous ideas con¬ 
cerning education existed, the utilitarian aspect of it was ad¬ 
vocated in theory and principle that it became a consuming idea 
with the student how to master the forces of nature and get on 
in the world. Thus the high ideals of China on the use of 
education were lost with the result that the half educated 
student is more likely to become a terror than an apologist. 
And if one party neglected an opportunity by the delusion that 
the evangelical propaganda must bear in some form the mark 
of the mission hall, so now there is a powerful party full of the 
idea that education on Western lines is the only solution of the 
missionary problem. “Possessed” with this conviction they 
are madly rushing away with it, but whither ? 

The outlook is not hopeful. The accomplished scholars 
that are so much needed will not come from scientific colleges. 
It is unreasonable to expect them. A predominating scientific 
training will not supply the church with the quality of men she 
wants. And the conclusion is then that to some extent the 
missionary himself is responsible for the present lack of accom¬ 
plished scholars to serve the cause of Christ. 


19iO] Accomplished Chinese Scholars for Literary Work 335 

How CAN THE NEED be MET. This is a difficult problem. 
From earliest days this should have been a matter of tile greatest 
concern and most anxious deliberation. With some hesitation 
I would offer a few suggestions. 

(«) Avoid the prejudices just indicated. ( b) The church 
should definitely seek to win the literati of the laud. This it 
has not done. We have been crippled by a mistaken 
interpretation of those noble words, “not many learned, not 
many noble, etc., are called.” (c) We must oust nervousness and 
a crippling theology. There is a unity in divine providence— 
God has been the moral governor of the race not of a tribe. 
Chinese ethics must find a place for Christian truth; equally it 
must be demonstrated that the Christian dogma supplies the 
deficiency of Chinese ethics. The one was a preparation for 
the other. There must be a mutual understanding somewhere. 
(d) We must be convinced of the need of them—able men are 
the only efficient instruments of God in the church and out of 
it. It has always been so, and will always remain so. This 
is the evidence of history and the conviction of reason. (<*) 
The missions must have a self-deuying ordinance The pro¬ 
mising men must have a full training on literary lines. No 
present need of service should blight the future and permanent 
efficiency of the church. Train the promising intellectually 
and spiritually and train them well. [/) A larger prominence 
must be given to the meaning and end of education and a con¬ 
stant endeavour be made to maintain a high ideal of culture 
and the preeminence of spiritual things, (g) Further, no mis¬ 
sionary should come out without a thorough study of the 
acts of the apostles, both as given in the New Testament in its 
relation to the missionary propaganda and in the literature of 
the subsequent centuries. The contact of the church with men 
of other faiths should be thoroughly mastered in all its details. 
There was possibly a difficulty in early days. But there is no 
excuse now with the splendid literature at our command. I 
will only mention the latest volume published, “The Con¬ 
flict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire,” by 
Mr. T- R. Glover, aii illuminating and fascinating volume to 
which I am indebted. (A) A college should be established in 
China which all new missionaries would enter. Here the 
student would be directed 011 lines of study not only in language 
but more especially he would be made acquainted with the 
masterpieces of Chinese literature (apart from the classics) with 


336 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


a view of future study, with the boohs that have been published 
by foreign scholars in the past, and generally with the wealth 
of matter open to him. This will provide a great mental 
stimulus direct, and inform his own thoughts, and prevent waste 
of time and energy during his missionary career. He should 
further find the well-considered opinions of missionaries prepared 
for him, who in turn will place in a permanent form their 
experience and conclusions, and in so doing they would greatly 
enrich the church at large. Here the student would have many 
avenues of work pointed out to him ; the many-sided branches 
of operations would be considered, difficulties stated and solu¬ 
tions suggested. In this way the missionary himself will be 
made ten times more useful and efficient, and be put in the 
way for finding out how to get the services of accomplished 
scholars. To some extent the waste in the past will be avoided. 
(i) At least 20 per cent, of the missionaries in the field should 
be set apart to seek out the scholars in town and village with 
the definite object of creating a mutual understanding and 
laying before them the basis and scope of Christian thought. 
This proposal does not refer to the work amongst college students 
so excellently carried on by the Y. M. C. A. and other societies 
who have set men apart for institutional work. But a sincere 
and a real effort should be made to win the Confucian scholars 
over the land who are untouched by any of the various operations 
now in vogue. This class is the most numerous and influential. 

This much we can do. We can seek and pray for that 
class whose services should aid best the Christian cause. When 
we have done this then God will do His part. 


Some Points in Work for the Educated 
Classes of China 


BY W. E. TAYROR, M.A., PH.D. 


HE fast moving changes of recent years have brought 



the student classes into large prominence and have 


endowed them with such powers for good or evil that 
all workers for China’s welfare must feel the call to some 
special campaign on their behalf. The strategic potentiality 
and the immediate urgency of the situation demand wise states¬ 
manship and concerted action, both by Mission Boards at home 



1910] Some Points in Work for the Educated Classes of China 337 

and by Christian workers on the field. The problem of effect¬ 
ing a speedy entrance into the great government colleges, 
the more closely-located problem in our Christian mission 
schools of combining a higher evangelization with a higher 
education, and the increasingly important problem of keeping 
the Christian touch and influence about the army of graduates 
who have swept out of our gates,—these and others are press¬ 
ing for immediate solution. 

A beginning can be made in the various churches by the 
formation in each centre of a committee of the leading Chris¬ 
tian workers to plan how to reach the educated classes. If the 
movement is to be truly national, and not merely a missionary 
movement, the Chinese element will be made as strong and 
representative as possible. A feasible plan is to arrange a 
monthly meeting of all pastors and Christian teachers in any 
centre. Such a coming together widens men’s outlook and 
strengthens their faith. The more the burden of responsibility 
can be laid upon the Chinese churches to initiate and operate 
this special campaign, the more effective, under wise and 
sympathetic guidance, will it be bound to be. Owing to the 
peculiar relationship of missionary work to foreign Boards, and 
still more to the necessarily limited supply of trained and 
experienced leaders, the day has probably not yet come when 
all responsibility should be put on the native churches for the 
whole work. But in this an opportunity is afforded to make 
experiment in a way that will not conflict with preexisting 
arrangements, nor cause embarrassment in readusting relation¬ 
ships. We as missionaries in China can learn a lesson from 
Japan, where slowness to hand over what now seems a reason¬ 
able amount of control resulted in a more or less arbitrary 
demand for practically complete separation. An opportunity 
is afforded here for an interesting and valuable experiment in 
self-government. If the better and more capable class of Chinese 
Christians once take up this movement as their own, and really 
get under the burden, it would do more than any one thing 
to sober them to a realization of the responsibilities as well 
as the privileges of independence. Where the experiment 
has already been tried it has led not to separation but to a 
closer drawing together of the native and foreign staff, by a 
new and very delightful interdependence as co-workers, each 
equally necessary for the other to ensure the success of a 
common cause. 


338 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


The question of Chinese leadership in this peculiar kind 
of work is bound, and rightly so, to bring about an adjustment 
tending towards better financial support of the men who lead 
it. With the increased cost of living, with the new social 
customs incident to contact with Western life and habits, 
with the call for a new type of leader, quite different from 
the old hsien-sheng , or writer, or chapel worker, it is impera¬ 
tive that it be made possible for the right kind of men to 
live and work and lead in this movement. It is unreason¬ 
able to expect men to turn from independent and lucrative 
positions offering large opportunities for service to serve at 
scarcely a living wage. The argument here is for this special 
class, who by training and calling and position should be able 
to stand on a fairly equal footing with the educated classes with 
whom they will be working. It is the simple and reasonable 
argument that the ‘ worthy ’ laborer is worthy of his hire. 

Given a real share in its inception and control, with a 
leadership made possible by adequate support, and there is 
every reason to expect that the movement to reach the educated 
classes would soon take on a national character in its extent and 
influence. In practically every Mission there are qualified men 
who on a new basis, somewhat as suggested, would be ready to 
work into positions of responsibility in the Christian church. 
We have not tried seriously enough, or else we have not tried 
successfully enough to get such men. Within the last few 
years the experiment has been made and the results should 
remove the doubts of the most sceptical. The Christian 
business and professional men in Shanghai who have directed 
this kind of work include such as the following : Taotai Wong 
Kok-shan, of honorable Christian parentage in the E. M. S., 
recently promoted to the head of the Consolidated Hanyang 
Iron Works ; H. E. Tong Kai-son, Commissioner to the Inter¬ 
national Opium Commission ; Dr. W. W. Yen, son of a church 
pastor of the A. C. M., publisher of the leading English- 
Chinese Dictionary, former secretary to the Chinese Ambas¬ 
sador at Washington and now promoted to the Waiwupu. 
Among present directors of the Chinese Young Men’s Christian 
Association in Shanghai, are the chief interpreter of the 
Shanghai-Nankiug Railway ; the manager of the Commercial 
Press, the largest publishing house in China ; the manager of 
the first Express Company in China ; two professors in govern¬ 
ment colleges; the director of the first Chinese orphanage, 


1910 ] Some Points in Work for the Educated Classes of China 339 

and so on. The list need not be enlarged. It is sufficient to 
prove the point that the Chinese church is producing men of 
the first rank in business and professional and other circles, 
who are willing to take up their share of responsible action in 
the effort to reach the educated classes. 

It may be feared that the concentration of men of this 
type to a special and peculiar work will have a tendency to 
draw them off from their first allegiance to their church 
responsibilities, in attendance at service and share in the 
churches’ management. Such, however, has not been the case, 
and indeed the tendency has rather been in the other direction, 
by tying them up more definitely to the source of spiritual 
supply for a spiritual work. Even in the case of the regular 
employed-staff engaged in this special work it is interesting 
and significant to note their connection with regular church 
work. Three are superintendents of the leading Sunday 
Schools in the city. Two others are members of the Advisory 
Board of their church, one being its chairman. Still another 
is acting-in-charge of the Cantonese church, holding it together 
till it is strong enough to call a regular pastor. It seems to 
be true that the larger vision these men get of a national 
church embracing all classes, the more ready they are to serve 
it directly in every capacity. 

When leading men in the various centres and communities 
shall have been brought into a larger relationship with the 
church’s control and work, the problem of self-support will 
be very near solution. It is surprising what the Chinese 
Christians can raise when they give themselves to the endeavor 
with conviction and determination. The Shanghai effort may 
again be used as an illustration of what Chinese Christians 
of the student and merchant class can do. The Board of 
Directors, which is entirely Chinese and Christian, have stood 
responsible each year to raise the annual budget, which has 
grown in a short decade from $3,000 to $37,000, and each year 
every cent has been raised locally and from Chinese. In 
addition this last year they set themselves to the enormous 
and seemingly impossible task of raising a special fund of 
$100,000, In three weeks the total amount was pledged. In 
all this the foreigners’ advice is continually sought and gladly 
given, but the significant fact outstands that the planning, 
working responsible body is Chinese. Similar results are being 
obtained in different parts of China. 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


340 


Self-propagation, which is an indispensable condition of 
lasting and extensive growth, follows on a movement which 
men can feel is their own, and for which they have planned 
and worked. The hope and certainty of the speedy evangeli¬ 
zation of Chinese, as well as the reaching a particular class, is 
built up on this reliance upon China’s own leaders to propagate 
the churches’ membership and extend the churches’ work. 
Men who catch the spirit find it easy to go out and secure 
another to join what he knows is a good and helpful thing. In 
Shanghai within two years nearly 700 new members were 
secured by the members themselves. In Hongkong the 
members increased their membership this year from 300 to 
over 1,000. These are exceptional instances in that they 
include Christian and non-Christians, but the principle involved 
of reaching out into the educated classes is exemplified and its 
practicability established. 

The above are some of the principles which seem to be 
necessarily involved in any sustained successful effort to reach 
educated young men. The remainder of the article will be 
devoted to giving a brief account of some of the methods of 
approach which have been employed in Shanghai, Tientsin, 
Foochow, Canton, Tokyo and other centres. 

1. Religious Meetings.—“These have been of a varied 
nature suited to the particular group it was hoped to interest. 
For the larger group of the membership and their friends 
twenty special services were held in the Martyrs’ Memorial Hall. 
The stereopticou was used six times and included a series of 
four effective addresses by Rev. F. Rawlinson on the subjects— 
Jesus, the * Preacher,’ the ‘ Wonder-worker,’ the ‘ Friend,’ 
the ‘Sacrifice.’ Moving pictures on the Life of Christ were 
shown five times, and there was a large attendance on each 
occasion. The Cathedral Choir and Union Church Choir gave 
much appreciated programmes. Other special features during 
the year included addresses by the Rt. Rev. L. H. Roots, Bishop 
of Hankow ; Lord William Cecil, of England ; H. E. Tong 
Kai-son, of Peking ; Dr. J. Wilbur Chapman, of Philadelphia ; 
Mr. Clayton Cooper, of New York ; Bishop C. H. Brent, of the 
Philippines; Bishop Lewis, of Foochow ; Dr. Arthur H. Smith, 
of Shantung, and Dr. Arthur S. Brown, of New York. Two 
anti-opium meetings were held, to which official representatives 
were sent. These were significant occasions when such high 
officials as the Viceroy, the Governor of the province, the 


1910] Some Points in Work for the Educated Classes of China 341 


Taotai, the District Magistrate met on a common platform with 
Christian business men of the East and of the West, and with 
Missionary leaders in an effort to uplift China and loose it from 
the chains of this accursed habit. Another important occasion 
was when Taotai Tong Kai-son, on the eve of his departure for 
America together with fifty government students, addressed an 
audience in the large hall on ‘Christ, the Hope of China.’ 

“ In addition to these large meetings special services were 
held on Sunday afternoons throughout the year with an 
average attendance of 100. The main feature marking these 
meetings was a series of addresses on ‘ A Young Man’s Ques¬ 
tions,’ and the interest, even throughout the summer months, 
was well sustained. The speakers were chosen almost entirely 
from the Board of Directors and other leading members, who in 
this way rendered a real service. The total attendance at the 
Sunday religious services was 11,219. 

“To indicate what has been the net result of all these 
services would be impossible by figures. Something over one 
hundred men have made a public testimony of their desire 
to become Christians, but this, although most encouraging, 
does not begin to measure the influence that has gone from 
these services, influences that mean a better community, one 
more resembling and making possible the extension of the 
kingdom which Christ came to establish.” 

SUMMARY. 

Sunday religious meetings attendance . 11,219 

Week-day religious meetings attendance... * 9)135 

Bible Study groups attendance .12,949 

Total attendance . 43,303 

(Excerpt Shanghai report for 1909.) 

2. Bible study is perhaps the most satisfactory way of 
getting a real grip on young men’s minds and consciences. 
For Christian men regular Bible study courses used in Western 
schools and colleges are employed. Special courses have been 
prepared for non-Christians, with a view to meeting them on 
their own ground by a discussion of personal, social, econo¬ 
mic and national questions, affording helpful constructive 
advice, and leading to the definite Christian interpretation 
illustrated by Bible reference. Such courses as “ Main Lines 
of the Bible,” “The Teachings of Jesus,” “A Young Man’s 
Questions,” “The College and Life,” etc., have been used 



342 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


with success. Efforts have been made to find out what were 
the peculiar problems and difficulties of this class in China. 
The results have fully justified any expenditure of time and 
thought. During this last year in the Shanghai work in 
addition to the many Christians enrolled over half a thousand 
non-Christian young men have been regularly and systematic¬ 
ally studying the Bible. 

3. Approach to the educated classes can be made effect¬ 
ive and helpful in ways other than the distinctively religious. 
Public lectures have been given throughout the year on 
scientific, educational, and other important matters. A course 
on ‘Some National Questions’ is being given this spring 
in Shanghai, which is not only arousing much attention in 
educational circles, but has been taken up by the leading news¬ 
papers, Chinese and foreign, and is being reported and com¬ 
mented on editorially to a remarkable degree. It means a 
great deal when the Judge of the Supreme Court, the Editor of 
a leading paper in the East, the Manager of the Shanghai- 
Nanking Railway, and the Chinese Minister of Education can 
meet on a common platform, under distinctively Christian 
auspices, to advise these classes on individual and national 
regeneration. 

4. Committee service is employed in every branch of 
activity to encourage men to think and plan and work for 
themselves. ‘Not to be ministered unto, but to minister,’ is 
the motto engraved in stone over the main door of the build¬ 
ing, and in every way possible the spirit and principle of 
service is pressed upon the members. Religious, social, recep¬ 
tion, educational, physical work and other committees are 
made up of leading members who give a great deal of their 
time voluntarily to carrying out their programmes for the year. 
It does men good to have responsibility put on them, it 
gratifies them to feel that they are looked to for help, it 
develops their latent possibilities, and in many cases has dis¬ 
covered valuable leaders. In such a way a working organizing 
trained force may be secured which makes possible a much 
larger work than could be carried on by a regularly employed 
staff alone. 

5. Expansion and extension plans, always looking for 
Chinese initiative and executive, are the life and hope of a 
movement for young men. The time has come when a great 
deal of our special church work in China can be well done by 


1910 ] The Use of the Christian Scholar in Literature 


343 


the considerable and growing number of Christian men of 
ability who are being trained up in the various mission stations 
throughout China. In a recent Bible Study Conference, 
lasting three days, the plans of organization, the actual charge 
and conduct of the meetings, and the giving of eleven of the 
fourteen addresses were effected by Chinese. In other ways 
opportunities are afforded for non-Christian men as well to 
take a leading part, as for instance in carrying on fellowship 
circles, musical clubs, debates, social entertainments, etc. In 
public functions tile policy followed is to have the manage¬ 
ment, the occupancy of the chair, and numerous other duties 
incident to such gatherings entrusted to responsible Chinese. 

In a word there is a large and growing place to-day in the 
Chinese Christian church for the trained and better educated 
classes of young men. The relationship of the missionary to 
this important body (for a close relationship is vital to the 
best interests of all) will be best served and conserved by his 
“remaining in shadow in order to increase light.’’ In other 
words the missionaries’ office should be that of confidential and 
hidden adviser to a movement having its own leaders who are 
responsible to it in every possible way. In God’s providence 
such a movement, under consecrated and capable Chinese 
leaders, will bring new life and power to the Christian church 
in China. 


The Use of the Christian Scholar in Literature. 

BY REV. W. E. SOOTHILL, TAI-VUEN-FU. 

HAT there is splendid scope for the trained Christian 



scholar of this land in Christian literature is self- 


evident. That there are many Christian scholars of 
the classical school is also true, and that there are many of the 
modern school everybody knows. But whether there are auy 
Christians—or even non-Christians for the matter of that— 
ripe in the knowledge of their own literature and also trained 
in the philosophy of the West, who knows ? Such, however, is 
the type of man that the Christian church will stand badly in 
need of before another decade has passed. Indeed he is needed 
already. 

The Western missionary, handicapped though he has been, 
has done preparatory work of a high order. He has been handi- 



344 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


capped by an imperfect knowledge of the written language, 
making it difficult for him to read with ease the literature, 
say, of the Sung philosopher ; he has been handicapped by an 
imperfect knowledge of the existing philosophic terminology 
of the various Chinese schools; he has been further handi¬ 
capped by being compelled to pass his thought through the 
mind of pundits whose sympathies have often been tepid and 
whose work in consequence has lacked warmth ; he has been 
hampered with many and varied duties, and he has been 
hampered by that indefinable something which hangs as a 
kind of haze between the Western and the Oriental mind, 
indeed between all men of differing nationality and language. 
Yet despite all this he has done manful work, digging founda¬ 
tions and putting up admirable temporary structures. 

The time is at hand, however, when our Chinese brethren 
must themselves take up this work and develop it on national 
philosophic lines, plus the aid of the new terminology, which 
is the despair of the older as it is the pride of the modern 
student, for the Chinese Christians must of necessity build up 
their own apologetics, exegetics, hymnology and what not to 
suit their own national genius. 

The witness of the past clearly declares that the future 
presents magnificent opportunities to the faithful student. We 
can go back to the earliest times and show that if Moses had 
not been learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians the whole 
course of Israelitish history, and with it that of the world, 
would have been altered. St. Paul, too, was acquainted with 
Greek and Roman schools of thought as well as with Hebrew. 
Many of the Fathers were learned in all that was accounted 
wisdom in their day. Augustine, Luther, Melancthon, Calvin, 
Wycliffe, Wesley—how easy it would be to pile up names !— 
were all men of no mean literary attainments, and their sancti¬ 
fied scholarship moved their own and future generations might¬ 
ily. And what is called for in China to-day is a man, or men 
of this order, schooled in the philosophy of their own country 
and also in that of the West, where thought has gone deeper, 
criticism been keener and logic more searching. Oh! for a 
Chinese Christian versed in the Confucian, Buddhist, Taoist 
and “heretical” writers of repute, learned in Western modes 
of thought, steeped in the Holy Scriptures and sanctified by 
the Spirit of Christ! Such a man might indeed stir his 
thoughtful fellow-countrymen and through them the masses, 


1910] The Use of the Christian Scholar in Literature 345 

as they have never been stirred in the past and become 
the morning star of a great reformation. Is there such a 
man ? If not have we, and where are they, a few men of 
sufficient mental qualification and spiritual singlenesss of 
heart to justify their being put under a ten years 1 course of 
training ? 

If there be anything in a report current in Peking a week 
or two since that there is a proposal to form a K‘ungtzu- 
Chituh Chiao, a Confucius-Christian church, we have all the 
more reason for early preparation to assist the new movement 
into straight paths. That some movement of this, or a similar, 
character, will sooner or later arise one may take as almost 
assured, for Dagon is falling before a mightier than he, the old 
philosophies cannot resist the ark of truth, the temple may 
remain, but the ^ inner sanctuary, will be transformed. For 
just as in the early days of Christianity neo-Platonism arose, 
exerting a powerful influence as much on Christian as ou Pagan 
thought, so the day is drawing nigh when a neo-Confucianism 
will arise in China. 

With a high order of Chinese scholarship in the church 
may not this neo-Confucianism be so influenced that what 
is beautiful and Christian in it shall be enriched by what 
is so much more heart-searching and inspiring in Christian 
theology ? Jesus did not destroy Moses, nor did He look 
on him as an enemy, but as a dear friend. From the rigid 
bud he brought the full blowu fragrant rose, from the frozen 
fountain he thawed the water of life. And later when the 
Greek mind demanded that Christian thought be put into 
logical form, it was neo-Platonism that helped to forge and 
to chase the golden vase in which the cultured man might 
keep his fragrant flower, or from which he might offer 
his draught of living water. As was the history of Judaea 
and the early church, so is it likely to be in China. The 
water of life will be the same, the bowl will be of different 
material and of different shape. But where is yet the skilful 
workman who can fashion the bowl ? 

Perhaps somebody says it is impossible for one man 
to make himself master of Western philosophy and the whole 
round of that of China as well. If such be the case, then 
let the men master their Western philosophy and take up 
sectional schools in China, whether the Buddhist writers, 
or the Taoist and “heretical” writers, or the Confucian 


346 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


authors. If, again, it be urged that ten years is not 
enough for so large an order, then all the more reason for 
an early start. Moreover, mere arm-chair philosophers are